Erich Regener

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Erich Regener
Erich Regener.jpg
Erich Regener, May 1929
Born12 November 1881
Schleusenau, West Prussia
Died27 February 1955
Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg
CitizenshipGerman
NationalityGerman
FieldsExperimental physicist
InstitutionsAgricultural University of Berlin
University of Stuttgart
Alma materUniversity of Berlin
Doctoral advisorEmil Warburg
Doctoral studentsHans Hellmann
Known forInstruments to measure cosmic rays at various altitudes
 
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Erich Regener
Erich Regener.jpg
Erich Regener, May 1929
Born12 November 1881
Schleusenau, West Prussia
Died27 February 1955
Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg
CitizenshipGerman
NationalityGerman
FieldsExperimental physicist
InstitutionsAgricultural University of Berlin
University of Stuttgart
Alma materUniversity of Berlin
Doctoral advisorEmil Warburg
Doctoral studentsHans Hellmann
Known forInstruments to measure cosmic rays at various altitudes

Erich Rudolf Alexander Regener (12 November 1881 – 27 February 1955) was a German physicist known primarily for the design and construction of instruments to measure cosmic ray intensity at various altitudes.

Regener was born in Schleusenau (Wilczak) near Bromberg (Bydgoszcz), West Prussia. He studied physics from 1900 to 1905 at the University of Berlin under Emil Warburg and from 1909 worked with Heinrich Rubens. In 1911 he became professor of experimental physics and meteorology at the Agricultural University of Berlin. In 1920 he became the professor in experimental physics at the University of Stuttgart working alongside the theoretical physicist Paul Peter Ewald. During this time, he developed instruments to measure cosmic rays at various altitudes. Bruno Rossi wrote of this period that "In the late 1920s and early 1930s the technique of self-recording electroscopes carried by balloons into the highest layers of the atmosphere or sunk to great depths under water was brought to an unprecedented degree of perfection by the German physicist Erich Regener and his group. To these scientists we owe some of the most accurate measurements ever made of cosmic-ray ionization as a function of altitude and depth."[1] Ernest Rutherford stated in 1931 that "thanks to the fine experiments of Professor Millikan and the even more far-reaching experiments of Professor Regener, we have now got for the first time, a curve of absorption of these radiations in water which we may safely rely upon.".[2]

In 1937 Regener was forced into "provisional retirement" by the National Socialists. He then founded the private "Research Laboratory for the Physics of the Stratosphere" in Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance, which later became a part of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. In 1939 he was invited to work at the German Army-Air Force rocket research station in Peenemünde where he developed a spectrograph protected by a steel casing. This instrument, later called the Regener-Tonne was the first scientific payload for a rocket designed to reach high altitude. After a successful test flight the project was cancelled in September 1944 and the rockets were used as long-range missiles against Britain. In 1948 Regener was appointed the first vice president of the Max Planck Society. He was also cofounder of the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research with Walter Dieminger and was instrumental in attracting physicists back to post-war Germany.

The "Regener-Tonne" capsule potentially had a dual use as a warhead re-entry vehicle. It contained a parachute device. Regener overcame the problems of getting the parachute canopy to open at extreme high altitudes by inflating the parachute with compressed air. The capsule disappeared after Peenemunde tests in 1944 but later resurfaced in the United States.

Regener predicted a 2.8 K cosmic background radiation.[3]

Regener was the father of Victor H. Regener (25.8.1913-20.1.2006) [1] and Erika Regener. Erika Regener later married one of Erich Regener's students, Henri Daniel Rathgeber.

Publications[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ *Rossi, Bruno Benedetto (1964). Cosmic Rays. New York: McGraw-Hill. ASIN B0006BM358. ISBN 978-0-0-7053890-0. 
  2. ^ Geiger, H.; Rutherford, Lord; Regener, E.; Lindemann, F. A.; Wilson, C. T. R.; Chadwick, J.; Gray, L. H.; Tarrant, G. T. P. et al. (1931). "Discussion on Ultra-Penetrating Rays". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 132 (819): 331. Bibcode:1931RSPSA.132..331G. doi:10.1098/rspa.1931.0104. 
  3. ^ A. K. T. Assis and M. C. D. Neves. "Redshift revisited", Astrophysics and Space Science. 227:13-24, May 1995.

References[edit]