extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use. Extinct languages are sometimes contrasted with [1 ] dead languages, which are still known and used in special contexts in written form, but not as ordinary spoken languages for everyday communication. However, language extinction and language death are often equated. Language loss [edit ]
Sisters Maxine Wildcat Barnett (left) and Josephine Wildcat Bigler; two of the final surviving elderly speakers of
, visiting their grandmother’s grave in a cemetery behind Pickett Chapel in Sapulpa, Oklahoma. According to the sisters, their grandmother had insisted that Yuchi be their native language.
Normally the transition from a spoken to an extinct language occurs when a language undergoes
language death while being directly replaced by a different one. For example, some Native American languages were replaced by English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, or Dutch as a result of colonization.
In contrast to an extinct language, which no longer has any speakers, a dead language may remain in use for
scientific, legal, or ecclesiastical functions. Old Church Slavonic, Classical Armenian, Avestan, Coptic, Biblical Hebrew, New Testament Greek, Ge'ez, Ardhamagadhi, Pali, Sanskrit and Latin are among the many dead languages used as sacred languages. Courses and active teaching still exist for these, as well as Egyptian Hieroglyphs and Maya script.
Sometimes a language that has changed so much that linguists describe it as a different language (or different stage) is called "extinct", as in the case of
Old English, a forerunner of Modern English. But in such cases, the language never ceased to be used by speakers, and as linguists' subdivisions in the process of language change are fairly arbitrary, such forerunner languages are not properly speaking extinct.
A language that currently has living native speakers is called a
modern language. Ethnologue records 7,358 living languages known. [2 ] Hebrew is an example of a nearly extinct spoken language (by the first definition above) that became a lingua franca and a liturgical language that has been revived to become a living spoken language. There are other attempts at language revival. In general, the success of these attempts has been subject to debate, as it is not clear they will ever become the common native language of a community of speakers.
It is believed that 90% of the circa 7,000 languages currently spoken in the world will have become extinct by 2050, as the world's language system has reached a crisis and is dramatically restructuring.
[3 ] [4 ] Globalization, development, and language extinction [edit ]
As economic and cultural
globalization and development continue to push forward, growing numbers of languages will become endangered and eventually, extinct. With increasing economic integration on national and regional scales, people find it easier to communicate and conduct business in the dominant lingua francas of world commerce: English, Chinese, Spanish and French. [5 ]
In their study of contact-induced language change, American linguists Sarah Grey Thomason and
Terrence Kaufman state that in situations of cultural pressure (where populations must speak a dominant language), three linguistic outcomes may occur: first - and most commonly - a subordinate population may shift abruptly to the dominant language, leaving the native language to a sudden linguistic death. Second, the more gradual process of language death may occur over several generations. The third and most rare outcome is for the pressured group to maintain as much of its native language as possible, while borrowing elements of the dominant language's grammar (replacing all, or portions of, the grammar of the original language). [6 ]
Institutions such as the education system, as well as (often global) forms of media such as the Internet, television, and print media play a significant role in the process of language loss.
For example, immigrants may travel from one country to another, their children then attend school in the country, and the schools may teach them in the official language of the country rather than their native language. [5 ] Recently extinct languages [edit ] Chronologically, in the 21st century [edit ]
Date Language Language family Region Notes February 4, 2014 Klallam Na’klallam, S’klallam Salishan Washington, USA: northeast Olympic Peninsula, Port Angeles. with the death of Hazel Sampson [7 ] June 5, 2013 Livonian Liv, Livõ kel Uralic Latvia: Kurzeme, west of Kolkasrags, 12 coastal villages; Riga area dispersed. with the death of Grizelda Kristina [8 ] October 2, 2012 Cromarty dialect of Scots Black Isle dialect Germanic Northern Scotland, United Kingdom with the death of Bobby Hogg [9 ] October 24, 2010 Pazeh Kulon-pazeh Formosan languages Taiwan: West coast area, east of Tayal, Cholan area, Houli, Fengyuan, Tantzu, Taichung, Tungshih. with the death of Pan Jin-yu [10 ] August 20, 2010 Cochin Indo-Portuguese Creole Vypin Indo-Portuguese Portuguese-based Creole southern India: a few Christian families on Vypeen Island (Vypin Island) in the city of Cochin (Kochi) in Kerala. with the death of William Rozario [10 ] January 26, 2010 Aka-Bo Bo Andamanese Andaman Islands, India: east central coast of North Andaman island, North Reef island. with the death of Boa Sr. [11 ] 2009 Nyawaygi Pama–Nyungan Australia: Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters, to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. with the death of Willie Seaton [12 ] November 2009 Aka-Kora Kora Andamanese Andaman Islands, India: northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman Island, Smith Island. with the death of Boro [13 ] by 2009 [14 ] Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe unclassified Brazil: Minas Gerais and Bahia states, Pôsto Paraguassu in Itabuna municipality. shifted to Portuguese. January 21, 2008 Eyak I·ya·q Na-Dene Alaska, USA: Copper river mouth. with the death of Marie Smith Jones c.2008 (?) Bidyara Bidjara, Bithara, Bitjara Pama–Nyungan Queensland, Australia: between Tambo and Augathella, Warrego and Langlo rivers. 20 speakers found in 1981; effectively extinct by 2008 c.2006 (?) A-Pucikwar Andamanese Andaman Islands, India: Straight Island.
10 or fewer speakers found in 2006; was reportedly spoken by 8–10 of total population of 53 individuals on Strait Island.
2005 Osage Siouan Oklahoma, USA with the death of Lucille Roubedeaux 2003 Akkala Sami Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk Uralic Kola Peninsula, Russia: Murmanskaya Oblast’, southwest Kola peninsula. with the death of Marja Sergina May 2002 Gaagudju Abdedal, Abiddul, Gaagudju, Kakadu, Kakakta, Kakdju, Kakdjuan Arnhem Land languages Northern Territory, Australia: Oenpelli. with the death of Big Bill Neidjie 2000 Sowa Malayo-Polynesian Pentecost Island, Vanuatu with the death of Maurice Tabi c.2000 Laua Labu Trans-New Guinea Papua New Guinea: Central Province, north and west of Laua. one speaker found in 1987 c.2000 Mesmes Semetic Ethiopia: YeDebub Biheroch Biherese na Hizboch State, Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones. Last speaker was interviewed by language survey team, aged ~80. He had not spoken the language for 30 years. In alphabetical order [edit ]
With last known speaker and/or date of death.
: (late 19th century) Adai : Boa Sr (2010) Aka-Bo : Marja Sergina (2003) Akkala Sami [Alsea: John Albert (1942); Yaquina: (1884)] Alsean family : (early 18th century) Apalachee : (early 19th Century) Arwi : (1877) Aruá : (early 20th century) Atakapa : (1988) Atsugewi : Beothuk Shanawdithit (a.k.a. "Nancy April") (1829) : Bobby Hogg (2012) Black Isle dialect [15 ] : (late 19th century) Baybayin Catawban family : (before 1960) Catawba Woccon : (ca. 1930s) Cayuse : (ca. 1940s) Chemakum : (late 20th century) Chicomuceltec : (ca. 1930s) Chimariko : Benjamin Paul (1934) & Delphine Ducloux (1940) Chitimacha : Barbareño language was last to become extinct. Chumashan family : Mary Yee (1965) Barbareño Ineseño ( Island Chumash Ethnologue) Obispeño Purisimeño Ventureño : (18th century) Coahuilteco (a Cochimí Yuman language): (early 19th century) Comecrudan family : recorded from children (Andrade, Emiterio, Joaquin, & others) of last speakers in (1886) Comecrudo : last recorded in (1828) Garza : last recorded in (1828) Mamulique Coosan family : Martha Johnson (1972) Hanis : Annie Miner Peterson (1939) Miluk (a subfamily of the Costanoan languages Utian family): (ca. 1940s) Karkin Mutsun Northern Costanoan Ramaytush Chochenyo Tamyen Awaswas : last recorded speaker died in (1939) in Monterey, California Rumsen Chalon : last recorded from Santos Cavázos and Emiterio in (1886) Cotoname : language vanished by the (1800s) Crimean Gothic : István Varró (1770) Cuman : Dalmatian Tuone Udaina, (June 10, 1898) : report of a few speakers left in 1833, extinct before the end of the 19th century Esselen (a Eyak Na-Dené language): Marie Smith Jones, January 21, 2008 [16 ] (a Gabrielino Uto-Aztecan language): elderly speakers last recorded in 1933 (a Gafat South Ethiopian Semitic language): four speakers found in 1947 after much effort, no subsequent record (an Galice-Applegate Athabaskan language) Galice dialect: Hoxie Simmons (1963) : (by the late 15th century (16th century at the latest)) Greenlandic Norse : (by the 18th century) Modern Gutnish : (17th century) Jassic (a Juaneño Uto-Aztecan language): last recorded in (1934) : Kakadu (Gaagudju) Big Bill Neidjie (July 2002) Kalapuyan family Central Kalapuya Ahantchuyuk, Luckimute, Mary's River, and Lower McKenzie River dialects: last speakers were about 6 persons who were all over 60 in (1937) Santiam dialect: (ca. 1950s) Northern Kalapuya Tualatin dialect: Louis Kenoyer (1937) Yamhill dialect: Louisa Selky (1915) : last recorded in 1937 from Laura Blackery Albertson who only partly remembered it Yonkalla : last native speaker, Kamassian Klavdiya Plotnikova, died in 1989 : (1858) Karankawa (a Kathlamet Chinookan language): (ca. 1930s) (an Kitanemuk Uto-Aztecan language): Marcelino Rivera, Isabella Gonzales, Refugia Duran last recorded (1937) (a Kitsai Caddoan language): Kai Kai (ca. 1940) [17 ] :(2014) Klallam (an Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie Athabaskan language): children of the last speakers remembered a few words, recorded in (1935 & 1942) Clatskanie dialect: father of Willie Andrew (ca. 1870) Kwalhioqua dialect: mother of Lizzie Johnson (1910) (Athabaskan): a few native speakers were living in the 1980s, now extinct Lipan : last spoken in Wisconsin (ca. 1930s) Mahican : Manx Ned Maddrell (December 1974) (but is being revived as a second language) (an Mattole-Bear River Athabaskan language) Bear River dialect: material from last elderly speaker recorded (ca. 1929) Mattole dialect: material recorded (ca. 1930) : Albert Bennett (1972) Mbabaram : (one of the Mesmes West Gurage languages), material from last elderly speaker (who had not spoken it for 30 years) collected ca. 2000 : (1989) Miami- Illinois : (ca. 1950s) Mochica : Fidelia Fielding (1908) Mohegan : Fred Yelkes (1958) Molala : Victoria Huancho Icahuate (late 1990s) Munichi : Watt Sam & Nancy Raven (early 1930s) Natchez : Alice Stevenson (1987) Negerhollands : Sindick Jimmy (1977) Nooksack (a Norn Germanic language): extinct by mid-19th century : (1994) Northern Pomo (an Nottoway Iroquoian language): last recorded (before 1836) (a Pentlatch Salishan language): Joe Nimnim (1940) (a Pánobo Pano–Tacanan language): (1991) Pochutec ( Uto-Aztecan: last documented 1917 by Franz Boas (a Polabian Slavic language): (late 18th century) : last speaker died in 1902 Sadlermiut : (ca. 1960) Salinan Shastan family Konomihu New River Shasta Okwanuchu : 3 elderly speakers in 1980, extinct by (1990) Shasta : last speaker died of old age in (1997) Sirenik : (ca. 1970s) Siuslaw (a Slovincian Slavic language): (20th century) : last fluent speaker died in (2000) Sowa : all last speakers murdered in (1763) Susquehannock : Molly Orton (or Molly Orcutt) & Willie Simmons (both not fully fluent) last recorded in (1934) Takelma : (late 19th century) Tasmanian (an Tataviam Uto-Aztecan language): Juan José Fustero who remembered only a few words of his grandparents' language recorded (1913) Teteté (a Tucanoan language) (a Tillamook Salishan language): (1970) : 6 elderly people in (1931) Tonkawa (an Tsetsaut Athabaskan language): last fluent speaker was elderly man recorded in (1894) : Tunica Sesostrie Youchigant (ca. mid 20th century) : Ubykh Tevfik Esenç (October 1992) Most dialects of (a Upper Chinook Chinookan language) are extinct, except for the Wasco-Wishram dialect. The became extinct in the (1930s), other dialects have little documentation. (The Clackamas dialect Wasco-Wishram language is still spoken by five elders). [18 ] : Wolverton Orton, last recorded in (1942) Upper Umpqua Vegliot : Dalmatian Tuone Udaina (Italian: Antonio Udina) (10 June 1898) : Laura Fish Somersal (1990) Wappo : while attested as living in 1770, 18th century explorers could find no fluent speakers Weyto : Della Prince (1962) Wiyot : Yana Ishi (1916) related to English: (mid-19th century) Yola See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^ Lenore A. Grenoble, Lindsay J. Whaley, Saving Languages: An Introduction to Language Revitalization, Cambridge University Press (2006) p.18 ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue . Retrieved . 2012-03-22 ^ "Study by language researcher, David Graddol". MSNBC. 2004-02-26 . Retrieved . 2012-03-22 ^ Ian on Friday, January 16, 2009 61 comments (2009-01-16). "Research by Southwest University for Nationalities College of Liberal Arts". Chinasmack.com . Retrieved . 2012-03-22 ^ a b Malone, Elizabeth (July 28, 2008). "Language and Linguistics: Endangered Language". National Science Foundation . Retrieved . October 23, 2009 ^ Thomason, Sarah Grey & Kaufman, Terrence. Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics, University of California Press (1991) p. 100. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/last-native-klallam-speaker-dies-in-port-angeles/2014/02/06/d8108c14-8f70-11e3-878e-d76656564a01_story.html ^ http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/europe/article3782596.ece?CMP=OTH-gnws-standard-2013_06_05 ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2212466/Final-word-Scottish-Cromarty-dialect-silenced-forever-native-speaker-dies-aged-92.html ^ a b http://www.write2kill.in/critiques/people/376.html ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8498534.stm ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=L4zytHZWB4QC&pg=PA160 ^ Andamanese tribes, languages die, The Hindu ^ http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/show_language.asp?code=pth ^ Cromarty fisherfolk dialect's last native speaker dies. BBC. 2 October 2012 (retrieved 2 October 2012) ^ "When nobody understands". . October 23, 2008 The Economist . Retrieved . 2008-10-25 The electronic age drives some languages out of existence, but can help save others ^ Science: Last of the Kitsai. Time. 27 June 1932 (retrieved 6 Sept 2009) ^ Culture: Language. The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. 2009 (retrieved 9 April 2009) Bibliography [edit ] Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36275-7. Brenzinger, Matthias (ed.) (1992) Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Explorations with Special Reference to East Africa. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-013404-9. Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74624-5. Davis, Wade. (2009). The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World. House of Anansi Press. ISBN 0-88784-766-8. Dorian, Nancy C. (1978). 'Fate of Morphological Complexity in Language Death: Evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic.' Language, 54 (3), 590-609. Dorian, Nancy C. (1981). Language Death: The Life Cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-7785-6. Dressler, Wolfgand & Wodak-Leodolter, Ruth (eds.) (1977) 'Language Death' (International Journal of the Sociology of Language vol. 12). The Hague: Mouton. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com). Harrison, K. David. (2007) When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World's Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. New York and London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518192-0. Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X. Mohan, Peggy; & Zador, Paul. (1986). 'Discontinuity in a Life Cycle: The Death of Trinidad Bhojpuri.' Language, 62 (2), 291-319. Sasse, Hans-Jürgen (1992) 'Theory of Language Death', in Brenzinger (ed.) Language Death, pp. 7–30. Schilling-Estes, Natalie; & Wolfram, Walt. (1999). 'Alternative Models of Dialect Death: Dissipation vs. Concentration.' Language, 75 (3), 486-521. Sebeok, Thomas A. (Ed.). (1973). Linguistics in North America (parts 1 & 2). Current Trends in Linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton. (Reprinted as Sebeok 1976). Sharp, Joanne. (2008). Chapter 6: 'Can the Subaltern Speak?', in Geographies of Postcolonialism. Glasgow, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4129-0779-8. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. (2000). Linguistic Genocide in Education or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights? Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-3468-0. Thomason, Sarah Grey & Kaufman, Terrence. (1991). Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07893-4. Timmons Roberts, J. & Hite, Amy. (2000). From Modernization to Globalization: Perspectives on Development and Social Change. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-21097-9. External links [edit ]