Fathers 4 Justice

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Fathers 4 Justice
Founded2002
FounderMatt O'Connor
FocusCharity
Location
Websitehttp://www.fathers-4-justice.org
 
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Fathers 4 Justice
Founded2002
FounderMatt O'Connor
FocusCharity
Location
Websitehttp://www.fathers-4-justice.org
Fathers 4 Justice Day of the Dad demo, London, Father’s Day, 2004

Fathers 4 Justice (or F4J) is a fathers’ rights organisation in the United Kingdom. Founded in 2002, the group aims to gain public and parliamentary support for changes in UK legislation on fathers' rights, mainly using stunts and protests, often conducted in costume.

History[edit]

Fathers 4 Justice was founded in the UK by Matt O'Connor, a marketing consultant.[1]

Fathers for Justice's stated aim is to champion the cause of equal parenting, family law reform and equal contact for divorced parents with children. It is best known for its campaigning techniques of protest stunts, usually dressed as comic book superheroes, and frequently climbing public buildings, bridges and monuments.

Stunts have included supporters forcibly entering courts dressed in Father Christmas outfits, putting the Government's Minister for Children in handcuffs, and group member Jason Hatch climbing onto Buckingham Palace dressed as Batman.[2] They have also protested by handcuffing two other government ministers.[3]

Activities[edit]

2002–06[edit]

On 17 December 2002, O'Connor and a small group of supporters staged their first protest by storming the Lord Chancellor's Office dressed as Father Christmas. In January 2003, O'Connor officially founded Fathers 4 Justice. The group targeted the homes of family court judges and family lawyers' homes and offices with protests.

On 21 October 2003, campaigners Eddie "Goldtooth" Gorecki and Jonathan "Jolly" Stanesby scaled the Royal Courts of Justice, dressed respectively as Batman and Robin.[2] The following day, the group’s members protested through London in a military tank in support of Goreckwi and Stanesby.[4]

Nine days later, non member / lone protestor David Chick climbed a 120 feet (37 m) crane near Tower Bridge, London dressed as Spider-Man. The Metropolitan Police set up a cordon around the area that disrupted traffic through some of East London for several days.[5] Chick was subsequently cleared[6] and published a ghost-written autobiography in February 2006.

On the morning of 22 December 2003, four campaigners – Eddie Gorecki, Jolly Stanesby, Michael Sadeh and Steve Battlershill – dressed as Father Christmas and climbed Tower Bridge in London. They hung up a banner calling for the resignation of the Minister for Children Margaret Hodge, whom they held responsible for perceived inequalities in family law. The four were charged with conspiracy, but the charge was dropped at the start of the trial a year later.

In 2004 Stanesby carried out a "citizen's arrest" of Hodge at a conference, handcuffing himself to her and stating "Margaret Hodge, I'm arresting you for covering up child abuse." Both Stanseby and Jason Hatch (who had also attempted to handcuff himself to Hodge) were later cleared by a jury of charges of false imprisonment.[7]

On 19 May 2004, an alert was caused when two members of the group threw purple flour bombs at Tony Blair during Prime Minister's Questions at the House of Commons.[8] Following the House of Commons incident The Times wrote that the group "has succeeded in becoming the most prominent guerrilla pressure group in Britain ... within eighteen months of its founding."[citation needed]

In September 2004 member Jason Hatch climbed the walls of Buckingham Palace dressed as Batman. All charges relating to his protest were later dropped.[9]

Also in September non member / lone protester David Chick climbed the London Eye, forcing the attraction to close. He was found not guilty of charges of causing a public nuisance.[10]

Protester Ray Barry climbed St Peter's Collegiate Church in Wolverhampton on Fathers Day in 2005. He was cleared of a charge of a public order offence and then repeated the protest on Christmas Day.[11]

In May 2005, campaigners dressed as superheroes protested on top of the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield during the World Snooker Championship.[12] Five years later, campaigners interrupted an interview with Steve Davis, causing the BBC to cut to a pre-recorded video segment.[13]

On 27 September 2005, protester Guy Harrison climbed the Palace of Westminster unveiling a banner stating "Does Blair care? For Fawkes sake change family law." A jury acquitted him of the charge of committing a public nuisance offence.[14]

In November 2005, the group received negative publicity when the prime-time ITV programme Tonight With Trevor McDonald appeared to expose some of its members as violent and obnoxious in their behaviour. However, counter-claims have been made that these were never members in the first place and that the programme gave no right to reply.[citation needed] Some members were expelled but the organisation defended its position and attacked the documentary. On 23 November 2005, Fathers 4 Justice ended its truce with the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (CAFCASS) and the Child Support Agency (CPS), calling for a public inquiry into family law.[citation needed]

During January 2006 the British newspaper The Sun published a story in which it claimed F4J members planned to kidnap Leo Blair, the young son of former Prime Minister Tony Blair "for a few hours as a symbolic gesture". The police said they were aware of such a plan, but added it had probably never progressed beyond the "chattering stage".[15] Downing Street refused to confirm or deny the existence of a plot as it does not comment on matters concerning the Prime Minister's children. Founder O'Connor condemned the alleged plot and threatened to shut down the group because of it. Within days, Fathers 4 Justice had been disbanded.[16]

The group re-formed in May of the same year, and protested during the showing of the BBC lottery show "The National Lottery: Jet Set". The show was taken off-air for several minutes after six Fathers 4 Justice protesters ran from the audience onto the stage displaying posters.[17] The protesters were soon removed from the studio and the lottery draws were hurriedly finished in order to start coverage of the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. A group spokesman stated afterwards that the incident marked a "dramatic return" of Fathers 4 Justice.

2007–present[edit]

In March 2006 F4J member and barrister Michael Cox was jailed for refusing to pay money he owed to the Child Support Agency. Cox told a hearing in Southampton he refused to pay on principle, as he had joint custody of his children, and his former wife wrote to the court in support of him.[18][19]

On 8 June 2008, two fathers from Fathers 4 Justice climbed onto the roof of Labour Party deputy leader Harriet Harman's house wearing superhero-style costumes and calling themselves "Captain Conception" and "Cash Gordon". One of the pair, Mark Harris, said he wanted fathers to have the same right as their mothers' new partners. He also said they would not come down unless Harman read his book, "Family Court Hell".[20] Harris later received a conditional discharge while his colleague Jolly Stanesby was jailed for two months.

In the same month, Bristol Family Court was evacuated after a fire alarm was set off in the building during a F4J protest outside the building.[21]

On 9 July 2008, Fathers 4 Justice members Nigel Ace and Tony Ashby this time in Spiderman and Batman outfits, climbed Harman's roof and draped a banner that read "Stop The War On Dads".[22] Ace, the Spiderman character, called for legal reforms through a loudhailer on the roof.

In July 2011 F4J founder Matt O'Connor staged a hunger strike just outside of UK Prime Minister David Cameron's home in Oxfordshire, demanding that Cameron honour what O'Connor said were pledges about grandparents rights to see their grandchildren and over shared parenting.[23]

In 2012, F4J staged a naked protest inside the Oxford Street branch of retailer Marks and Spencer in order to protest the shop's advertising on parenting website Mumsnet, which F4J believes "promotes gender hatred".[24]

In June 2013 Paul Manning glued a picture of his 11 year old son to John Constable's 1821 painting The Hay Wain in the National Gallery in London. Two weeks earlier Tim Haries spraypainted the word "Help" on a portrait at Westminster Abbey of Queen Elizabeth.[25] The group's founder, Matt O'Connor announced that he would target other art works in order to highlight his campaign.[26] In January 2014, Fathers 4 Justice publicly withdrew support for Manning, following alleged breaches of their Terms & Conditions.[27]

On 9 August 2013, Fathers 4 Justice protester Martyn Judd, climbed onto the balcony of the Hilton Birmingham Metropole Hotel to protest about what he asserted to be the inequality of fathers' rights during a CAFCASS conference at the hotel. The protest came to an end when sprinklers flooded the hotel.[28]

On 8 January 2014, Tim Haries was found guilty of defacing the portrait of the Queen.[29] On 5 February 2014, Tim was sentenced by Judge McCreath at Southwark Crown Court to 6-months in custody. While sentencing, McCreath said, "You caused damage to the painting, disappointment to those who had come to see it… and almost certainly some degree of offence to many people who would regard an attack on a portrait of the monarch as unacceptable." Mr Haries immediately began a hunger strike, claiming that he was now a political prisoner.[30]

Children & Families Bill[edit]

In April 2010, Fathers4Justice aligned themselves with the Conservative Party, as the party had promised legislation if they won a majority at the 2010 general election.[31] However, the Conservatives did not win an overall majority and formed a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. The Coalition Agreement included aspects which Fathers4Justice regarded as favourable to their agenda. This included "encouraging shared parenting" and promised "a comprehensive review of family law in order to increase the use of mediation when couples do break up, and to look at how best to provide greater access rights to non-resident parents and grandparents".[32] In accordance with the Coalition Agreement, the Government initiated a number of reviews, including the Family Justice Review conducted by David Norgrove,[33] and the Co-operative Parenting Consultation, to which the Government responded.[34] After the consultations, the Government brought forward the Children & Families Bill, designed to legislate on a number of areas, including the family legal system; specifically on contact orders, improving post-separation mediation, and on the issue of shared parenting, plans to amend the Children Act 1989 to introduce a new presumption in favour of a child having a relationship with both parents - all areas upon which Fathers4Justice has campaigned, and on which the Conservative Party had agreed to act if elected to power.[35] Whilst legal experts[who?] said these proposals were a considerable improvement on the previous situation, other experts expressed worry that the new legislation could put children at risk, if abusive or violent parents were given contact with the family. Anne Hurst, spokeswoman for Maypole Women, an organisation that supports women through divorce, said: "The proposed change will increase children’s exposure to conflict and abuse, increase economic inequality, and create no incentive for fathers’ increased involvement from their child’s birth. Children who actively reject a parent – either the abusive or non-abusive parent – usually do so in a context of high parental conflict and domestic abuse. Cutting off contact can be a response to alienation tactics, or a coping mechanism."[36] It also did not fully reflect the position of Fathers4Justice, and the group criticised the Coalition for not implementing its agenda in full. The Justice Select Committee considered the draft Children & Families Bill in pre-legislative hearings, but the group chose to not do so, applying 'late' to give oral evidence, and on issues outside the remit of the Committee.[37] At point 144, the Select Committee's report noted "The organisation Fathers 4 Justice contacted us in the late stages of our inquiry and asked for an invitation to provide oral evidence. They had not responded to our original Call for Evidence nor to the Government's Co-operative Parenting Consultation. We offered them the opportunity to provide written evidence on matters within our terms of reference for the inquiry, but they declined. We have not, therefore, had the benefit of their views". This meant the group's position on shared parenting was not reflected in the draft Bill, yet the group criticised the Bill nonetheless. [38][39][40] . The group later also refused offers from MPs sitting on the Bill Committee to table amendments on behalf of the group, meaning the group missed the chance of amending the Bill to better reflect its objectives[41]

Early Day Motion 210[edit]

In June 2013 George Galloway MP sponsored Shared Parenting Early Day Motion 210 which references Fathers4Justice:

That this House notes that many fathers convicted of no criminal offence have very limited access to their children as a result of decisions made by the family courts following separation or divorce; further notes that the family courts operate in conditions of secrecy in which there is a lack of public accountability for the decisions they make; believes that mothers, children and fathers all have rights in relation to family contact and access where there has been family breakdown; further believes there should not be a presumption that family breakdown is the primary responsibility of either parent; further believes that where there is palpably no threat to children from their father in the context of family breakdown, the courts should try to maximise reasonable access in the interests of the children; and calls on the Government to review the operation of the family courts in general and their decision-making in relation to fathers' access to children in the context of family breakdown in particular, taking into account the testimony of the many thousands of fathers who feel their rights are being ignored or abused in relation to their children and in particular the organisation Fathers4Justice and the 36,000 families it represents.

The Early Day Motion attracted cross-party political support from MPs including David Blunkett, David Lammy, Gerald Kaufman, Frank Field (politician), John Redwood, John Hemming (politician) and Caroline Lucas.

However, none of the signatories of the EDM, including George Galloway who sponsored the EDM, actually spoke in the final debate on the Children & Families Bill on February 10, 2014, or objected to Lords' amendment 12, which 'watered down' the Bill's legislative powers on shared parenting.[42] However, non signatories to the EDM, including MPs who were criticised by Fathers4Justice, including Caroline Nokes MP, did speak in favour of shared parenting, and criticised the amendment, saying "I was elected on a promise to seek a legal presumption in favour of automatic shared contact, something that the Bill achieved before the amendment was added, but clause 11, as amended, will not deliver what we promised." and "The amendment plays into the hands of obstructive resident parents who wish to prevent a child from having a meaningful, ongoing relationship with an absent parent, and puts us back into a situation of winners and losers." [43]

Criticism[edit]

Members of the group have been accused of conducting intimidating attacks in order to upset court staff, family lawyers and Members of Parliament.[41] During protests outside the offices of the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (CAFCASS), individual case workers were identified by name in a similar style to animal rights protesters[who?]. One office of CAFCASS was forcibly entered by F4J members, who detained an unnamed employee. No criminal proceedings are known to have resulted.[44]

Fathers4Justice Harassment of Caroline Nokes MP[edit]

In April 2010, Fathers4Justice members backed Caroline Nokes, Conservative candidate in Romsey & Southampton North, as her party had supported its campaign for change to family law, promising legislation if they won the 2010 General election.[45] However, at the election, the Conservatives did not win an overall majority, and formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats,[46] based upon a 'Coalition Agreement',[47] which included aspects of the Fathers4Justice agenda. This included encouraging shared parenting and promised a comprehensive review of family law in order to increase the use of mediation when couples do break up, and to look at how best to provide greater access rights to non-resident parents and grandparents. In accordance with the Coalition Agreement, the Government initiated a number of reviews, including the Family Justice Review (The Norgrove Report)[48] and the Co-operative Parenting Consultation, to which the Government responded.[49] After the consultations, the Government brought forward the Children & Families Bill, designed to legislate on a number of areas, including the family legal system; specifically on contact orders, improving post-separation mediation, and on the issue of shared parenting, plans to amend the Children Act (1989) to introduce a new presumption in favour of a child having a relationship with both parents - all areas upon which Fathers4Justice has campaigned, and on which the Conservative Party had agreed to act if elected to power.[50] Whilst legal experts agreed these proposals were a considerable improvement on the previous situation[51] it did not fully reflect the position of Fathers4Justice, and the group criticised the Coalition for not implementing its agenda in full.

The Justice Select Committee considered the draft Children & Families Bill in 'pre-legislative hearings', and invited Fathers4Justice to submit its evidence to support its agenda. The group chose to not do so, applying 'late' to give oral evidence, and on issues outside the remit of the Committee.[52] In March 2013 Nokes announced she had been asked to sit on the legislative 'Bill Committee' responsible for scrutinising the Bill, and publicly asked Fathers4Justice to submit their amendments so she could table them on the group's behalf.[53][54] Nokes also acknowledged the group's agenda and asked them to "help me deliver it."[55] However, the group refused Nokes' offer to table amendments, and called on her to resign from the committee. After she refused to do so[56] the group declared 'war' on Nokes, and despite Nokes' appeals to the group to help her deliver it, accused her of betraying her commitment to their agenda, and began a campaign against her.[57] The group organised a demonstration in Nokes constituency, for which they were criticised by local residents,[41] encouraged their members to visit Nokes' family home at night, posted late-night Tweets saying they were driving around her village 'looking for' her, asked members to send the MP their dirty underwear, demanded to see a Court Order outlining her daughter's living and contact arrangements, and falsely alleged her ex-husband was having difficulty having contact with his daughter.[58][59]

Nokes commented in her local newspaper; "I have been accused of many things, including being an obstructive mother who denies her ex-husband access to our child. This is a completely baseless fabrication which nevertheless they repeat ad nauseam. I have even had to involve the police over concerns for my daughter's safety. If F4J really want to deliver for their members, bullying, vandalising portraits of HM the Queen and harassing my constituents will not deliver it. They should have engaged with the legislative process when they were asked, and are now in danger of losing what little credibility they have left as a campaign group. The only people betrayed are F4J members who have been let down by the O'Connors."[41] After she, and others, had been subjected to abuse and harassment, and following complaints by her and others to the Police, Nokes finally broke-off contact with the group.[60][61]

In response to complaints from Nokes and others, Twitter warned the group, and its founder Matt O'Connor, that they would have their accounts suspended if they continued to abuse and harass Nokes. The warnings were ignored and Twitter suspended the two accounts in June 2013.[61] Despite the warnings from Twitter about their abusive behaviour, Fathers4Justice claimed the suspension was political censorship.[62] However, the local media reported the group had been engaged in a 'witch hunt' against Ms. Nokes, who pointed out she had “....repeatedly offered to help Fathers 4 Justice with the tabling of amendments for the Children and Families Bill, but none were forthcoming, just comments, which Twitter agreed constituted abuse and harassment. I am aware other political parties and individuals have also complained to Twitter and indeed to the police." She also stated “I remain committed to improvements to the family justice system, which the Children and Families Bill goes some way towards delivering, and it is a pity F4J chose not to engage constructively with the deliberations of the Bill Committee.”.[61]

In February 2014, Nokes criticised a Lords' amendment to the Children & Families Bill which she said 'watered down' the commitment to shared parenting,[63] and spoke against the amendment in the House of Commons, arguing strongly in favour of shared parenting, saying shared parenting arrangements were in the best interests of children.[43][64]

Impact[edit]

Fathers 4 Justice's main focus remains upon media coverage and legal treatment of fathers' rights issues in the UK. The use of high-profile and disruptive stunts has garnered significant UK media coverage, but the political aims of the group are as yet unachieved. The group has been accused[by whom?] of missing the opportunity to change legislation when it refused to table amendments to the Children and Families Bill in 2013. One of its central aims – the removal of secrecy surrounding family courts – is the subject of active political debate. In 2006, the Court of Appeal set a precedent allowing adults to discuss secret cases after they had finished. This resulted in a number of high-profile scandals, chiefly concerning adoption.[citation needed] In February 2009, Justice Minister Jack Straw announced plans to reverse this ruling.[65] In a landmark ruling in September 2013 Sir James Munby, President of the Family Division of the High Court of Justice in England and Wales, spoke in support of previously 'secret' courts being exposed to public scrutiny, with an order that permitted a family whose children had been removed to speak publicly about their treatment by child safety officials.[66]

An unintended result of the F4J campaign has been the exposure of flaws in security at Buckingham Palace, resulting in security enquiries or reviews there.[67] and the House of Commons.[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deborah Ross "Matt O'Connor: The man behind Fathers4Justice", The Independent, 4 July 2006
  2. ^ a b "Rooftop protest by 'caped crusaders'". BBC News. 21 October 2003. Retrieved 3 June 2006. 
  3. ^ Dawar, Anil (9 July 2008). "Fathers 4 Justice campaigners stage protest on Harman's rooftop". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  4. ^ "Rally over fathers' rights". BBC News. 22 October 2003. Retrieved 3 June 2006. 
  5. ^ "Spider-Man cordon criticised". BBC News. 3 November 2003. Retrieved 3 June 2006. 
  6. ^ "Spider-Man cleared after police tactics are revealed". The Times. 15 May 2004. p. Pg 5. 
  7. ^ "Two cleared in handcuffed MP case". BBC News. 3 October 2007. 
  8. ^ "Blair hit during Commons protest". BBC News. 19 May 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2006. 
  9. ^ Asthana, Anushka (19 December 2004). "Best of Times Worst of Times Jason Hatch". The Times (London). 
  10. ^ "London Eye protester not guilty". BBC News. 22 February 2005. 
  11. ^ "Dad on roof for Christmas Demo: Campaigner scales church in "fight for justice"". Birmingham Evening Mail (HighBeam Research). 28 December 2005. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  12. ^ "No charges after Crucible protest". BBC News. 30 April 2005. 
  13. ^ "Fathers 4 Justice BBC 1 interview World Championship Snooker Steve Davis". YouTube. 2010-04-24. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  14. ^ "Fathers protester wins court case". BBC News. 13 October 2006. 
  15. ^ "Police aware of 'Leo kidnap plot'". BBC News. 18 January 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2006. 
  16. ^ "Fathers 4 Justice to end campaign". BBC News. 18 January 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2006. 
  17. ^ "Lottery show delayed by protest". BBC News. 20 May 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2006. 
  18. ^ Gibb, Frances (26 June 2007). "Father jailed for refusing to pay child maintenance despite exwifes support". The Times (London). Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  19. ^ "Fathers' rights campaigner is jailed in child support battle". Daily Mail (London). 26 June 2007. 
  20. ^ "Man held over Harman roof protest". BBC News. 8 June 2008. 
  21. ^ "Fathers protest at family court". BBC News. 2008-06-13. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  22. ^ Anil Dawar and agencies (2008-07-09). "Fathers 4 Justice campaigners stage protest on Harman's rooftop". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  23. ^ "Fathers4Justice in David Cameron doorstep protest". BBC News. 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2014-02-10. 
  24. ^ Edmonson, Nicholas (19 March 2012). "Fathers 4 Justice Stage Naked Mumsnet Protest in Marks & Spencer Oxford Street". International Business Times. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  25. ^ Sullivan, Mike; Morgan, Tom. "Hay Wain Hijack". The Sun (London). 
  26. ^ Dugan, Emily (7 July 2013). "Fathers4Justice vows to step up attacks on the nation's artworks". The Independent (London). 
  27. ^ "F4J Fact Check – Home Truths". Fathers-4-justice.org. 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  28. ^ Matt Lloyd (2013-08-09). "Sprinklers end fathers 4 justice hotel protest". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  29. ^ "Campaigner Tim Haries guilty of defacing Queen portrait". BBC News. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  30. ^ Gardner, Tom (5 February 2014). "Fathers4Justice campaigner who defaced Queen portrait hanging at Westminster Abbey with purple spray paint is jailed for six months". London: Daily Mail. 
  31. ^ "Tory backing for family law change". Southern Daily Echo. 2010-04-10. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  32. ^ "The Coalition: our programme for government" (PDF). gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  33. ^ "Family Justice Review - Final Report" (PDF). gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  34. ^ "Cooperative parenting following family separation: proposed legislation on the involvement of parents in a child's life". Department for Education. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  35. ^ "Children and Families Bill 2013" (PDF). gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  36. ^ "The Children and Families Bill 2013 – new shared parenting rules". Roberts Centre. 2013-04-22. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  37. ^ "Press Coverage Archives". Fathers-4-justice.org. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  38. ^ The Committee Office, House of Commons. "House of Commons - Pre-legislative scrutiny of the Children and Families Bill - Justice Committee". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  39. ^ "Matt O'Connor Archives". Fathers-4-justice.org. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  40. ^ Matt O'Connor. "The 36,000 Families Silenced By Parliament". Father4justice.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  41. ^ a b c d "Fathers for Justice face Twitter ban over campaign". Romsey Advertiser. 2013-05-03. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  42. ^ http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmhansrd/cm140210/debtext/140210-0002.htm#14021028000001
  43. ^ a b http://www.carolinenokes.com/campaigns/family-law-reform/children-families-bill-debate/
  44. ^ Elliott, John; Taher, Abul (21 November 2004). "Fathers 'terrorise' lawyers". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  45. ^ "Fathers for Justice face Twitter ban over campaign". Southern Daily Echo. 2013-05-03. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  46. ^ United Kingdom general election, 2010
  47. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78977/coalition_programme_for_government.pdf
  48. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/217343/family-justice-review-final-report.pdf
  49. ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/AllPublications/Page10/DFE-30017-2012
  50. ^ http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/c/children%20and%20families%20bill%20factsheet.pdf
  51. ^ http://www.robertscentre.org.uk/the-children-and-families-bill-2013-new-shared-parenting-rules/
  52. ^ http://www.fathers-4-justice.org/category/press-coverage/
  53. ^ https://twitter.com/carolinenokes/status/308971586856312832
  54. ^ https://twitter.com/carolinenokes/status/314082873961488384
  55. ^ https://twitter.com/carolinenokes/status/314360920379904000
  56. ^ https://twitter.com/carolinenokes/status/314279831070183425
  57. ^ https://twitter.com/F4JOfficial
  58. ^ http://www.fathers-4-justice.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/CAROLINE-NOKES-JUL10D3D573.jpg
  59. ^ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?
  60. ^ https://www.facebook.com/Nadine.C.OConnor
  61. ^ a b c http://www.romseyadvertiser.co.uk/archive/2013/05/03/10397927.Fathers_for_Justice_face_Twitter_ban_over_campaign/
  62. ^ ["https://www.facebook.com/Fathers4Justice/posts/10151781049298804" "Nokes Secures twitter takedown"]. Facebook - Fathers4Justice. 
  63. ^ http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/news/11003073.MP_hits_out_at_Children_and_Families_Bill_impact/
  64. ^ http://www.carolinenokes.com/uncategorized/caroline-opposes-lords-amendment-to-children-families-bill-on-shared-parenting/
  65. ^ "Justice Ministry to bar parents from telling their own stories". The Independent (London). 15 February 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  66. ^ Doughty, Steve (5 September 2013). "Top judge's war on secret courts: Family hearings must be exposed to 'glare of publicity'". Daily Mail (London). 
  67. ^ "Urgent review over Palace protest". BBC News. 14 September 2004. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  68. ^ Thompson, Jonathan; Goodchild, Sophie (23 May 2004). "Fathers 4 Justice militants vow to strike back on D (for Dads') Day". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2 May 2010. 

External links[edit]