Emanuel syndrome

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Emanuel syndrome
Classification and external resources
OMIM609029
DiseasesDB34403
 
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Emanuel syndrome
Classification and external resources
OMIM609029
DiseasesDB34403

Derivative 22 syndrome, or der(22), is a rare disorder associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including profound mental retardation, preauricular skin tags or pits, and conotruncal heart defects. It can occur in offspring of carriers of the constitutional chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q23;q11), owing to a 3:1 meiotic malsegregation event resulting in partial trisomy of chromosomes 11 and 22. An unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 11 & 22 is described as Emanuel syndrome. It was characterized in 1980.[1]

Causes[edit]

Emanuel syndrome is an inherited chromosome abnormality. It is caused by the presence of extra genetic material from chromosome 11 and chromosome 22 in each cell. In addition to the usual 46 chromosomes, people with Emanuel syndrome have an extra (supernumerary) chromosome consisting of a piece of chromosome 11 attached to a piece of chromosome 22. The extra chromosome is known as a derivative 22 or der(22) chromosome.[2]

Sign and symptoms[edit]

Infants with Emanuel syndrome have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and fail to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive).[3][4] Their development is significantly delayed, and most affected individuals have severe to profound intellectual disability. Other features of Emanuel syndrome include an unusually small head (microcephaly), distinctive facial features, and a small lower jaw (micrognathia). Ear abnormalities are common, including small holes in the skin just in front of the ears (preauricular pits or sinuses). About half of all affected infants are born with an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) or a high arched palate. Males with Emanuel syndrome often have genital abnormalities. Additional signs of this condition can include heart defects[5] and absent or unusually small (hypoplastic) kidneys;[6] these problems can be life-threatening in infancy or childhood.[4]

Genetics[edit]

People with Emanuel syndrome typically inherit the der(22) chromosome from an unaffected parent. The parent carries a chromosomal rearrangement between chromosomes 11 and 22 called a balanced translocation. No genetic material is gained or lost in a balanced translocation, so these chromosomal changes usually do not cause any health problems. As this translocation is passed to the next generation, it can become unbalanced. Individuals with Emanuel syndrome inherit an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 in the form of a der(22) chromosome. These individuals have two normal copies of chromosome 11, two normal copies of chromosome 22, and extra genetic material from the der(22) chromosome. As a result of the extra chromosome, people with Emanuel syndrome have three copies of some genes in each cell instead of the usual two copies. The excess genetic material disrupts the normal course of development, leading to intellectual disability and birth defects. Researchers are working to determine which genes are included on the der(22) chromosome and what role these genes play in development.[7]

Treatment[edit]

Emanuel Syndrome does not have a cure, but individual symptoms may be treated. Assessments of individual systems, such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, orthopedic, and neurological may be necessary to determine the extent of impairment and options for treatment.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zackai EH, Emanuel BS (1980). "Site-specific reciprocal translocation, t(11;22) (q23;q11), in several unrelated families with 3:1 meiotic disjunction". Am. J. Med. Genet. 7 (4): 507–21. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320070412. PMID 7211960. 
  2. ^ "Chromosome 22 - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome/22>.
  3. ^ "What Is Emanuel Syndrome, Symptoms of Emanuel Syndrome, Treatment for Emanuel Syndrome." Skin Care Tips, Natural Skin Care, Healthy Flawless Skin Tips, Natural Beauty Tips, Homemade Beauty Tips. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://www.skinsheen.com/skin-emanuel-syndrome-2683.aspx>.
  4. ^ a b http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/emanuel-syndrome "Emanuel Syndrome - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.
  5. ^ "22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome - GeneReviews - NCBI Bookshelf." Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1523/>.
  6. ^ Emanuel Syndrome - GeneReviews - NCBI Bookshelf." Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1263/>.
  7. ^ "Chromosome 22 - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome/22>.
  8. ^ "FDNA - Accessible Genetics -Comprehensive Information and Resources about Genetics." FDNA - Accessible Genetics -Discover Symptoms of Genetic Syndromes, Conditions & Disorders. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://fdna.com/learn-about-genetics/conditions-and-diseases/emanuel-syndrome>.

External links[edit]