1962 FIFA World Cup

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1962 FIFA World Cup
Campeonato Mundial de Fútbol -
Copa Jules Rimet Chile 1962

1962 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country Chile
Dates30 May – 17 June 1962 (18 days)
Teams16 (from 3 confederations)
Venue(s)4 (in 4 host cities)
Final positions
Champions Brazil (2nd title)
Runners-up Czechoslovakia
Third place Chile
Fourth place Yugoslavia
Tournament statistics
Matches played32
Goals scored89 (2.78 per match)
Attendance899,074 (28,096 per match)
Top scorer(s)Brazil Garrincha
Brazil Vavá
Chile Leonel Sánchez
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Dražan Jerković
Hungary Flórián Albert
Soviet Union Valentin Ivanov
(4 goals)
Best playerBrazil Garrincha
1958
1966
 
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1962 FIFA World Cup
Campeonato Mundial de Fútbol -
Copa Jules Rimet Chile 1962

1962 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country Chile
Dates30 May – 17 June 1962 (18 days)
Teams16 (from 3 confederations)
Venue(s)4 (in 4 host cities)
Final positions
Champions Brazil (2nd title)
Runners-up Czechoslovakia
Third place Chile
Fourth place Yugoslavia
Tournament statistics
Matches played32
Goals scored89 (2.78 per match)
Attendance899,074 (28,096 per match)
Top scorer(s)Brazil Garrincha
Brazil Vavá
Chile Leonel Sánchez
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Dražan Jerković
Hungary Flórián Albert
Soviet Union Valentin Ivanov
(4 goals)
Best playerBrazil Garrincha
1958
1966

The 1962 FIFA World Cup was the 7th FIFA World Cup. It was held from 30 May to 17 June 1962 in Chile. Teams representing 57 national football associations from all six populated continents entered the competition, with its qualification process beginning in August 1960. Fourteen teams qualified from this process, along with host nation Chile and defending champion Brazil, for the finals tournament.

The tournament was won by champions Brazil, who claimed their second World Cup title by defeating Czechoslovakia 3–1 in the final, becoming the second team, after Italy in 1938, to successfully defend the world title. Hosts Chile beat Yugoslavia 1–0 to finish third. The 1962 FIFA World Cup was the first World Cup that used goal average as a means of separating teams with the same amount of points.

The 1962 World Cup is widely regarded as one of the most cynical World Cups ever. This atmosphere culminated in the infamous first-round match between host Chile and Italy (2–0), known as the Battle of Santiago. The average goals per match dropped to 2.78, under 3 for the first time in the history of the competition (the average has never been above 3 since).

Contents

Host selection

After Europe hosted two consecutive World Cups, the American federations claimed the 1962 edition must be held in South America or face a complete boycott of the tournament, similar to 1938.[citation needed] Argentina, after previously failed candidacies, was the favorite. Magallanes' chairman, Ernesto Alvear, attended a FIFA Congress held in Helsinki while the Finnish city was hosting the 1952 Summer Olympics. He considered that Chile was able to organize the World Cup. Several sources also say that FIFA did not want Argentina to run alone, requesting the participation of Chile as almost symbolic. Chile registered its candidacy in 1954 alongside Argentina and West Germany, the latter withdrawing at the request of FIFA.[citation needed]

Chile's football federation committee, led by Carlos Dittborn and Juan Pinto Durán, toured many countries convincing various football associations about the country's ability to organize the tournament in comparison to Argentina's superior sports infrastructure and prestige. The FIFA Congress met in Lisbon, Portugal on 10 June 1956. That day, Raul Colombo, representing Argentina's candidacy, ended his speech with the phrase "We can start the world cup tomorrow. We have it all." The next day, Dittborn presented four arguments that supported Chile's candidacy: Chile's continued participations at FIFA-organized conferences and tournaments, sports climate, tolerance of race and creed and political and institutional stability of the country. In addition, Dittborn invoked Article 2 of the FIFA statutes that addressed the tournament's role in promoting the sport in underdeveloped countries. Chile won 32 votes to Argentina's 11. Thirteen members abstained from voting.[citation needed]

Qualification

  Countries qualified for World Cup
  Country failed to qualify
  Countries that did not enter World Cup
  Country not a FIFA member

57 teams entered the 1962 World Cup (due to rejected entries and withdrawals, 52 teams eventually participated in the qualifying stages). Chile as host nation and Brazil as reigning World Cup champions were granted automatic qualification, with the remaining 14 finals places divided among the continental confederations.

Eight places were contested by UEFA teams (Europe) and three by CONMEBOL teams (South America). CAF teams (Africa), AFC teams (Asia), NAFC teams (North America), and CCCF teams (Central America and Caribbean) contested three play-offs slots. The three winners would then face a European or South American team for entry into the World Cup. The 1962 tournament was the last one for which only nations from Europe or the Americas qualified.

Two teams qualified for the first time: Colombia and Bulgaria. Colombia did not qualify for another World Cup until 1990.

Among the teams who failed to qualify were Sweden, France, and Austria.

Venues

Originally, eight stadiums were selected to host the World Cup matches in eight different cities: Santiago, Viña del Mar, Rancagua, Arica, Talca, Concepción, Talcahuano and Valdivia.

The Valdivia earthquake, the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, occurred on 22 May 1960. With over 50,000 casualties and more than 2 million people affected, the earthquake forced the organizing committee to completely modify the World Cup's calendar. Talca, Concepción, Talcahuano and Valdivia were severely damaged and discarded as venues. Antofagasta and Valparaíso declined to host any matches as their venues were not financially self-sustainable. Viña del Mar and Arica managed to rebuild their stadiums while Braden Copper Company, then an American company that controlled the El Teniente copper mine, allowed the use of its stadium in Rancagua.

1962 FIFA World Cup (Chile)
SantiagoViña del Mar
Estadio NacionalEstadio Sausalito
33°27′52″S 70°36′38″W / 33.46444°S 70.61056°W / -33.46444; -70.61056 (Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos)33°00′51.83″S 71°32′6.84″W / 33.0143972°S 71.5352333°W / -33.0143972; -71.5352333 (Estadio Sausalito)
Capacity: 66,660Capacity: 18,037
Estadio Nacional de Chile.jpgEstadioSausalito.jpg
RancaguaArica
Estadio Braden Copper Co.Estadio Carlos Dittborn
34°10′39.95″S 70°44′15.79″W / 34.1777639°S 70.7377194°W / -34.1777639; -70.7377194 (Estadio El Teniente)19°29′15.02″S 70°17′57.38″W / 19.4875056°S 70.2992722°W / -19.4875056; -70.2992722 (Estadio Carlos Dittborn)
Capacity: 18,000Capacity: 17,786
Estadio El Teniente.jpgEstadio carlos dittborn.jpg

Accommodation

TeamSiteCityTeamSiteCity
 ArgentinaHostería El SauzalRancagua ItalyEscuela de Aviación Cap. ÁvalosSantiago
 BrazilVilla RetiroQuilpué MexicoHotel O'HigginsViña del Mar
 BulgariaParque MunicipalMachalí SpainHotel Miramar Caleta AbarcaViña del Mar
 ChileVilla del SeleccionadoSantiago SwitzerlandClub SuizoSantiago
 ColombiaHotel El MorroArica UruguayHotel AzapaArica
 CzechoslovakiaPosada Quebrada VerdeValparaíso Soviet UnionHostería AricaArica
 EnglandStaff House Braden Copper Co.Coya West GermanyEscuela Militar Bernardo O'HigginsSantiago
 HungaryHotel TurismoRengo YugoslaviaHotel El PasoArica

Squads

Squads for the 1962 World Cup consisted of 22 players, as for the previous tournament in 1958, with the exception of Uruguay (the team had 23 players). Ferenc Puskas, José Santamaría and Juan Altafini became three of four players ever to play for two different national teams. In light of this, FIFA created stipulations describing that once a player represents a nation during a World Cup or its qualifying rounds the player cannot switch to another national team.[citation needed]

Match officials

Eighteen match officials from 17 countries were assigned to the tournament to serve as referees and assistant referees.

Europe
South America

Seeding

Pot 1: South AmericaPot 2: European IPot 3: European IIPot 4: Rest of the World

Format

The format of the competition was similar to that of the 1958 competition: 16 teams qualified, divided into four groups of four. Four teams were seeded in the draw taking place in Santiago de Chile, on 18 January 1962: Brazil, England, Italy and Uruguay.[1] The top two teams in each group advanced to the quarter-finals.

Two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw. In a change from the 1958 format, goal average was used to separate any teams equal on points.[2] (In 1958, goal average was available, but was only between teams level on points in first place, or if a playoff between teams equal in second place failed to yield a result after extra time). Argentina became the first (and only) team in World Cup history to be eliminated on goal average when England advanced from Group 4 in second place.

In the knockout games, if the teams were level after ninety minutes, thirty minutes of extra time were played. For any match other than the final, if the teams were still even after extra time then lots would be drawn to determine the winner. The final would have been replayed if even after extra time. In the event, no replays or drawing of lots was necessary.

Qualifying countries and their result

Summary

In May 1960, as the preparations were well under way, Chile suffered the largest earthquake ever recorded (9.5 magnitude), which caused enormous damage to the national infrastructure. In the face of this, Carlos Dittborn, the president of the Organization Committee, coined the phrase "Because we don't have anything, we will do everything in our power to rebuild," which became the unofficial slogan of the tournament. Stadia and other infrastructure were rebuilt at record speed and the tournament occurred on schedule with no major organizational flaw. Dittborn did not live to see the success of his efforts, as he died one month before the start of the tournament. The World Cup venue at Arica was named Estadio Carlos Dittborn in his honour and bears his name to this day.

As the competition began, a shift in strategy was imminent. Defensive strategies began to take hold as the average goals per match dropped to 2.78, under 3 for the first time in competition history (the average has never been above 3 since).

Official 1962 FIFA World Cup poster.

Pelé was injured in the second group match against Czechoslovakia. The USSR's goalkeeper Lev Yashin, arguably the world's best at the time, was in poor form and his team went out to Chile (1–2) in the quarter-finals. Bright spots included the emergence of the young Brazilians Amarildo (standing in for Pelé) and Garrincha, the heroics of Czechoslovakia goalkeeper Viliam Schrojf against Hungary and Yugoslavia, and the performance of the host nation Chile, who took third place with a squad of relatively unknown players.

The competition was marred by violence. This poisonous atmosphere culminated in the infamous first-round match between host Chile and Italy (2–0), known as the Battle of Santiago. Two Italian journalists had written unflattering articles about the host country. Although only two players (both of them Italian) were sent off by the English referee Ken Aston, the match saw repeated attempts from players on both sides to harm opponents, and the Italian team needed police protection to leave the field in safety.

In the first round, Brazil topped their group with Czechoslovakia finishing second, above Mexico and Spain. USSR and Yugoslavia finished above Uruguay and Colombia. Hungary, along with England progressed to the quarter-finals, while Argentina and Bulgaria were eliminated. England had the same number of points as Argentina but progressed due to a superior goal average; the first time such a requirement had been necessary in a World Cup finals tournament. Switzerland lost all three games while West Germany and Chile both went through over Italy.

Chile defeated European champions USSR to earn a semi-final game against the winner of the England – Brazil game. Garrincha scored two goals in a 3–1 win against England. Meanwhile 1–0 wins for Yugoslavia against West Germany—and Czechoslovakia against Hungary—saw the two Slavic states meet in the semi-finals.

Viña del Mar was the original venue for the South American semi-final and Santiago for the Slavic one, but due to Chile's surprise qualification, the organizers prompted FIFA to switch the venues. This irritated crowds in Viña del Mar and only a little under 6,000 spectators came to Estadio Sausalito to watch Czechoslovakia beat Yugoslavia 3–1, whereas a capacity crowd of 76,600 in Santiago watched Brazil beat the hosts 4–2.[3] This game saw Garrincha sent off for Brazil and Honorino Landa sent off for Chile. Chile eventually took third place in a 1–0 victory over Yugoslavia with the very last play of the match. The same player, Eladio Rojas, had also scored the winning goal in Chile's game against USSR.

Santiago's Estadio Nacional served as the venue for the final, and after 15 minutes, Brazil again found themselves a goal behind in the World Cup final, as a long ball from Adolf Scherer was latched onto by Josef Masopust: 1–0 Czechoslovakia. As in the previous final in 1958, Brazil soon hit back, equalising two minutes later through Amarildo after an error by Czechoslovak goalkeeper Schroijf. The Brazilians scored goals from Zito and Vavá (another Schrojf error) mid-way through the second half, the Czechoslovaks could not get back into the game. The match ended 3–1 to Brazil, a successful defence of the title for only the second time in the history of the competition in spite of the absence of one of their star players of 1958, Pelé who was replaced by Amarildo.

Results

First Round

Group 1

TeamPldWDLGFGAGAvPts
 Soviet Union3210851.605
 Yugoslavia3201832.674
 Uruguay3102460.672
 Colombia30125110.451
30 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Uruguay 2 – 1 ColombiaEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 7,908
Referee: Andor Dorogi (Hungary)
Sasía Goal 56'
Cubilla Goal 75'
ReportZuluaga Goal 19' (pen.)

31 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Soviet Union 2 – 0 YugoslaviaEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 15,000
Referee: Albert Dusch (West Germany)
Ivanov Goal 51'
Ponedelnik Goal 83'
Report

2 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Yugoslavia 3 – 1 UruguayEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 8,829
Referee: Karol Galba (Czechoslovakia)
Skoblar Goal 25' (pen.)
Galić Goal 29'
Jerković Goal 49'
ReportCabrera Goal 19'

3 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Soviet Union 4 – 4 ColombiaEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 8,040
Referee: João Etzel Filho (Brazil)
Ivanov Goal 8'11'
Chislenko Goal 10'
Ponedelnik Goal 56'
ReportAceros Goal 21'
Coll Goal 68'
Rada Goal 72'
Klinger Goal 86'

6 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Soviet Union 2 – 1 UruguayEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 9,973
Referee: Cesare Jonni (Italy)
Mamykin Goal 38'
Ivanov Goal 89'
ReportSasía Goal 54'

7 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Yugoslavia 5 – 0 ColombiaEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 7,167
Referee: Carlos Robles (Chile)
Galić Goal 20'61'
Jerković Goal 25'87'
Melić Goal 82'
Report

Group 2

TeamPldWDLGFGAGAvPts
 West Germany3210414.005
 Chile3201531.674
 Italy3111321.503
 Switzerland3003280.250
30 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Chile 3 – 1 SwitzerlandEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 65,000
Referee: Kenneth Aston (England)
L. Sánchez Goal 44'55'
Ramírez Goal 51'
ReportWüthrich Goal 6'

31 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
West Germany 0 – 0 ItalyEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 65,440
Referee: Robert Holley Davidson (Scotland)
Report

2 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Chile 2 – 0 ItalyEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 66,057
Referee: Kenneth Aston (England)
Ramírez Goal 73'
Toro Goal 87'
Report

3 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
West Germany 2 – 1 SwitzerlandEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 64,922
Referee: Leo Horn (Netherlands)
Brülls Goal 45'
Seeler Goal 59'
ReportSchneiter Goal 73'

6 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
West Germany 2 – 0 ChileEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 67,224
Referee: Robert Holley Davidson (Scotland)
Szymaniak Goal 21' (pen.)
Seeler Goal 82'
Report

7 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Italy 3 – 0 SwitzerlandEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 59,828
Referee: Nikolay Latyshev (Soviet Union)
Mora Goal 1'
Bulgarelli Goal 65'67'
Report

Group 3

TeamPldWDLGFGAGAvPts
 Brazil3210414.005
 Czechoslovakia3111230.673
 Mexico3102340.752
 Spain3102230.672
30 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Brazil 2 – 0 MexicoEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 10,484
Referee: Gottfried Dienst (Switzerland)
Zagallo Goal 56'
Pelé Goal 73'
Report

31 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Czechoslovakia 1 – 0 SpainEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 12,700
Referee: Carl Erich Steiner (Austria)
Štibrányi Goal 80'Report

2 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Brazil 0 – 0 CzechoslovakiaEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 14,903
Referee: Pierre Schwinte (France)
Report

3 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Spain 1 – 0 MexicoEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 11,875
Referee: Branko Tesanić (Yugoslavia)
Peiró Goal 90'Report

6 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Brazil 2 – 1 SpainEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 18,715
Referee: Sergio Bustamante (Chile)
Amarildo Goal 72'86'ReportAdelardo Goal 35'

7 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Mexico 3 – 1 CzechoslovakiaEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 10,648
Referee: Gottfried Dienst (Switzerland)
Díaz Goal 12'
Del Águila Goal 29'
Hernández Goal 90' (pen.)
ReportMašek Goal 1'

Group 4

TeamPldWDLGFGAGAvPts
 Hungary3210824.005
 England3111431.333
 Argentina3111230.673
 Bulgaria3012170.141
30 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Argentina 1 – 0 BulgariaEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 7,134
Referee: Juan Gardeazábal Garay (Spain)
Facundo Goal 4'Report

31 May 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Hungary 2 – 1 EnglandEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 7,938
Referee: Leo Horn (Netherlands)
Tichy Goal 17'
Albert Goal 61'
ReportFlowers Goal 60' (pen.)

2 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
England 3 – 1 ArgentinaEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 9,794
Referee: Nikolay Latyshev (Soviet Union)
Flowers Goal 17' (pen.)
Charlton Goal 42'
Greaves Goal 67'
ReportSanfilippo Goal 81'

3 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Hungary 6 – 1 BulgariaEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 7,442
Referee: Juan Gardeazábal Garay (Spain)
Albert Goal 1'6'53'
Tichy Goal 8'70'
Solymosi Goal 12'
ReportAsparuhov Goal 64'[4]

6 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
Hungary 0 – 0 ArgentinaEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 7,945
Referee: Arturo Yamasaki Maldonado (Peru)
Report

7 June 1962
15:00 CLT (UTC-04)
England 0 – 0 BulgariaEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 5,700
Referee: Antoine Blavier (Belgium)
Report

Knockout stage

Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
          
10 June – Arica    
  Soviet Union 1
13 June - Santiago
  Chile 2 
  Chile 2
10 June - Viña del Mar
   Brazil 4 
  Brazil 3
17 June – Santiago
  England 1 
  Brazil 3
10 June - Santiago
   Czechoslovakia 1
  West Germany 0
13 June – Viña del Mar
  Yugoslavia 1 
  Yugoslavia 1Third place
10 June - Rancagua
   Czechoslovakia 3 
  Hungary 0  Chile 1
  Czechoslovakia 1   Yugoslavia 0
16 June - Santiago

Quarter-finals

10 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Chile 2 – 1 Soviet UnionEstadio Carlos Dittborn, Arica
Attendance: 17,268
Referee: Leo Horn (Netherlands)
Sánchez Goal 11'
Rojas Goal 29'
ReportChislenko Goal 26'

10 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Czechoslovakia 1 – 0 HungaryEstadio El Teniente, Rancagua
Attendance: 11,690
Referee: Nikolay Latyshev (Soviet Union)
Scherer Goal 13'Report

10 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Brazil 3 – 1 EnglandEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 17,736
Referee: Pierre Schwinte (France)
Garrincha Goal 31'59'
Vavá Goal 53'
ReportHitchens Goal 38'

10 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Yugoslavia 1 – 0 West GermanyEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 63,324
Referee: Arturo Yamasaki Maldonado (Peru)
Radaković Goal 85'Report

Semi-finals

13 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Czechoslovakia 3 – 1 YugoslaviaEstadio Sausalito, Viña del Mar
Attendance: 5,890
Referee: Gottfried Dienst (Switzerland)
Kadraba Goal 48'
Scherer Goal 80'84' (pen.)
ReportJerković Goal 69'

13 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Brazil 4 – 2 ChileEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 76,500
Referee: Arturo Yamasaki Maldonado (Peru)
Garrincha Goal 9'32'
Vavá Goal 47'78'
ReportToro Goal 42'
Sánchez Goal 61' (pen.)

Third-place match

16 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Chile 1 – 0 YugoslaviaEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 67,000
Referee: Juan Gardeazábal Garay (Spain)
Rojas Goal 90'Report

Final

17 June 1962
14:30 CLT (UTC-04)
Brazil 3 – 1 CzechoslovakiaEstadio Nacional, Santiago
Attendance: 68,679
Referee: Nikolay Latyshev (Soviet Union)
Amarildo Goal 17'
Zito Goal 69'
Vavá Goal 78'
ReportMasopust Goal 15'

Scorers

4 goals
3 goals
2 goals


1 goal

FIFA retrospective ranking

In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.[5] The rankings for the 1962 tournament were as follows:

Final

  1.  Brazil
  2.  Czechoslovakia

3rd and 4th place

  1.  Chile
  2.  Yugoslavia

Eliminated in the quarter-finals

  1.  Hungary
  2.  Soviet Union
  3.  West Germany
  4.  England

Eliminated at the group stage

  1.  Italy
  2.  Argentina
  3.  Mexico
  4.  Uruguay
  5.  Spain
  6.  Colombia
  7.  Bulgaria
  8.  Switzerland

Footnotes

  1. ^ "History of the World Cup Final Draw" (PDF). http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/fifafacts/mcwc/ip-201_10e_fwcdraw-history_8842.pdf. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "for the first time goal average was brought in as a means of separating teams with the same amount of points". Compact book of the World Cup
  3. ^ Grüne, Hardy (2006). "WM 1962 Chile". Fussball WM Enzyklopädie 1930-2006. Agon Sportverlag. ISBN 978-3-89784-261-8. 
  4. ^ RSSSF credits this goal to Georgi Asparuhov.
  5. ^ "page 45" (PDF). http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/afdeveloping/technicaldevp/50/09/00/fwc_mexico_1986_en_part4_279.pdf. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 

External links