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An erogenous zone (from Greek ἔρως eros "love" and English -genous "producing" from Greek -γενής -genes "born") is an area of the human body that has heightened sensitivity, the stimulation of which may result in the production of sexual fantasies, sexual arousal and orgasm.
People have erogenous zones all over their bodies, but which areas are more sensitive than others vary. Some may resent stimulation that others find arousing. The stimulation of these areas can produce gentle, mild or intense arousal.
The erogenous zones may be classified by the type of sexual excitement that they provoke. Many are gently aroused when their eyelids, eyebrows, temples, shoulders, hands, arms and hair are subtly touched. Gently touching or stroking of these zones stimulates a partner during foreplay and increases the arousal level. Also, the gentle massage or stroke of the abdominal area along with kissing or simply touching the navel can be a type of stimulation.
Erogenous zones are either nonspecific or specific.
In these zones, the skin is similar to normal-haired skin and has the normal high density of nerves and hair follicles. These areas include the sides and back of the neck, the inner arms, the axillae (armpits) and sides of the thorax. An exaggerated tickle and anticipatory response are responsible for the heightened sensual response.
Specific zones are associated with sexual response, and include the lips and nipples in addition to areas of the genitals, notably the foreskin and corona of the glans penis, clitoris and rest of the vulva, and perianal skin. The neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of erogenous zones is partly unknown. These zones are apparently mucocutaneous skin. The rete ridges of the epithelium are well-formed and more of the nerves are close to the external surface of the skin than in normal-haired skin. These zones seems to have a high density of innervation, an efficiency of wound healing, and a capacity to stimulate generalized cerebral arousal. Moreover, a connection with the reward system seems also necessary.
Males can be aroused by stimulation to the sides of the glans and penis, upper side of the glans, the foreskin, the front side of the scrotum, the skin between the scrotum and anus perineum, and around the anus. The prostate gland may be stimulated from inside the rectum, such as by anal sex, or by applying pressure on the base of the perineum near the anus. Men who report the sensation of prostate and seminal vesicles stimulation often give descriptions similar to females' accounts of G-spot stimulation.
The foreskin, which carries the ridged band and lower frenular delta, has mucocutaneous end-organs extending from the distal margin to the point where hairy skin starts. The thin dermis and minimal subcutaneous tissue results in closely set nerve networks. Vater-Pacini corpuscles are present. The mucocutaneous end-organs are formed after birth, with few in newborn infants and many well-organized endings in adults.
Sorrels et al. (2007) carried out their work in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. They studied 163 male subjects which included both circumcised and men with intact foreskins. Nineteen locations on the penis were tested with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament touch-test. The glans of the uncircumcised males was found to have greater sensation than the glans of the circumcised males. The area of greatest sensation on the circumcised males was the circumcision scar. Uncircumcised males had five areas located on the foreskin of significantly greater sensation than the circumcision scar on the foreskin. The preputial mucosa, the mucocutaneous boundary and the ridged band were found to be areas of great sensation on the uncircumcised penis. Taylor has postulated that the ridged band is sensitive to movement.
Schober et al. (2009) carried out their work in the northeastern United States. They studied 81 male subjects of whom only eleven had intact foreskins. The balance were circumcised. For that reason, Schober et al. excluded the foreskins of the foreskinned subjects from study. Their findings represent the erogenous quality of the circumcised penis. Ranked by self-reported degree of ratings of 'sexual pleasure' the most sensitive part of the circumcised penis according to Schober et al. is the ventral area 'underside of the glans', followed by "'underside of the penile shaft', 'upper side of the glans', 'left and right sides of the glans', 'one or both sides of the penis', 'upper side of the penile shaft', 'foreskin' (11 subjects), 'skin between the scrotum and anus', 'back side of the scrotum', 'front side of the scrotum', and 'around anus'".
Erogenous zones in the pubic area of females are parts of the vulva, especially the clitoris. The vagina also has concentrations of the nerve endings that can provide pleasurable sensations during sexual activity when stimulated in a way that the particular woman enjoys, but the outer one-third of the vagina, especially near the opening, contains the majority of the vaginal nerve endings, making it more sensitive to touch than the inner two-thirds of the vaginal barrel.
Within the anterior wall of the vagina, there is a patch of ribbed rough tissue which has a texture that is sometimes described as similar to the palate (the roof of a mouth) or a raspberry, and may feel spongy when a woman is sexually aroused. This is the urethral sponge, which may also be the location of the G-spot – a structure described as an area of the vagina that some women report is an erogenous zone which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal, powerful orgasms and female ejaculation. The existence of the G-spot and whether or not it is a distinct structure is debated among researchers, as its location may vary from woman to woman, appears to be nonexistent in some women, and scientists commonly believe that it is an extension of the clitoris.
The lips and tongue are sensitive and used during kissing and caressing.
Many people find a gentle scalp massage, or any stimulation of the hair follicles, to be anywhere from relaxing to extremely stimulating.
The neck, clavicle area and the back of the neck are very sensitive in both males and females, which can be stimulated by licking, kissing or light caressing. Some people also like being bitten gently in these areas, often to the point that a "hickey", or "love-bite" is formed.
Some people find whispering or breathing softly in the ear to be pleasurable and relaxing, as well as licking, biting, caressing and/or kissing it especially the area of and behind the earlobe.
The areola and nipple contain Golgi-Mazzoni, Vater-Pacini and genital corpuscles. No Meissner's corpuscles and few organized nerve endings are present. There are concentrations of nerve tissue in the area of ducts and masses of smooth muscle. The hair surrounding the areola adds additional sensory tissue. The mass of smooth muscle and glandular-duct tissue in the nipple and areola block the development of normal dermal nerve networks which are present in other erogenous regions and the development of special end organs. The entire breast has a network of nerve endings, and it has the same number of nerve endings no matter how large it is. Intense stimulation of a person's nipples may result in a surge in the production of oxytocin and prolactin which could have a significant effect on his or her genitals, to the point that some people of both sexes can achieve orgasm through nipple stimulation alone. Having the chest, breasts and nipples stimulated manually (hands), digitally (fingers, toes) and/or orally (mouth, lips, teeth, tongue) is a pleasurable experience enjoyed by many people of both sexes.
Many people find stimulation (kissing, biting, scratching, tickling, caressing) of the abdomen to be pleasurable, especially close to the pubic region. It can cause strong arousal in men and women, in some even stronger than stimulation of the genitals. The navel is one of the many erogenous zones that has heightened sensitivity. In a 1982 study of eroticism in dress entitled "Skin to Skin," Prudence Glynn claimed that the waist symbolized virginity and that it was the first place that a man would touch a woman "when indicating more than a formal courtesy".
The navel and the region below when touched by the finger or the tip of the tongue result in the production of erotic sensations. Madonna has told in an interview to the SPIN magazine (May 1985 issue), "When I stick my finger in my belly button, I feel a nerve in the center of my body shoot up my spine." Some research suggests that the navel and the genitals have a common tissue origin, and in some people this connection still exists so that stimulation of the navel will elicit a distinct tickle in the genitals.
Another erogenous zone is located near the base of the spine/tailbone.
The skin of the arms, and specifically the softer skin of the inner arms and across the creased mid-arm bend covering the ventral side of the elbow, are highly sensitive to manual or lingual stimulation. Caressing with fingers or tongue, more vigorous kneading, and butterfly kissing can initiate arousal and, in some cases, induce clitoral/vaginal orgasm or penile ejaculation without direct contact with the latter areas. The mid-arm bend is especially sensitive due to the thinner skin found there, which makes nerve endings more accessible. Arm sensitivity may be reduced or concentrated to a more narrow range by excessive muscularity or obesity on the one hand, or transformed to uncomfortable tenderness by excessive thinness on the other.
Some consider the armpits to be an erogenous zone. If pheromones exist for humans, they would likely be secreted by a mixture of liquid from the sebaceous glands with other organic compounds in the body. George Preti, an organic chemist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia and Winnefred Cutler of the University of Pennsylvania's psychology department, discovered that women with irregular menstrual cycles became regular when exposed to male underarm extracts. They hypothesized that the only explanation was that underarms contain pheromones, as there was no other explanation for the effects, which mirrored how pheromones affect other mammals.
The fingertips have many nerves and are responsive to very light touches, like the brushing of a tongue, light fingernail scratching or teeth stroking. The sides of the fingers are somewhat less sensitive and more ticklish. Both light and firmer touches work well at the junction of the fingers. Human fingertips are the second-most sensitive parts of the body, after the tongue.
The thighs can be sensitive to touch.
Because of the concentration of nerve endings in the sole and digits of the human foot, and possibly to the close proximity of the area of the brain dealing with tactile sensations from the feet and the area dealing with sensations from the genitals, the sensations produced by sucking or licking the feet can be pleasurable to some people. Similarly, massaging the sole of the foot produces similar stimulation. Many people are extremely ticklish in the foot area, especially on the bottom of the soles.
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