Ergocalciferol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Ergocalciferol
Ergocalciferol
Identifiers
CAS number50-14-6 YesY
PubChem5280793
ChemSpider4444351 YesY
UNIIVS041H42XC YesY
DrugBankDB00153
KEGGC05441 YesY
ChEBICHEBI:28934 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL1536 YesY
ATC codeA11CC01
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC28H44O
Molar mass396.65 g/mol
Melting point114–118 °C
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Ergocalciferol
Ergocalciferol
Identifiers
CAS number50-14-6 YesY
PubChem5280793
ChemSpider4444351 YesY
UNIIVS041H42XC YesY
DrugBankDB00153
KEGGC05441 YesY
ChEBICHEBI:28934 YesY
ChEMBLCHEMBL1536 YesY
ATC codeA11CC01
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC28H44O
Molar mass396.65 g/mol
Melting point114–118 °C
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Ergocalciferol is a provitamin form of vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. In isolated manufactured formats, it is marketed under various names including Deltalin (Eli Lilly and Company), Drisdol (Sanofi-Synthelabo), and Calcidol (Patrin Pharma). Ergocalciferol is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol.[citation needed]

Ergocalciferol may be used as a vitamin D supplement, and a 2011 clinical guideline[1] considered it to be as effective as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), which is produced naturally by the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light.

Sources[edit]

Lichen

Fungus, from USDA nutrient database[3]

Plantae

Ergocalciferol is produced in fungi synthetically through irradiation of ergosterol.[5] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in improving vitamin D status and not different from a vitamin D2 supplement.[6] Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast baked into bread is bioavailable.[7] By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed.[8] Claims have been made that a normal serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light provides vitamin D content to levels of 3,476 IU if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.[9]

Research concerning efficacy of vitamin D2 and D3[edit]

Conflicting evidence exists for how similarly D2 and D3 behave in the body and whether they are equally active or efficient in production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), the active hormone. Some preliminary studies indicate D3 is more potent,[10][11] while others report equal efficacy.[1][12][13] Both forms appear to have similar efficacy in ameliorating rickets[14] and reducing the incidence of falls in elderly patients.[15]

The metabolism of each appears to be different, with the vitamin D binding protein possibly having greater affinity for 25(OH)D3 than for 25(OH)D2, as shown in one study.[10] Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is sensitive to UV radiation and rapidly, but reversibly, forms other sterols which can further irreversibly convert to ergosterol.[citation needed]

Preliminary research[edit]

One study found low vitamin D2 levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease,[16] but this observational study did not prove cause or effect related to ergocalciferol and vitamin D2 deficiency in the diet.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Holick, M. F.; Binkley, N. C.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Gordon, C. M.; Hanley, D. A.; Heaney, R. P.; Murad, M. H.; Weaver, C. M. (2011). "Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96 (7): 1911–1930. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385. PMID 21646368.  edit
  2. ^ Wang, T; Bengtsson, G; Kärnefelt, I; Björn, LO (2001). "Provitamins and vitamins D₂and D₃in Cladina spp. Over a latitudinal gradient: Possible correlation with UV levels". Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 62 (1–2): 118–22. doi:10.1016/S1011-1344(01)00160-9. PMID 11693362. 
  3. ^ "USDA nutrient database – use the keyword 'portabella' and then click submit". 
  4. ^ "Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". 
  5. ^ "Vitamin D: A Rapid Review: Vitamin D2 and/or Vitamin D3". Medscape.com. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  6. ^ http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v65/n8/full/ejcn201153a.html
  7. ^ Hohman, E. E.; Martin, B. R.; Lachcik, P. J.; Gordon, D. T.; Fleet, J. C.; Weaver, C. M. (2011). "Bioavailability and Efficacy of Vitamin D2from UV-Irradiated Yeast in Growing, Vitamin D-Deficient Rats". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (6): 2341–2346. doi:10.1021/jf104679c. PMC 3235799. PMID 21332187.  edit
  8. ^ Koyyalamudi, SR; Jeong, SC; Song, CH; Cho, KY; Pang, G (2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". J Agric Food Chem 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276. 
  9. ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark". MSNBC. April 18, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  10. ^ a b Houghton, L.; Vieth, R. (2006). "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (4): 694–697. PMID 17023693.  edit
  11. ^ Trang, H. M.; Cole, D. E.; Rubin, L. A.; Pierratos, A.; Siu, S.; Vieth, R. (1998). "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2". The American journal of clinical nutrition 68 (4): 854–858. PMID 9771862.  edit
  12. ^ Holick, M. F.; Biancuzzo, R. M.; Chen, T. C.; Klein, E. K.; Young, A.; Bibuld, D.; Reitz, R.; Salameh, W.; Ameri, A.; Tannenbaum, A. D. (2007). "Vitamin D2 is as Effective as Vitamin D3 in Maintaining Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93 (3): 677–681. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2308. PMC 2266966. PMID 18089691.  edit
  13. ^ Biancuzzo, R. M.; Young, A.; Bibuld, D.; Cai, M. H.; Winter, M. R.; Klein, E. K.; Ameri, A.; Reitz, R.; Salameh, W.; Chen, T. C.; Holick, M. F. (2010). "Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 is as effective as an oral supplement in maintaining vitamin D status in adults". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (6): 1621–1626. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27972. PMC 2869510. PMID 20427729.  edit
  14. ^ Thacher, TD; Fischer, PR; Obadofin, MO; Levine, MA; Singh, RJ; Pettifor, JM (2010). "Comparison of Metabolism of Vitamins D2 and D3 in Children with Nutritional Rickets". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 25 (9): 1988–1995. doi:10.1002/jbmr.99. PMC 3153403. PMID 20499377. 
  15. ^ Fosnight, S. M.; Zafirau, W. J.; Hazelett, S. E. (2008). "Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Falls in the Elderly: Evidence and Practical Considerations". Pharmacotherapy 28 (2): 225–234. doi:10.1592/phco.28.2.225. PMID 18225968.  edit
  16. ^ Iltaf Shah; Petroczi, Andrea; Tabet, Naji; Klugman, Anthony; Isaac, Mokhtar; p. Naughton, Declan (2012). "Low 25OH Vitamin D2 Levels Found in Untreated Alzheimer's Patients, Compared to Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibitor Treated and Controls". Current Alzheimer Research 9 (9): 1069–1076. doi:10.2174/156720512803568975. ISSN 1567-2050. PMID 22876849. 

External links[edit]