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In the animal kingdom, the general term gland falls into two major categories with further subtypes falling under each of these.
An Exocrine gland is distinguished by the fact that it excretes its essential product by way of a duct to some environment external to itself, be it either inside the body or on a surface of the body.
An Endocrine gland is its counterpart. It secretes its essential product without the use of a duct directly into the bloodstream or else by diffusion into its surrounding tissue (paracrine signaling) where it often affects only target cells near the release site.
Examples of endocrine glands include the adrenal glands, located atop the kidneys and responsible for the secretion of certain hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol and others. The testes, sing: testicle, in males and ovaries in females are not only gonads, organs which generate male and female germ cells respectively, but are also endocrine glands in that they produce various androgens and estrogens together known as steroidal sex hormones.
Exocrine glands contain a glandular portion and a duct portion, the structures of which can be used to classify the gland.
Glands typically may be referred to by two or more means, though some terms are rarely seen. The names of the anatomists who first described them are often employed, as:
|Apocrine sweat glands||skin||coiled tubular|
|Bartholin's glands, Tiedmann's glands, vulvovaginal glands||vulva, vagina|
|Bauhin's glands, anterior lingual glands||tongue, near tip||nonserous or mixed|
|Brunner's glands, duodenal glands||duodenum||mucous||compound tubular|
|Bulbourethral glands, Cowper's glands, Mery's glands||penis, base||Pre-ejaculate|
|Ciaccio's glands, accessory lacrimal glands||eye|
|Cobelli's glands||esophagus, just above the cardia, in the mucosa||mucous|
|Duverney's gland||vagina, on either side|
|Eccrine sweat glands||skin||coiled tubular|
|Fränkel's glands||vocal cords, below the edge|
|Gastric chief cell, Wasmann's glands||stomach||serous|
|Glomus coccygeum, coccygeal gland, Luschka's gland or gangliona||coccyx, near the tip|
|Goblet cells||digestive tract, respiratory tract||mucous||simple unicellular|
|Henle's glands||eyelids, in the conjuctiva||tubular|
|Krause's glands||conjunctiva, middle portion||mucous|
|Lieberkuhn's glands||intestines, surface of mucous membrane||simple tubular|
|Littré's glands, Morgagni's glands||spongy portion of the urethra||racemose|
|Mammary gland||breast||compound tubulo-acinar|
|Montgomery's glands||mammary areola||sebaceous|
|Naboth's glands||cervix and os uteri||mucous|
|Olfactory glands, Bowman's glands||nose, olfactory region|
|Paneth cells||small intestine||serous|
|Gley's glands, Sandstroem's glands|
|Peyer's patches (or glands)||ileum, lymphatic glands|
|Prostate||surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder|
|Pyloric glands||stomach||mucous||simple branched tubular|
|Sebaceous gland||skin||sebum||acinar - branched|
|Skene's glands, Guérin's glands||vagina|
|Sublingual gland, Rivini's gland||mouth||mucus (primarily)||tubulo-alveolar|
|Submandibular gland||mouth||mixed (M+S)||tubulo-alveolar|
|Sudoriparous glands, Boerhaave's glands||skin|
|Sigmund's glands||epitrochlear lymph nodes|
|Suzanne's gland||mouth, beneath the alveolingual groove||mucous|
|Glands of Zeis||eyelids, free edges||sebaceous|