Extreme points of Earth

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This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than, higher or lower in altitude than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.

The world[edit]

Latitude and longitude[edit]

1A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line ([1]) moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.

Altitude[edit]

Highest point[edit]

Lowest point (artificial)[edit]

Lowest point (natural)[edit]

Highest attainable by transportation[edit]

Lowest attainable by transportation[edit]

Highest geographical features[edit]

Remoteness[edit]

Each continent has its own Continental Pole of Inaccessibility, defined as the place on the continent that is farthest from any ocean. Of these continental points, the most distant from an ocean is the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility (or "EPIA") 46°17′N 86°40′E / 46.283°N 86.667°E / 46.283; 86.667 (Continental Pole of Inaccessibility), in China's Xinjiang region near the Kazakhstan border. Calculations have commonly suggested that it is 2,645 km (1,644 mi) from the nearest coastline, located in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert. The nearest settlement to the EPIA is Suluk at 46°15′N 86°50′E / 46.250°N 86.833°E / 46.250; 86.833 (Suluk) about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to the east.[15]

A recent study suggests that the historical calculation of the EPIA has failed to recognize the point where the Gulf of Ob joins the Arctic Ocean, and proposes instead that varying definitions of coastline could result in other Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility results: EPIA1 somewhere between 44°17′N 82°11′E / 44.283°N 82.183°E / 44.283; 82.183 (EPIA1.1) and 44°29′N 82°19′E / 44.483°N 82.317°E / 44.483; 82.317 (EPIA1.2), about 2510±10 km from the nearest ocean, or EPIA2 somewhere between 45°17′N 88°08′E / 45.283°N 88.133°E / 45.283; 88.133 (EPIA2.1) and 45°28′N 88°14′E / 45.467°N 88.233°E / 45.467; 88.233 (EPIA2.2), about 2514±7 km from the nearest ocean.[16] If adopted, this would place the final EPIA roughly 130 km (81 mi) closer to ocean than currently agreed upon.[16]

Coincidentally, EPIA1 (or EPIA2) and the most remote of the Oceanic Poles of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 mi) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.

Center[edit]

Since the Earth is a spheroid, its center (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the point 0°, 0°, located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian, at the coordinates of zero degrees by zero, is the "center" of the standard geographic model, as viewed on a map—but this selection of longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent. The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for everyone in the world, could be considered a centre of the world, and is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting.

Along constant latitude (east-west distances)[edit]

Along constant longitude (north-south distances)[edit]

Along any great circle[edit]


Afro-Eurasia[edit]

The Americas[edit]

Antarctica[edit]

The Arctic[edit]

Australia[edit]

Pacific Islands[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "TauTona, Anglo Gold – Mining Technology". SPG Media Group PLC. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "Transocean's Ultra-Deepwater Semisubmersible Rig Deepwater Horizon Drills World's Deepest Oil and Gas Well". Transocean. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  3. ^ "Challenger Deep - the Mariana Trench". Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  4. ^ Klimchouck, Alexander. "The deepest cave in the world (Krubera Cave) became 6 m deeper". speleogenesis.info. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  5. ^ McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic (National Geographic Society) 171 (4): 422–460.  Unknown parameter |abbr= ignored (help) (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)
  6. ^ a b Bennett, Suzy (October 2003). "Destination Guides – World's highest railway, Peru – Wanderlust Travel Magazine". Wanderlust Magazine. Retrieved 10 October 2008. 
  7. ^ http://yukondigitallibrary.ca/Publications/AlaskaYT/1916,%20Alaska%20and%20the%20YT.pdf, at p.3
  8. ^ Ben Blanchard (16 September 2013). "China opens world's highest civilian airport". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  9. ^ "Siachen: The world's highest cold war". CNN. 20 May 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  10. ^ "Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the world's highest volcano". Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "The Highest Lake in the World". Retrieved 7 September 2007.  Unknown parameter |abbr= ignored (help)
  12. ^ "ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya: The main Khumbu Glacier is about 17 km long with elevations ranging from 4900m at the terminus to 7600m at the source....The 7600m to 8000m elevations are also depicted on numerous detailed topographic maps". Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  13. ^ "The Mystery of World's highest river and largest Canyon". Retrieved 7 September 2007.  Unknown parameter |abbr= ignored (help)
  14. ^ "Island Superlatives". Retrieved 7 September 2007.  Unknown parameter |abbr= ignored (help)
  15. ^ "Map of the region around the Continental Pole of Inaccessibility, showing relative locations of Hoxtolgay, Xazgat and Suluk". MSN Maps. Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f Garcia-Castellanos, D.; U. Lombardo (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth". Scottish Geographical Journal 123 (3): 227–233. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809. Retrieved 2008. 
  17. ^ Centre of Australia, States and Territories, Geoscience Australia
  18. ^ Draft Logic – Google Maps Distance Calculator, accessed 4 September 2011
  19. ^ Great Circle Mapper
  20. ^ "World Distance Calculator". Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  21. ^ "Regions and territories: New Caledonia". BBC News. 16 June 2011.