Exhumation of Richard III of England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

  (Redirected from Exhumation of Richard III)
Jump to: navigation, search
King Richard III, by unknown artist, late 16th century. The raised right shoulder was a visible sign of Richard's spinal deformity.

The exhumation of Richard III of England from his burial place within the former Greyfriars Friary Church in the city of Leicester, England, took place in September 2012.

The last king of the Plantagenet dynasty, Richard was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485, during the War of the Roses. His body was brought to Augustinian Greyfriars Friary in Leicester, where it was buried in a crude grave. Following the friary's dissolution in 1538 and its subsequent demolition, Richard's tomb was lost. An account arose that when the tomb was destroyed Richard's bones were thrown into the River Soar by the nearby Bow Bridge.

A search for Richard's body began in August 2012, initiated by Philippa Langley of the Richard III Society. The dig was led by the University of Leicester working in partnership with Leicester City Council. On the first day of the dig a human skeleton belonging to a man in his thirties was uncovered. The skeleton showed signs of multiple wounds and had a number of unusual physical features, most notably a severe curvature of the back. It was exhumed to allow scientific analysis, which found that the man had probably been killed either by a blow from a large bladed weapon that cut off the back of his skull, or by a halberd thrust that penetrated his brain. There were signs of other wounds on the body, which had probably been inflicted after death as "humiliation injuries".

The bones' age at death matched the age at which Richard died; they were dated to approximately the period of his death and were mostly consistent with physical descriptions of him. Preliminary DNA analysis also showed that mitochondrial DNA extracted from the bones matched that of two 17th-generation matrilineal descendants of Richard's sister Anne of York. On the basis of these points and other historical, scientific and archaeological evidence, the University of Leicester announced on 4 February 2013 that it had concluded "beyond reasonable doubt"[1] that the skeleton was that of Richard III. Two leading academics have since cast doubt on the validity of this conclusion and suggested that an "inquest-type hearing" should be set up to examine the findings.

It was subsequently announced that Richard was to be reinterred at Leicester Cathedral in early 2014. However, a legal challenge was launched to change the place of burial. In August 2013 the original decision was successfully challenged in court by a group calling themselves the "Plantagenet Alliance," and the burial decision is now subject to a judicial review. A judge granted the Plantagenet Alliance's request for a judicial review, as the original decision on the place of burial ignored a legal requirement for a public consultation. The Alliance believes Richard's personal desire was to be buried in York Minster, asserting that "It is well documented throughout the centuries that he wanted his remains to be buried in York, amongst his family".[2]

Death and burial[edit]

An 1864 conception of Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth Field

Richard was killed fighting Henry Tudor in 1485, at the Battle of Bosworth Field: the last major battle of the Wars of the Roses. Welsh poet Guto'r Glyn gave the credit for Richard's death to Sir Rhys ap Thomas.[3] Following his death, Richard was stripped naked and brought to Leicester[4][5] where his body was displayed for two days before being buried within the town's Franciscan Friary (Greyfriars, Leicester).[4]

Burial site[edit]

No 1, Grey Friars, County Offices for Leicestershire County Council from 1936 to 1965. It is on the site of the Herrick mansion.
Main article: Greyfriars, Leicester

In 1495, ten years after the burial, Henry VII made payments of £50 and £10.1s[6] for a marble and alabaster monument to mark Richard's grave.[7] Following the dissolution of Greyfriars in 1538, the monument was either destroyed or left to decay. Richard's body was said to have been "carried out of the city, and to have been thrown off Bow Bridge" into the River Soar. His coffin was reputed to have been given or sold to an innkeeper who used it as a drinking trough for horses. This story was not, however, universally accepted. According to the antiquary Christopher Wren,[note 1] after the monastery was dissolved, the place where it stood was incorporated into a garden which was subsequently purchased by Robert Herrick, the Mayor of Leicester. Herrick erected a monument on the site of the grave, in the form of a stone pillar three feet (1 m) high carved with the words "Here lies the body of Richard III, some time King of England." The pillar was visible in 1612 but had disappeared by 1844.[8]

The site was divided in 1740 and New Street was built across the western part of the Greyfriars site. Many burials were discovered when houses were laid out along the street. 17 Friar Lane was built on the eastern part of the site in 1759. In 1863 the Alderman Newton's Boys' School built a schoolhouse on the site. In 1866 the Leicester Corporation purchased the properties and in 1920 it was acquired by Leicestershire County Council, who built offices on the site in 1936. From 1965 the offices were used by Leicester City Council, while the rest of the site, where Herrick's garden had once been, was turned into a staff car park.[9]

In 2007, a single-storey building dating from the 1950s was demolished on Grey Friars Street in Leicester. This gave archaeologists the opportunity to carry out an excavation over the summer of 2007 to see if any trace of the medieval friary could be found. Very little was unearthed, apart from a fragment of a post-medieval stone coffin lid. The results of the dig suggested that the remains of the friary church were located further west than had previously been thought.[10]

Looking for Richard[edit]

In 1975 an article by Mrs Audrey Strange was published in The Ricardian (the journal of the Richard III Society) suggesting that the remains were buried under the car park in Grey Friars, Leicester.[11] This idea was later repeated, when in 1986 historian David Baldwin suggested that the remains were still in the Greyfriars area of the city.[12]

In 2004–2005 independent British historian Dr. John Ashdown-Hill tracked down two 17th-generation matrilineal descendants of Richard III's sister Anne of York. In 2009 Philippa Langley, secretary of the Scottish Branch of the Richard III Society, having been inspired by Ashdown-Hill's research,[13] launched a project with the working title Looking for Richard: In Search of a King, which she envisaged as "a proposed landmark TV special" with the premise of a search for Richard's grave "while at the same time telling his real story". The project was backed by several key partners – Leicester City Council, Leicester Promotions (responsible for tourist marketing), the University of Leicester, Leicester Cathedral, Darlow Smithson Productions (responsible for the planned TV show) and the Richard III Society.[14][10]

The project was announced in the June 2012 issue of the Richard III Society's magazine, the Ricardian Bulletin. Only a month later, however, one of the main sponsors of the project pulled out, leaving a £10,000 shortfall in funding for the planned excavation work. An appeal was launched which resulted in members of the several Ricardian groups donating £13,000 in only two weeks.[15]

Greyfriars project and excavations[edit]

Site of Greyfriars, shown superimposed over a modern map of the area. The skeleton of Richard III was recovered in September 2012 from the centre of the choir, shown by a small dot.

In March 2011 an assessment of the Greyfriars site began to identify where the monastery had stood, and which land might be available for excavation. A Desk-Based Assessment (DBA) was first conducted to determine the archaeological viability of the site, followed by a survey carried out in August 2011 using ground-penetrating radar.[10] Three possible excavation sites were identified: the staff car park of Leicester City Council Social Services, the disused playground of the former Alderman Newton's School and a public car park on New Street. It was decided to open two trenches in the Social Services car park, with an option for a third in the playground.[16]

The excavation was announced on 24 August 2012 at a press conference in Leicester. Archaeologist Richard Buckley admitted the project was a long shot: "We don't know precisely where the church is, let alone where the burial site is."[17]

Digging began the next day, the first trench measuring 1.6 metres (5.2 ft) wide by 30 metres (98 ft) long along a roughly north-south alignment was cut. A layer of modern building debris was removed before the level of the former monastery was reached. Two parallel human leg bones were discovered about 5 metres (16 ft) from the north end of the trench at a depth of about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) indicating an undisturbed burial.[18] The bones were covered temporarily to protect them while excavations continued further along the trench. A second parallel trench was dug the following day to the south-west.[19] Over the following days, a series of medieval walls and rooms were uncovered, allowing the archaeologists to pinpoint the area of the friary.[20] It became clear that the bones found on the first day lay inside the eastern part of the church, possibly the choir, where Richard was said to have been buried.[21] On 31 August, the University of Leicester applied for a licence from the Ministry of Justice to permit the exhumation of up to six sets of human remains. To narrow the search, it was planned that only the remains of men in their 30s, buried within the church, would be exhumed.[20]

The bones found on 25 August were uncovered on 4 September and the grave soil dug back further over the next two days. The feet were missing; and the skull found in an unusual propped position, consistent with the body being put into a grave that was slightly too small.[22] The spine was curved in an S-shape. No sign of a coffin was found; the body's posture suggested it had not been put in a shroud, but been hurriedly dumped into the grave and buried. As it was lifted from the ground, a piece of rusted iron was found underneath the vertebrae.[23][24] The skeleton's hands were in an unusual position, crossed over the right hip, suggesting they were tied together at the time of burial, though this could not be established definitively.[25] After the exhumation, work continued in the trenches over the following week, before the site was covered with soil to protect it from damage and re-surfaced to restore the car park and the playground to their former condition.[26]

Analysis of the discovery[edit]

The site of Richard III's grave, up against a wall in the choir of the former Greyfriars Church.
Archaeologists working in a trench in the playground of the former Alderman Newton's School

On 12 September, the University of Leicester team announced the human remains were a possible candidate for Richard's body, but emphasised the need for caution. The body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder higher than the other (to what extent would depend on the severity of the condition).[27] There was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were severe injuries to the skull.[28][29]

DNA evidence[edit]

After the exhumation the emphasis shifted "from the archaeological excavation to laboratory analysis".[29] There were several lines of enquiry: Ashdown-Hill had previously used genealogical research to track down matrilineal descendants of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, Richard's older sister, whose matrilineal line of descent is extant, through her daughter Anne St Leger. Academic Kevin Schürer subsequently traced a second unnamed individual in the same matriline.[30]

Ashdown-Hill's research came about as a result of a challenge, in 2003, to provide a DNA sequence for Richard's sister Margaret, in order to identify bones which had been found in her burial place, a Franciscan priory church in Mechelen, Belgium. He first tried to extract a mitochondrial DNA sequence from a preserved hair of Edward IV held by the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. This proved unsuccessful due to degradation of the DNA. He turned instead to genealogical research to identify an all-female-line descendant of Cecily Neville, Richard's mother.[31] After two years' work he found that a British-born woman who migrated to Canada after World War II, Joy Ibsen (née Brown), was a 16th-generation great-niece of Richard's in the same direct maternal line.[32][33] Joy Ibsen's mitochondrial DNA was tested and belongs to mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup J, which by deduction should be Richard's mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.[34] The mtDNA he obtained from her showed that the Mechelen bones were not those of Margaret.[31]

Joy Ibsen died in 2008. On 24 August 2012 her son, Michael Ibsen, gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team so that it could be compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation.[35] Analysts found a mitochondrial DNA match between the exhumed skeleton, Michael Ibsen, and the second unnamed direct maternal line descendant who shares a relatively rare mitochondrial DNA sequence,[36][37][38] mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J1c2c.[39][40]

Despite the match on the mitochondrial DNA, geneticist Turi King, continues to pursue a link between the paternally-inherited Y-DNA and that of descendants of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Four living descendants of Gaunt have been located, and their results are a match to each other. Although the Y-DNA from the skeleton is somewhat degraded, King said she hoped to amplify it enough to get a match to the four men.[37][41][42]


Osteology was employed in order to analyse the condition of the bones. They are generally in good condition and largely complete, apart from the missing feet, which may have been destroyed by Victorian building work. It was immediately apparent the body had suffered major injuries, and further evidence of wounds was found as the skeleton was cleaned.[25] The skull shows signs of two lethal injuries; the base of the back of the skull had been completely cut away by a bladed weapon, exposing the brain, and another bladed weapon had been thrust through the right side of the skull to impact the inside of the left side through the brain.[43] Elsewhere on the skull, a blow from a pointed weapon had penetrated the crown of the head. Bladed weapons had clipped the skull and sheared off layers of bone, without penetrating it.[44] Other holes in the skull and lower jaw were found to be consistent with dagger wounds to the chin and cheek.[45] One of the right ribs had been cut by a sharp implement, as had the pelvis.[46] There was no evidence of the withered arm that afflicted the character in William Shakespeare's play Richard III.[47][48]

Taken together, the injuries appear to be a combination of battle wounds, which were the cause of death, followed by post-mortem "humiliation wounds" inflicted on the corpse. Notably, the skull wounds would have been prevented if the person had been wearing a helmet. The body wounds indicate the corpse had been stripped of its armour, as the stabbed torso would have been protected by a backplate while the pelvis would have been protected by armour. The wounds were made from behind on the back and buttocks while they were exposed to the elements, consistent with the contemporary descriptions of Richard's naked body being tied across a horse with the legs and arms dangling down on either side.[45][46] There may have been further flesh wounds but these are not apparent from the bones.[47]

The head wounds are consistent with the description in a 1485 poem by Guto'r Glyn of a Welsh knight, Sir Rhys ap Thomas, having killed Richard and "shaved the boar's head". It had been thought that this was a figurative description of Richard being decapitated, but the skeleton's head had clearly not been severed. Guto's description may instead be a literal account of the injuries that Richard suffered, as the blows sustained to the head would have sliced away much of his scalp and hair as well as slivers of bone.[49]

The severe curvature of the spine was evident as the skeleton was excavated. It has been attributed to adolescent-onset scoliosis. Although it was probably visible in making one shoulder higher than the other and reducing the person's apparent height, it did not preclude an active lifestyle.[50] The bones are those of a male aged in his late twenties to thirties, consistent with Richard, who was 32 when he died.[47]

Radiocarbon dating and other scientific analyses[edit]

Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the age of the bones. The results came out at between 1430–1460[note 2] and 1412–1449[note 3] – both too early for Richard's death in 1485. However, mass spectrometry carried out on the bones found that their owner had eaten a good deal of seafood. This is known to distort the apparent age of a sample because marine organisms absorb carbon-14 at a different rate from terrestrial creatures, skewing the dating of any terrestrial organism that consumes a significant proportion of seafood. A Bayesian analysis found that there was a 68.2% probability that the true date of the bones was between 1475 and 1530, rising to 95.4% for between 1450 and 1540. This does not prove by itself that the skeleton is Richard's, but it is consistent with the date of his death.[51]

X-ray analysis was performed on the corroded metal found under the vertebrae, which had been thought to be an arrowhead that might have been embedded in the man's back. The analysis revealed it was a nail, probably Roman, that had been in the ground immediately under the grave by coincidence and had nothing to do with the body.[47]

Identification of Richard III and other findings[edit]

On 4 February 2013, the University of Leicester confirmed that the skeleton was Richard's.[52][53][54] The identification was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, soil analysis, and dental tests, as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance. Osteoarchaeologist, Jo Appleby commented: "The skeleton has a number of unusual features: its slender build, the scoliosis, and the battle-related trauma. All of these are highly consistent with the information that we have about Richard III in life and about the circumstances of his death."[52]

Caroline Wilkinson, Professor of Craniofacial Identification at the University of Dundee, led the project to reconstruct the face with a commission from the Richard III Society.[55] On 11 February 2014, University of Leicester announced the project headed by Turi King to sequence the entire genome of Richard III and Michael Ibsen — a direct descendant of Richard's sister, Anne — whose mitochondrial DNA confirmed the identification of the excavated remains. Richard III will be the first ancient person with known historical identity to have the genome sequenced. [56] The conclusion that the skeleton is that of Richard has, however, since been challenged by two academics, Michael Hicks and Martin Biddle, who have suggested that an "inquest-type hearing" should be held to examine the evidence.[57]

The story of the excavation and the subsequent scientific investigation was told in a Channel 4 documentary, Richard III: The King in the Car Park, broadcast on 4 February 2013.[58]

In July 2013 another skeleton, of unknown identity, was discovered in the same area, when an unmarked stone coffin was found with another lead coffin inside it through which the skeleton's feet could be seen.[59]

Plans for reinterment[edit]

St Martin's Place, the former Alderman Newton's Boys School, and projected Museum building.

The initial plan was to reinter Richard's body in Leicester Cathedral. However, the choice of burial site was controversial, as there were proposals for Richard to be buried at Westminster Abbey (alongside 17 other English and British kings), or in York Minster, which some claimed was Richard's own preferred burial site. The original decision was challenged in court and was the subject of a judicial review. The Conservative MP and historian Chris Skidmore proposed a state funeral should be held, while John Mann, the Labour MP for Bassetlaw, suggested the body should be buried in Worksop in his constituency—halfway between York and Leicester. However the Mayor of Leicester has said: "Those bones leave Leicester over my dead body."[60]

The present Royal Family made no claim on the body and so the Ministry of Justice initially confirmed that the University of Leicester would make the final decision on where the bones should be re-buried.[61] David Monteith, Canon Chancellor of Leicester Cathedral, said Richard's skeleton would be reinterred at the cathedral in early 2014 in a "Christian-led but ecumenical service".[62][63] He said it would not be a formal reburial but rather a service of remembrance, as Richard would already have had a funeral service at the time of burial.[64][65]

Richard's wife Anne Neville is buried within Westminster Abbey. It is uncertain where their only child Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, is buried; theories have included Sheriff Hutton Church, or Middleham, both in North Yorkshire.[66] Richard's parents are both buried in Fotheringhay Church, in Northamptonshire.

An outcry, and legal action brought by 15 of Richard's distant relatives, known as the "Plantagenet Alliance", has meant that his final resting place was uncertain.[67] Those bringing the legal challenge wanted Richard to be buried within York Minster, which, they believed, was his "wish".[2][67] The Dean of Leicester, however, called their challenge "disrespectful", and confirmed the Cathedral would not be investing any more money until the matter was decided.[68] In August 2013 a judge granted permission for a judicial review as the original burial plans ignored the Common Law duty "to consult widely as to how and where Richard III's remains should appropriately be reinterred".[2] Mark Ormrod of the University of York expressed scepticism over the idea that Richard had devised any clear plans for his own burial.[69] Mathematician Rob Eastaway calculated that Richard III may have millions of living collateral descendants saying that "we should all have the chance to vote on Leicester versus York".[70]

The judicial review opened on 13 March 2014 and was expected to last two days [71] but the decision was deferred for four to six weeks. Lady Justice Hallett, sitting with Mr Justice Ouseley and Mr Justice Haddon-Cave, said the court would take time to consider its judgment.[72] On 23 May the High Court ruled that there was "no duty to consult" and that "There was no public law grounds for the court to interfere", so that re-burial in Leicester could proceed. The reinterment ceremony was scheduled for spring 2015 with a new design for the tomb expected to be revealed in "three or four weeks".[73]

Leicester burial[edit]

In February–March 2013 Leicester Cathedral announced their procedure and preliminary timetable for the interment. The Cathedral planned that Richard would be buried in a "place of honour" within the cathedral.[74] The cathedral's design brief emphasised reluctance "to site a large memorial in the cathedral which would assume disproportionate significance in a modest building", and favours marking the place of burial with a flat ledger stone; perhaps modifying the existing memorial stone to Richard installed in the chancel in 1982.[75] The plans for the tomb were, however, unpopular. The Richard III Society argued for a table tomb, stating that "a ledger stone is not enough". A table tomb also seems to be the local preference as "in two separate polls, the citizens of Leicester have voted overwhelmingly for a table tomb".[76][77] In June 2014 the 1980 statue of Richard III was installed in the cathedral grounds, as part of a redesign of the Cathedral Gardens which were formally opened on 5th July 2014.[78]


Richard Buckley of the University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS), who had previously said that he would "eat his hat" if Richard was discovered, fulfilled his promise by eating a hat-shaped cake baked by a colleague.[64]

Leicester City Council has spent £850,000 to buy the freehold of St Martin's Place, formerly part of Leicester Grammar School, in Peacock Lane, across the road from the cathedral. The site adjoins the car park where the body was found, and overlies the chancel of the Greyfriars Friary Church. The council intends to convert the building into a Richard III museum.[60][79]

In Norway, archaeologist Øystein Ekroll hoped that the interest after the discovery of the English king would spill over to Norway. In contrast to England where, with the possible exception of Edward V, all the kings since the 11th century have now been discovered, in Norway around twenty-five medieval kings are buried in unmarked graves around the country. Ekroll proposed to start with Harald Hardrada, who is most probably buried anonymously in Trondheim, beneath what is today a public road. A previous attempt to exhume Harald in 2006 was blocked by the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage (Riksantikvaren).[80]


  1. ^ The father of the architect of the same name.
  2. ^ Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC)
  3. ^ University of Oxford's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit


  1. ^ "Richard III - The Scientific Outcome". Richard Buckley, University of Leicester, 4 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "Richard III: King's reburial row goes to judicial review". BBC News. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Rees, p. 212
  4. ^ a b Hipshon, p. 25.
  5. ^ Rhodes, p. 45
  6. ^ Ashdown-Hill, John (2013). The Last Days of Richard III (revised and updated ed.). History Press. ISBN 9780752492056. 
  7. ^ Baldwin, pp. 21–22.
  8. ^ Halsted, p. 401.
  9. ^ "Previously at this address". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c Langley, Philippa (June 2012). "The Man Himself: Looking for Richard: In Search of a King". Ricardian Bulletin (Richard III Society): 26–28. 
  11. ^ Strange, Audrey (September 1975). "The Grey Friars, Leicester". The Ricardian (Richard III Society). vol. 3 (no. 50): pp. 3–7. 
  12. ^ Baldwin, p. 24.
  13. ^ Warzynski, Peter (2013-08-01). "Richard III: Historian claims he was 'airbrushed out of king story'". This is Leicestershire. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  14. ^ "Meet Philippa Langley: the woman who discovered Richard III in a car park". Radio Times. 2 April 2013. 
  15. ^ Langley, Philippa (September 2012). "Update: Looking for Richard: In Search of a King". Ricardian Bulletin (Richard III Society): 14–15. 
  16. ^ "Where we dug". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  17. ^ Rainey, Sarah (25 August 2012). "Digging for dirt on the Hunchback King". The Daily Telegraph. 
  18. ^ "Saturday 25 August 2012". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  19. ^ "Sunday 26 August 2012". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "Monday 27 to Friday 31 August 2012". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  21. ^ "1 September". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  22. ^ "Lead archaeologist Richard Buckley gives key evidence from the dig site". University of Leicester. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  23. ^ "Wednesday 5 September 2012". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  24. ^ "Wednesday 5 September 2012 (continued)". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  25. ^ a b "Osteology". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  26. ^ "Saturday 8 to Friday 14 September 2012". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "Richard III Society pays tribute to exemplary archaeological research". University of Leicester. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  28. ^ "Richard III dig: Eyes of world on Leicester as Greyfriars skeleton find revealed". Leicester Mercury. 13 September 2012. 
  29. ^ a b Wainwright, Martin (13 September 2012). "Richard III: Could the skeleton under the car park be the king's?". The Guardian. 
  30. ^ "Richard III – University of Leicester press statement following permission judgment" (Press release). University of Leicester. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  31. ^ a b Ashdown-Hill, John (December 2012). "The Search for Richard III – DNA, documentary evidence and religious knowledge". Ricardian Bulletin (Richard III Society): 31–32. 
  32. ^ "Family tree: Cecily Neville (1415–1495) Duchess of York". University of Leicester. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  33. ^ "Richard III dig: 'It does look like him'". BBC News. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  34. ^ Joy Ibsen's mtDNA sequence: 16069T, 16126C, 73G, 146C, 185A, 188G, 263G, 295T, 315.1C in Ashdown-Hill, John (2010). The Last Days of Richard III. Stroud: The History Press. ISBN 9780752454047. 
  35. ^ Randy Boswell (27 August 2012). "Canadian family holds genetic key to Richard III puzzle". Postmedia News. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  36. ^ "Results of the DNA analysis". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  37. ^ a b "Geneticist Dr Turi King and genealogist Professor Kevin Schürer give key evidence on the DNA testing". University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  38. ^ Burns, John F (4 February 2013). "Bones Under Parking Lot Belonged to Richard III". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 
  39. ^ Rachel, Ehrenberg (6 February 2013). "A king's final hours, told by his mortal remains". Science News. Society for Science & the Public. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  40. ^ Bower, Dick (Director) (27 February 2013). Richard III:The Unseen Story (Television production). UK: Darlow Smithson Productions. This documentary mentions Richard III's mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J1c2c.
  41. ^ "Richard III: How the vital DNA evidence came together". Leicester Mercury. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  42. ^ Wade, Nicholas (11 February 2013). "Tracing a Royal Y Chromosome". The New York Times. 
  43. ^ "Injuries to the skull 1 – 2". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  44. ^ "Injuries to the skull 3 – 6". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  45. ^ a b "Injuries to the skull 7 – 8". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  46. ^ a b "Injuries to the body 9 – 10". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  47. ^ a b c d "What the bones can and can’t tell us". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  48. ^ Anon (5 February 2013). "Graphic: Richard III's injuries and how he died". The Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group Limited). Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  49. ^ "Richard III wounds match medieval Welsh poem description". BBC News. 15 February 2013. 
  50. ^ "Spine". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  51. ^ "Radiocarbon dating and analysis". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  52. ^ a b "University of Leicester announces discovery of King Richard III". University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. 
  53. ^ "The search for Richard III – completed". University of Leicester. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  54. ^ "Richard III dig: DNA confirms bones are king's". BBC. 4 February 2013. 
  55. ^ Cullinane, Susannah (5 February 2013). "Richard III: Is this the face that launched 1,000 myths?". CNN.com. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  56. ^ Press Release (11 February 2014). "Genomes of Richard III and his proven relative to be sequenced". University of Leicester. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  57. ^ Milmo, Cahal (28 March 2014). "Richard III expert: The skeleton in the car park may not be missing monarch after all". The Independent (independent.co.uk). Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  58. ^ "Richard III: The King in the Car Park". Channel 4. 
  59. ^ Kennedy, Maev (29 July 2013). "Sealed coffin found near Richard III grave site in Leicester". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  60. ^ a b Brown, John Murray (3 February 2013). "Tug-of-war brews over 'king in car park'". Financial Times. 
  61. ^ "Richard III set to be buried in Leicester as university makes final decision", Leicester Mercury, 7 February 2013. Accessed 11 February 2013
  62. ^ "Remains of England's King Richard III Found Under Parking Lot". KCEN. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  63. ^ "Richard III: New battle looms over final resting place". CNN. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  64. ^ a b Britten, Nick; Hough, Andrew (4 February 2013). "Richard III to be re-interred in major ceremony at Leicester Cathedral". The Daily Telegraph. 
  65. ^ "Richard III". Leicester Cathedral. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  66. ^ Pollard, A. J. (2004). "Edward [Edward of Middleham], prince of Wales (1474x6–1484)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition. Oxford University Press (published September 2010). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/38659. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  67. ^ a b "King Richard III burial row heads to High Court". BBC NEWS. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  68. ^ "Richard III remains: Reinterment delay 'disrespectful'". BBC NEWS. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  69. ^ Ormrod, Mark (5 February 2013). "A burial fit for a King". University of York. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  70. ^ "Richard III: More or Less examines how many descendents he could have". BBC. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  71. ^ "BBC News - Richard III remains: Judicial review hearing starts". Bbc.com. 2014-03-13. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  72. ^ "Richard III: Judicial review bones decision deferred". BBC News. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  73. ^ "BBC News - Richard III reburial court bid fails". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  74. ^ "Cathedral announces first step in interment process". Leicester.anglican.org. 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  75. ^ "Brief for Architects: Grave for King Richard III". Leicester Cathedral. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  76. ^ "Response to the Architects' Brief produced by Leicester Cathedral for King Richard III's reburial: press release". Richard III Society. 4 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  77. ^ Stone, Phil (July 2013). "From Darkness into Light". Military History Monthly 34: 10. 
  78. ^ Leicester's Richard III statue reinstated at Cathedral Gardens BBC News Leicester, 26 June 2014
  79. ^ Warzynski, Peter (3 December 2012). "Leicester City Council buys the site of its Richard III centre for £850,000". Leicester Mercury. 
  80. ^ Landrø, Juliet; Zahl, Hilde (5 February 2013). "Ønsker å grave opp de norske "asfaltkongene"". NRK (in Norwegian). 


External links[edit]

Coordinates: 52°38′02″N 1°08′11″W / 52.634025°N 1.136295°W / 52.634025; -1.136295