Eurasian Jay

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Eurasian Jay
A Eurasian Jay in England
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Corvidae
Genus:Garrulus
Species:G. glandarius
Binomial name
Garrulus glandarius
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies

33 (in eight groups) - see text

 
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Eurasian Jay
A Eurasian Jay in England
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Passeriformes
Family:Corvidae
Genus:Garrulus
Species:G. glandarius
Binomial name
Garrulus glandarius
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies

33 (in eight groups) - see text

The Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian Subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia. Across its vast range, several very distinct racial forms have evolved to look very different from each other, especially when forms at the extremes of its range are compared.

The bird is called jay, without any epithets, by English speakers in Great Britain and Ireland. It is the original 'jay' after which all others are named.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

A typical example of the atricapillus group in Israel

The Eurasian Jay was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. He recognised its affinity with other corvids, naming it Corvus glandarius.[2]

Eight racial groups (33 subspecies in total) are recognised by Madge & Burn (1994):[3]

Garrulus glandarius brandtii

Distribution and habitat[edit]

A member of the widespread jay group, and about the size of the Jackdaw, it inhabits mixed woodland, particularly with oaks, and is an habitual acorn hoarder. In recent years, the bird has begun to migrate into urban areas, possibly as a result of continued erosion of its woodland habitat.

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

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Calls of Eurasian Jay, Crimea, Ukraine

Its usual call is the alarm call which is a harsh, rasping screech and is used upon sighting various predatory animals, but the Jay is well known for its mimicry, often sounding so like a different species that it is virtually impossible to distinguish its true identity unless the Jay is seen. It will even imitate the sound of the bird it is attacking, such as a Tawny Owl, which it does mercilessly if attacking during the day. However, the Jay is a potential prey item for owls at night and other birds of prey such as Goshawks and Peregrines during the day.

Diet[edit]

Feeding in both trees and on the ground, it takes a wide range of invertebrates including many pest insects, acorns (oak seeds, which it buries for use during winter),[4] beech mast and other seeds, fruits such as blackberries and rowan berries, young birds and eggs,bats, and small rodents.

Breeding[edit]

Garrulus glandarius's egg,

It nests in trees or large shrubs laying usually 4–6 eggs that hatch after 16–19 days and are fledged generally after 21–23 days. Both sexes typically feed the young.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Garrulus glandarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 824. 
  3. ^ Madge, Steve and Hilary Burn Crows and Jays Helm Identification Guides ISBN 0-7136-3999-7 (although the text accompanying plate 11 states "some 35 races", the species account on page 95 states that 33 are recognised, and the sum of the numbers of races listed for each group is 33, indicating that the figure accompanying the plate is an error)
  4. ^ Burton and Burton 2002, p. 2457.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]