(Fig. 2) C is an exclave of B, but not an enclave of A since it also shares a border with D
An enclave is a territory entirely surrounded by another territory.
An exclave is a territory legally or politically attached to a main territory with which it is not physically conterminous because of surrounding alien territory.
These are two distinct concepts, although many entities fit both definitions. In Fig. 1 at right, suppose that the darker shaded area (marked B and C) is part of the same political or territorial entity, for example a sovereign state, and that the lighter-shaded area marked A is another such entity. Then C is an exclave of B, and is also an enclave within A. If C were independent it would be an enclave but not an exclave. In Fig. 2 at right, C is again an exclave of B, but is not an enclave, because it has boundaries with more than one entity.
The word enclave entered the Englishjargon of diplomacy in 1868. It derives from French, which was then the lingua franca of diplomacy. The word enclave and a number of related words exist in French, Spanish and Portuguese with the meaning of "surrounded, included, embedded, fixed" and they all ultimately derive from the Latin "clavus" which had two related meanings. One was "nail" (which is embedded and surrounded) and another was a knot in the wood (which is also embedded and surrounded).
The word exclave is a logical extension created three decades later. Although the meanings of both words are close, an exclave may not necessarily be an enclave or vice versa. For example, Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave of Russia, is not an enclave because it is surrounded not by one state, but by two: Lithuania and Poland; it also borders the Baltic Sea. Conversely, Lesotho is an enclave in South Africa, but it is not politically attached to anything else, meaning that it is not an exclave.
A country surrounded by another but having access to the sea is not considered to be an enclave, regardless of size. For this reason Portugal is not an enclave of Spain, and Gambia is not an enclave of Senegal.
Usage in other fields[edit source | edit]
In medicine, an exclave is a detached part of an organ, as of the pancreas, thyroid, or other gland.
Enclaves may be created for a variety of historical, political or geographical reasons. Some areas have been left as enclaves by changes in the course of a river.
Since living in an enclave can be very inconvenient and many agreements have to be found by both countries over mail addresses, power supply or passage rights, enclaves tend to be eliminated and many cases that existed before have now been removed. The governments of India and Bangladesh have been pressed to resolve the complex system of enclaves along their border – persons in these enclaves have complained of being effectively stateless. In 2011, India and Bangladesh signed a leasehold agreement regarding the Tin Bigha Corridor.
This refers to those territories where a country is sovereign, but which cannot be reached without entering at least one foreign country. One example was West Berlin, before the reunification of Germany, which was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany, and thus an East German enclave (many small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main one, some by only a few meters). De jure all of Berlin was ruled by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament, and that its citizens were exempt from conscription; however, this was not accepted by the East German government or the Soviet Union, which treated East Berlin as an integral part of East Germany. Two current examples include Büsingen, a true exclave of Germany, and Campione d'Italia, a true exclave of Italy, both surrounded by Switzerland.
Most of the enclaves now existing are to be found in Asia, with several in Africa or Europe. While administrative enclaves are found frequently elsewhere, there are only a few nation-level enclaves in Australia and the Americas, being maritime exclaves of Australia and Colombia.
Enclaved countries[edit source | edit]
Position of Lesotho within South Africa
Some enclaves are countries in their own right, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:
The principality of Monaco is not an enclave, although it only borders on France, because it also possesses a coastline and thus it is not completely surrounded by another country. Also The Gambia is not an enclave.
The Scottish Court in the Netherlands, at Camp Zeist near Utrecht, was temporarily declared as sovereign territory of the United Kingdom under Scottish law for the duration of the trial of those accused in the Lockerbie bombing, and was therefore an exclave of the United Kingdom, and of Scotland, and an enclave within the Netherlands. It was also so during the appeal of the man convicted. The court was first convened in 1999, and the land returned to the Netherlands in 2002.
San Colombano al Lambro is an exclave of the province of Milan at the junction beteween the Pavia and Lodi provinces. The exclave arose when the province of Lodi was carved out of the province of Milan, but a referendum in San Colombano indicated the locals' wish to stay in Milan. As a result, the commune is the only wine-producing area in the mostly urbanized province of Milan.
The Portuguese town of Estremoz is made up of two civil parishes (freguesias): the small Santo André and the big Santa Maria. Santo André corresponds to the old town (located inside the medieval walls), but excluding the citadel, which is an enclave inside the old town; the citadel belongs to Santa Maria, which also includes the entire new town (outside the walls) and the vast rural area around it. Thus, Santa Maria has an enclave (Santo André, the old town) with a second-order enclave inside it (the citadel).
Nagorno-Karabakh is arguably an ethnic enclave. It is a predominantly ethnic Armenian area inside Azerbaijan. The Nagorno-Karabakh War which lasted from 1988 to 1994 resulted in the area self-proclaiming its independence, but this has never been recognized by the international community, which tends to describe the current situation as a frozen conflict.
Székely Land is a Hungarian ethnic enclave within Romania, with its people calling themselves székely. Originally, the name Székely Land denoted an autonomous region within Transylvania. It existed as a legal entity from medieval times until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, when the Székely and Saxon seats were dissolved and replaced by the county system. Along with Transylvania, it became a part of Romania in 1920, according with the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, France. In 1938–1940, during World War II, post-Trianon Hungary temporarily expanded its territory and included some additional territories that were formerly part of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, under Third Reich auspices. It was later reduced to boundaries approximating those of 1920 by the peace treaties signed after World War II at Paris, in 1947. The area was called Magyar Autonomous Region between September 8, 1952 and February 16, 1968 a Hungarian autonomous region within Romania, and today there are territorial autonomy initiatives to reach a higher level of self-governance for this region within Romania.
Pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves are regions that are not conterminous with the main land region, that are not entirely surrounded by alien land or alien territorial waters, and that have land access only through a second country. Hence, they are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition.
Many pene-exclaves partially border the sea or another body of water, which comprises their own territorial waters (i.e., they are not surrounded by other nations' territorial waters). Alaska is the largest pene-exclave in the world. Because they border their own territorial waters in addition to a land border with another country, they are not true exclaves. Still, one cannot travel to them on land without going through another country.
Kaliningrad Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), a pene-exclave situated on the Baltic coast.
Cabinda (also spelled Kabinda, formerly Portuguese Congo) is a pene-exclave and a province of Angola on the Atlantic coast.
Oecusse, a district on the northwestern side of the island of Timor, is a pene-exclave of East Timor.
Point Roberts, Washington, is an unincorporated community in Whatcom County—located on the southernmost tip of the Tsawwassen Peninsula, south of Delta, British Columbia, Canada—that can be reached by land from the rest of the United States only by traveling through Canada.
Inaccessible districts are regions that are conterminous with the main land region but that are only easily accessible by going through a second country.
Jungholz is a village, also in Austria (in Tyrol), which is surrounded by German territory except for one single point on the summit of Sorgschrofen, where it touches the rest of Austria. As with Kleinwalsertal, road access is only through Germany.
Conversely, a territory that is an exclave but does not function as one (instead functioning as an adjacent part of the main nation) is deemed a "quasi-exclave".(Robinson 1959)
Subnational "practical" enclaves, exclaves and inaccessible districts[edit source | edit]
The southern part of the Province of Venice, Veneto, can be reached directly from the rest of the province only by boat. By land it can be reached only traveling through the Province of Padua because territorial continuity with the main part of the province exists only through some unconnected islands and islets.
Embassies and military bases are usually exempted from the jurisdiction of the host country, i.e., the laws of the host nation in which an embassy is located do not typically apply to the land of the embassy or base itself. This exemption from the jurisdiction of the host country is defined as extraterritoriality. Areas of extraterritoriality are not true enclaves as they are still part of the host country. In addition to embassies, some other areas have extraterritoriality.
Land owned by a foreign country[edit source | edit]
Some areas of land in a country are owned by another country and in some cases it has special privileges, such as being exempt from taxes. These lands are not enclaves and do not have extraterritoriality since, in all cases, there is no transfer of sovereignty.
The Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Bay and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it in Hawaii, United States, the place where James Cook was killed in 1779, is owned by the United Kingdom. An historian on the occasion of the 50th anniversary recorded in 1928 that the white stone "obelisk monument [was] erected to the memory of Captain Cook, about 1876, and on land deeded outright to the British Government by Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, about the same year, so that that square is absolute British Territory." Hawaii was a sovereign nation at the time. According to a recent writer, "The land under the monument was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877 and is considered as sovereign non-embassy land owned by the British Embassy in Washington DC. … the Hawaiian State Parks agency maintained that as sovereign British territory it was the responsibility of the UK to maintain the site."
National railway passing through foreign territory[edit source | edit]
Changes in borders can make a railway that was previously located solely within a country traverse the new borders. Since railways are much more expensive than roads to rebuild to avoid this problem, the criss-cross arrangement tends to last a long time. With passenger trains this may mean that doors on carriages are locked and guarded to prevent illicit entry and exit while the train is temporarily in another country.
Borders can also be in the "wrong" place, forcing railways into difficult terrain.
Bolivia is landlocked and has no access to the sea, but a rail route runs through Chile from La Paz to the port of Arica on the Pacific Ocean.
Due to inability to agree in 1963 on a shorter route through easy terrain, the iron ore railway in Mauritania originally had to use a longer route through a tunnel near Choum to avoid the territory of Spanish Sahara.
A similar problem may exist in Guinea, where 20 km long tunnel(s) through a hillspur at Naigaya (elevation 411 metres (1,348 ft)), Sicourou, Bokariadi and Feraya might be avoided by crossing the border into Sierra Leone at Yana (elevation 87 metres (285 ft)).
Senegal is practically and inconveniently divided in two by the sovereign territory of Gambia. The easiest way to travel from northern Senegal to the southern Casamance region is through Gambia via the Trans-Gambia Highway, with a connecting ferry being the only way to cross the Gambia River. The fare for the ferry crossing is a source of contention between the two countries.
The shortest and straightest route for a proposed east-west high-speed railway in Austria through Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck would pass under some mountains belonging to Germany.
In 2013, the shortest railway route from coal mines at Tete to a port at Nacala passes through Malawi. A route through all-Mozambique territory is roundabout.
Border shifts[edit source | edit]
Borders have occasionally been shifted for the purpose of avoiding an inconvenient arrangement. An example is the Gadsden Purchase, in which the United States bought land from Mexico on which it was planned to build a southern route for the transcontinental railroad. Owing to the topography of the area, acquisition of the land was the only feasible way to construct such a railroad through the southern New Mexico Territory.
Highway of one state passing through another state's territory[edit source | edit]
This arrangement is less common as highways are more easily re-aligned, as noted above. Examples include:
Between 1963 and 2002 the N274 road from Roermond to Heerlen, part of Dutch territory, passed through the German Selfkant, which had been annexed by the Netherlands after the Second World War but returned to Germany in 1963.
Road 402 between Podsabotin and Solkan in Slovenia, built when Slovenia was a state of Yugoslavia, passes through part of Italy. The road is confined by high concrete walls topped by fences; as Slovenia and Italy are now both signatories to the Schengen agreement, the barriers are little more than historical curiosities.
The Värska-Ulitina Road in Estonia, between the villages of Lutepää and Sesniki, passes through Russian territory. The stretch of road passing through Russia is flanked by barbed wire fences and guard towers. Stopping and/or getting out of your vehicle on the stretch of road is forbidden and the rule enforced by Russian border guards.
The road from Dubai to the tourist spot of Hatta, an exclave of the emirate of Dubai, passes through a small stretch of Omani territory.
A portion of New York State Route 17 passes through Pennsylvania but is maintained entirely by New York State. This includes the roadway and traffic lights at the interchange with US Route 220 and a short portion of Pennsylvania Route 199. Nevertheless, Pennsylvania police enforce traffic laws on this short stretch, where there is one overpass built and owned by Pennsylvania.
Hopkins Road north of Newark, Delaware, briefly enters Pennsylvania where the Twelve-Mile Circle meets the Mason-Dixon Line. The road is maintained by Delaware, and it appears that at one time Arc Point Road in Pennsylvania may have intersected here. Further east, Beaver Dam Road enters Chadds Ford Township, Pennsylvania at the intersection of Beaver Valley Road and re-enters Delaware about 0.5 miles later. The section of road in Pennsylvania is in rough shape, and it is unclear who is supposed to maintain this section.
Border infrastructure[edit source | edit]
Several bridges cross the rivers Oder and Neisse between Germany and Poland. To avoid needing to coordinate their efforts on a single bridge, the two riparian states assign each bridge to one or the other; thus Poland is responsible for all maintenance on some of the bridges, including the German side, and vice versa.
The Hallein Salt Mine crosses from Austria into Germany. Under an 1829 treaty Austria can dig under the then-Kingdom of Bavaria. In return some salt has to be given to Bavaria, and up to 99 of its citizens can be hired to work in the Austrian mine.
Neighbourly cooperation[edit source | edit]
The new Tijuana International Airport south of San Diego airport is a cooperative affair between California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico. The runway, control tower, emergency services, etc. are shared; however, passengers and freight are handled at separate facilities north and south of the runways.
The twin town of TornioHaparanda or HaparandaTornio lies at the mouth of river Tornio, Tornio on the Finnish side and Haparanda on the Swedish side. The two towns have a common public transportation, as well as cultural services, fire brigade, sports facilities etc.
The Basel Badischer Bahnhof is a railway station in the Swiss city of Basel. Although situated on Swiss soil, because of the 1852 treaty between the Swiss Confederation and the state of Baden (one of the predecessors of today's Germany), the largest part of the station (the platforms and the parts of the passenger tunnel that lead to the German/Swiss checkpoint) is treated administratively as an inner-German railway station operated by the Deutsche Bahn. The shops in the station hall, however, are Swiss, and the Swiss franc is used as the official currency there (although the euro is universally accepted). The Swiss post office, car rental office, restaurant and a cluster of shops are each separately located wholly within a surrounding station area that is administered by the German railway. The customs controls are located in a tunnel between the platforms and the station hall; international trains which continue to Basel SBB usually have on-board border controls.
^"The American Battle Monuments Commission". Retrieved October 29, 2012 "The site, preserved since the war by the French Committee of the Pointe du Hoc, which erected an impressive granite monument at the edge of the cliff, was transferred to American control by formal agreement between the two governments on 11 January 1979 in Paris, with Ambassador Arthur A. Hartman signing for the United States and Secretary of State for Veterans Affairs Maurice Plantier signing for France".