Eye surgery

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Eye surgery
Augenoperation 1195.jpg
Eye surgery in the Middle Ages.
OPS-301 code:5-08...5-16
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Eye surgery
Augenoperation 1195.jpg
Eye surgery in the Middle Ages.
OPS-301 code:5-08...5-16

Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.[1] The eye is a fragile organ, and requires extreme care before, during, and after a surgical procedure. An expert eye surgeon is responsible for selecting the appropriate surgical procedure for the patient, and for taking the necessary safety precautions.

Preparation and precautions[edit]

Since the eye is heavily supplied by nerves, anesthesia is essential. Local anesthesia is most commonly used. Topical anesthesia using lidocaine topical gel are often used for quick procedures. Since topical anesthesia requires cooperation from the patient, general anesthesia is often used for children, traumatic eye injuries, major orbitotomies and for apprehensive patients. The physician administering anesthesia monitors the patient's cardiovascular status. Sterile precautions are taken to prepare the area for surgery and lower the risk of infection. Sterile precautions include the use of antiseptics like povidone-iodine, sterile drapes, gowns and gloves.

Laser eye surgery[edit]

Although the terms laser eye surgery and refractive surgery are commonly used as if they were interchangeable, this is not the case. Lasers may be used to treat nonrefractive conditions (e.g. to seal a retinal tear).[2] Laser eye surgery or laser corneal surgery is a medical procedure that uses a laser to reshape the surface of the eye. This is done to correct myopia (short-sightedness), hypermetropia (long sightedness) and astigmatism (uneven curvature of the eye's surface). It is important to note that refractive surgery is not compatible with everyone, and rarely people may find that eyewear is still needed after surgery.[3]

Cataract surgery[edit]

Main article: Cataract surgery
Cataract surgery, using a temporal approach phacoemulsification probe (in right hand) and "chopper"(in left hand) being done under operating microscope at a Navy medical center

A cataract is an opacification or cloudiness of the eye's crystalline lens due to aging, disease, or trauma that typically prevents light from forming a clear image on the retina. If visual loss is significant, surgical removal of the lens may be warranted, with lost optical power usually replaced with a plastic intraocular lens (IOL). Owing to the high prevalence of cataracts, cataract extraction is the most common eye surgery. Rest after surgery is recommended.[4]

Glaucoma surgery[edit]

Main article: Glaucoma surgery

Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). There are many types of glaucoma surgery, and variations or combinations of those types, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous humor.


Canaloplasty is an advanced, nonpenetrating procedure designed to enhance drainage through the eye’s natural drainage system to provide sustained reduction of IOP. Canaloplasty utilizes microcatheter technology in a simple and minimally invasive procedure. To perform a canaloplasty, an Ophthalmologist creates a tiny incision to gain access to a canal in the eye. A microcatheter circumnavigates the canal around the iris, enlarging the main drainage channel and its smaller collector channels through the injection of a sterile, gel-like material called viscoelastic. The catheter is then removed and a suture is placed within the canal and tightened. By opening up the canal, the pressure inside the eye can be reduced. Long-term results are available, published in the Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery.[5][6][7][8]

Refractive surgery[edit]

Main article: Refractive surgery

Refractive surgery aims to correct errors of refraction in the eye, reducing or eliminating the need for corrective lenses

Corneal surgery[edit]

Corneal surgery includes most refractive surgery as well as the following:

Vitreo-retinal surgery[edit]


Vitreo-retinal surgery includes the following

Eye muscle surgery[edit]

Isolating the inferior rectus muscle
Disinserting the medial rectus muscle, after pre-placing vicryl suture
Main article: Strabismus surgery

With approximately 1.2 million procedures each year, extraocular muscle surgery is the third most common eye surgery in the United States [2].

Oculoplastic surgery[edit]

Main article: Oculoplastics

Oculoplastic surgery, or oculoplastics, is the subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with the reconstruction of the eye and associated structures. Oculoplastic surgeons perform procedures such as the repair of droopy eyelids (blepharoplasty)[5], repair of tear duct obstructions, orbital fracture repairs, removal of tumors in and around the eyes, and facial rejuvenation procedures including laser skin resurfacing, eye lifts, brow lifts, and even facelifts. Common procedures are:

Eyelid surgery[edit]

Orbital surgery[edit]

Other oculoplastic surgery[edit]

Surgery involving the lacrimal apparatus[edit]

Eye removal[edit]

Other surgery[edit]

Many of these described procedures are historical and are not recommended due to a risk of complications. Particularly, these include operations done on ciliary body in an attempt to control glaucoma, since highly safer surgeries for glaucoma, including lasers, non-penetrating surgery, guarded filtration surgery and seton valve implants have been invented.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Ophthalmologic surgery
  2. ^ Maguire, Stephen. "Laser Eye Surgery". The Irish Times. 
  3. ^ "Laser Eye Surgery Suitability". Optical Express. 
  4. ^ Uhr, Barry W. History of ophthalmology at Baylor University Medical Center. Hi Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2003 October; 16(4): 435–438. PMID 16278761
  5. ^ https://mediamillinc.com/vjo.php?display=video&id=013
  6. ^ http://www.jcrsjournal.org/article/S0886-3350(08)00004-7/abstract,
  7. ^ http://www.jcrsjournal.org/article/S0886-3350(07)00697-9/abstract
  8. ^ http://www.jcrsjournal.org/article/S0886-3350(09)00139-4/abstract
  9. ^ a b Surgery Encyclopedia - LASIK
  10. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - PRK
  11. ^ Lombardi, M.; Abbondanza, M. (1997). "Asymmetric radial keratotomy for the correction of keratoconus". Journal of Refractive Surgery 13 (3): 302–307. PMID 9183763.  edit
  12. ^ http://www.centronazionalelaser.com/sito%20dentro/mini%20cheratotomia.htm
  13. ^ http://www.ilgiornale.it/medicina/la_curva_pericolosa__cornea/24-05-2008/articolo-id=263900-page=0-comments=1
  14. ^ Kohlhaas, M.; Draeger, J.; Böhm, A.; Lombardi, M.; Abbondanza, M.; Zuppardo, M.; Görne, M. (2008). "Zur Aesthesiometrie der Hornhaut nach refraktiver Hornhautchirurgie" [Aesthesiometry of the cornea after refractive corneal surgery]. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde (in German) 201 (10): 221–223. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1045898. PMID 1453657.  edit
  15. ^ a b Surgery Encyclopedia - Corneal transplantation
  16. ^ intercornealrings
  17. ^ http://eyeworld.org/article.php?sid=5533
  18. ^ Indiana University Department of Ophthalmology - Phototherapeutic Keratectomy (PTK)
  19. ^ MDAdvice.com - Pterygium removal
  20. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/irelandbritainhealthoffbeat
  21. ^ http://www.wihrd.soton.ac.uk/projx/signpost/steers/STEER_2001(6).pdf
  22. ^ vitrectomysurgery
  23. ^ http://www.vrmny.com/vitrectomy.htm
  24. ^ a b Surgery Encyclopedia - Photocoagulation therapy
  25. ^ Wolfensberger TJ. "Jules Gonin. Pioneer of retinal detachment surgery." Indian J Ophthalmol. 2003 Dec;51(4):303-8. PMID 14750617.
  26. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Scleral Buckling
  27. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Retinal_cryopexy
  28. ^ Shields JA, Shields CL. Surgical approach to lamellar sclerouvectomy for posterior uveal melanomas: the 1986 Schoenberg lecture. Ophthalmic Surg. 1988 Nov;19(11):774-80. PMID 3222038.
  29. ^ http://clinicaltrials.gov/show
  30. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Eye Muscle Surgery
  31. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Blepharoplasty
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0
  33. ^ http://www.emedicine.com/ent/topic100.htm
  34. ^ Indiana University Department of Ophthalmology. "Lacrimal Drainage Surgery (DCR: Dacryocystorhinostomy)." Retrieved August 18, 2006
  35. ^ Cherkunov BF, Lapshina AV. ["Canaliculodacryocystostomy in obstruction of medial end of the lacrimal duct."] Oftalmol Zh. 1976;31(7):544-8. PMID 1012635.
  36. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Enucleation
  37. ^ a b c Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
  38. ^ Surgery Encyclopedia - Exenteration
  39. ^ a b Cvetkovic D, Blagojevic M, Dodic V. ["Comparative results of trepanotrabeculectomy and iridencleisis in primary glaucoma."] J Fr Ophtalmol. 1979 Feb;2(2):103-7. PMID 444110.