Elstree

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Elstree
Elstree is located in Hertfordshire
Elstree
Elstree
 Elstree shown within Hertfordshire
Population5,110 (2011)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ175955
Civil parishElstree and Borehamwood
DistrictHertsmere
Shire countyHertfordshire
RegionEast
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townBOREHAMWOOD
Postcode districtWD6
Dialling code020
PoliceHertfordshire
FireHertfordshire
AmbulanceEast of England
EU ParliamentEast of England
UK ParliamentHertsmere
List of places
UK
England
Hertfordshire
 
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For the Buggles song, see Elstree (song).
Elstree
Elstree is located in Hertfordshire
Elstree
Elstree
 Elstree shown within Hertfordshire
Population5,110 (2011)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ175955
Civil parishElstree and Borehamwood
DistrictHertsmere
Shire countyHertfordshire
RegionEast
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townBOREHAMWOOD
Postcode districtWD6
Dialling code020
PoliceHertfordshire
FireHertfordshire
AmbulanceEast of England
EU ParliamentEast of England
UK ParliamentHertsmere
List of places
UK
England
Hertfordshire

Coordinates: 51°38′N 0°18′W / 51.64°N 0.30°W / 51.64; -0.30

A poster for Elstree Calling, a film made in 1930, named after the film studios in Borehamwood

Elstree /ˈɛlztri/ is a village in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire, England, on the former A5 road, which followed the course of Watling Street, approximately thirteen miles northwest of London. In 2011, its population was 5,110.[1] It forms part of the civil parish of Elstree and Borehamwood, originally known simply as Elstree.

The village often lends its shorter name to businesses and amenities in the adjacent town of Borehamwood, and the names of Elstree and Borehamwood are used interchangeably. Elstree is perhaps best known for the Elstree Film Studios, where a number of famous British films were made, and the BBC's Elstree Studios, where the TV soap opera EastEnders is made; these are both located in Borehamwood.

The local newspaper is the Borehamwood and Elstree Times.[2] Together with Borehamwood, the village is twinned with Offenburg in Germany and Fontenay-aux-Roses in France.[3]

Transport[edit]

Elstree & Borehamwood railway station[edit]

27 March 1954 Northbound steam train passing through Elstree & Borehamwood railway station.

Elstree & Borehamwood railway station is on the Thameslink Line between London St Pancras and Bedford. It was built by the Midland Railway in 1868, and is located just north of the 1,072 yard long Elstree Tunnels.[4]

The area of Borehamwood to the west of the railway line, formally Deacon's Hill, is colloquially called Elstree even though it is not contiguous with the village. Elstree South tube station was due to be an extension of the Northern line, planned in the 1930s, but never completed.

Road links[edit]

The old A5 road (Watling Street) goes through Elstree village, where it is designated as the A5183 road. Through the village, the road is called (from south to north) Elstree Hill South, High Street and Elstree Hill North. The 18th century Grade II listed building, Elstree Hill House, is still on Elstree Hill South, and used to be the home of the old Elstree School (see Schools). In the early 1900s, it was noted that:

".. the hill roads are remarkably direct and seldom curve to avoid the steep pitch, and it has been suggested that the roads were originally slides for the timber which used to be sent to London for fuel."[5]

Elstree Aerodrome[edit]

Elstree Aerodrome is licensed by the CAA and has a paved 717 yards long runway, suitable most for light aircraft and turbine powered G A aircraft. It also is one of the main helicopter centres for North London and is extending its provision in this area. In the early 1930s it was a grass landing strip for the local Aldenham House country club.[6] A concrete runway was put down during World War II, and Wellington Bombers were modified here.[7] On Saturday 31 November 1975, retired F1 driver and Embassy Hill car owner Graham Hill and his racing driver Tony Brise were piloting Piper PA-23-350 Aztec N6645Y from France to London, United Kingdom. Hill and Brise was killed when Hill's light aircraft crashed on Arkley Golf Course, 3 miles short of the airport.

London Transport works[edit]

London Transport's Aldenham Works was sited on the edge of Elstree close to the A41; it was opened in 1956, closed in 1986, and demolished in 1996. It is now a large business park.

Elstree Grange[edit]

Originally a 19th-century steam ship owned by the Houlder Brothers,[8] the town also lends its name to a series of ships called the Elstree Grange (rebuilt 1916, 1944, 1979),[9] at one time sunk during the Second World War.[10]

Buildings[edit]

Grade II listed buildings[edit]

Holly Bush public house (15th century)
House at Elstree designed by E.J. May, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887.

Elstree is home to a number of Grade II listed buildings, including some at Grade II* (particularly important buildings), such as:

Laura Ashley The Manor Hotel[edit]

Laura Ashley The Manor Hotel, formerly known as the Edgwarebury Hotel,[15] is located on Barnet Lane, and operated by Corus Hotels.[16] The Tudor-style building dates back to 1540, was converted into a hotel in the 1960s, and has featured in many TV and film productions, such as the 1968 Hammer Horror classic, The Devil Rides Out. Notable guests have included Peter Sellers, Tom Cruise, John Cleese and Stanley Kubrick.[17] It was the country home of armaments manufacturer and First Baronet Sir (Arthur) Trevor Dawson, (1866–1931).[18]

Other buildings[edit]

A house in Elstree designed by architect Edward John May (1853–1941) was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887. St Nicholas Parish Church was designed by English architect Philip Charles Hardwick.[19]

Schools[edit]

Elstree is home to Aldenham School, and Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, both independent public schools (ie. fee-paying), Haberdashers' Aske's School for Girls, and St Nicholas Church of England V.A Primary School.[20]

Earlier schools[edit]

Since the 1780s, a private school has been located in Elstree.[21]

Elstree School, a boys' preparatory school, was located in Elstree from 1848 until 1938 before moving to Woolhampton, Berkshire before the outbreak of the Second World War.

Hillside School was located in Elstree between 1874 and 1886, before eventually becoming Dorset House School in 1905,[21][22] (not to be confused with Hillside School in nearby Borehamwood.)

Recreation[edit]

Sport[edit]

Elstree Cricket Club was formed in 1878,[23] but no longer play in the Herts Saracens League.[24][25] 18-hole Radlett Park Golf Club was founded in 1984,[26] having recently being renamed from Elstree Golf & Country Club.[27] It is closer to Elstree than Radlett.

Hatch End Cricket Club also play in Elstree. They participate in the Herts Saracens League.

Leisure[edit]

Section 15 of the London Outer Orbital Path (London Loop) goes through Elstree,[28] before continuing as Section 16, a 10-mile (16 km) walk from Elstree to Cockfosters.[29][30]

Business and local services[edit]

Bush, Alba and Cyber-Duck are based in Elstree. There is a local doctor's practice called Shopwick Surgery. There is one convenience store, pubs and a restaurant. A liberial synagogue and the newly built shteibel are off Elstree Hill.

Synagogue[edit]

Elstree is home to Ohr Yisrael Synagogue, a warm and friendly Orthodox synagogue with affiliation to the Federation of Synagogues

Parks[edit]

Tykes Water bridge

Aldenham Country Park is both a recreational facility and a breeding centre for rare livestock. Section 15 of the London Loop walk passes by.[28] In 1873 nearby Tykes Water stream was dammed in order to create Tykes Water lake.[31] Tykes Water Bridge features in the open credits to the Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee film, Dracula A.D. 1972,[32] and used in several episodes of the Diana Rigg and Linda Thorson seasons of The Avengers, including the final Thorson opening titles.[33]

Elstree Reservoir[edit]

The dam was built in 1795 by French prisoners of war.[34] English watercolour landscape painter John Hassell writes:

"At the top of Stanmore Hill we enter on Bushy Heath, and at some distance on the right in the valley catch a view of the celebrated reservoir, the property of the Grand Junction Company, on Aidenham Common, at the foot of the village of Elstree. This noble sheet of water occupies a space of considerable extent on the verge of Aidenham Common, which thirty years ago was a barren waste; here the improvements in agriculture are indeed conspicuous, for at this place a poor, sandy, meagre, wretched soil has now by good husbandry been converted into rich pasturage.
"The reservoir has all the appearance of a lake; and when the timber that surrounds it shall have arrived at maturity, it will be a most delightful spot. From this immense sbeet of water, in event of drought or a deficiency of upland waters, the lower parts of the Grand Junction and the Paddington Canals can have an immediate supply. The feeder from this reservoir enters the main stream near Rickmansworth, above Batchworth Mills, and supplies the millers' below with 300 locks of water, to whose interest the Duke of Northumberland is a perpetual trustee."[35]

In 1886, the Photographic Society of Great Britain featured an exhibition of photos of Elstree Reservoir by Edgar Clifton.[36] During World War I, then Major Keith Caldwell with No. 74 Squadron RAF, used Elstree Reservoir for target practice.[37] In 1918, one of the pilots accidentally killed a local resident when his machine gun misfired.[38]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Elstree
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)6
(43)
7
(45)
9
(48)
12
(54)
16
(61)
18
(64)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
14
(57)
9
(48)
7
(45)
13.3
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F)1
(34)
1
(34)
2
(36)
4
(39)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
11
(52)
10
(50)
7
(45)
3
(37)
2
(36)
5.6
(42.2)
Precipitation mm (inches)69.6
(2.74)
47.2
(1.858)
54.1
(2.13)
53.1
(2.091)
49.8
(1.961)
60.5
(2.382)
41.1
(1.618)
53.6
(2.11)
61.0
(2.402)
74.4
(2.929)
66.0
(2.598)
67.6
(2.661)
698
(27.48)
Source: Monthly averages for Borehamwood, United Kingdom The Weather Channel'.' Retrieved 15 October 2011

History[edit]

Elstree War Memorial, Elstree Hill North

Etymology[edit]

The name "Elstree" derives from the Anglo-Saxon phrase "Tidwulf's Tree", which is mentioned as "Tidulfres treow" in an 11–12th-century manuscript of an A.D. 786 charter.[39][40] It is thought that "the "T" being lost in the wrong division of 'aet Tidwulfes treo'"[41] (meaning "at Tidwulf's Tree").

In 1723, topographer John Norden noted in his book Speculum Britanniae, that in the country of Hartfordshire (sic) was one "Elstre or Eglestre".[42] In an earlier edition, he writes:[43]

"ELSTREE n. 20. in OFFAES grant EAGLESTRE
Nemus aquilinum: a place wherit may be thought Eagles bredd in time past, for though it be nowe hilly and heathy – it hath beene replenished with stately trees, fit for such fowle to breede and harbour in. It is parcell of the libertie of S. Albans.

Nemus aquilinum is the Latin for "grove of eagles".

Robinson Crusoe author, Daniel Defoe wrote in his 1748 travel guide that:

"Idlestrey or Elstre, is a Village on the Roman Watling-street, on the very Edge of Middlesex; but it is chiefly noted for its Situation, near Brockly-hill, by Stanmore, which affords a lovely View cross Middlesex, over the Thames, into Surry."[44]

In 1811, topographer Daniel Lysons writes:

"The name of this place has been variously written; — Eaglestree, Elstree, Ilstrye, Idlestrye, etc. Norden says that it is called, in Offa's grant to the Abbey of St. Alban's, Eaglestree, that is, says he, "Nemus aquilinum, a 'place where it may be thought that eagles bred in time past'." It has been derived also from Idel-street, i.e. the noble road; and Ill-street, the decayed road. May it not have been, rather, a corruption of Eald-street, the old road, i.e. the ancient Watling-street, upon which it is situated?"[45]

5th century: Battle of Ailestreu (Elstree)[edit]

In the 5th century, British warlord Vortigern and his two sons, Vortimer and Catigern, took part in the Battle of Elstree, then called the Battle of Ailestreu,[46] where the Saxon Horsa was killed. It's possible there is confusion with the Battle of Aylesbury. George Moberly writes:

"Nennius, M.H.B. p. 69, calls the place of battle where Hors fell Episford; Britannicè 'Sathenegabail' = the Saxon battle. The Saxon Chronicle, ad a. 455, calls it Ægæles-threp, and Henry of Huntingdon, M.H.B. p. 708, Ailestreu. This would naturally be Elstree, of which name there is a place in Herts; but Beda's description of its situation has caused it rather to be referred to Aylesford in Kent, near which is a small village called Horsted."[47]

16th – 18th centuries[edit]

The Manor of Elstree was formerly included in the Manor of Parkbury, and belonged to the Abbey of St. Albans. On the Dissolution of the Monasteries, it was granted by Henry VIII, to Anthony Denny (1501–1549).[48][49]

In 1607, Anthony Denny's grandson Edward Denny sold part of the estate, with all manorial rights, to Robert Briscoe, who sold it the same year to Sir Baptist Hicks. Part of the estate became the Manor of Boreham, and was sold to Edward Beauchamp. It remained with the Beauchamp-Proctor family until 1748,[50] when it was sold to James West, M.P. for St. Albans, who, in or about 1751, alienated it to a Mr Gulston of Widdial[clarification needed]. Gulston then sold it to a Mr Pigfatt, a gunsmith, who, within a few years, conveyed it to Thomas Jemmet. In 1774 it was purchased from Mr Jemmet by the late George Byng, M.P. for Middlesex, who passed it on to his son, by which time the estate was called the Manor of Boreham.[48]

In 1776, the House of Lords granted:

"An Act for dividing and closing the Common or Waste Ground, called Boreham Wood Common, in the Parish of Elstree otherwise Idletree, in the County of Hertford."[51]

In 1796 topographer Daniel Lysons writes:

"The parish of Elstree contains about 3,000 acres of land, which is divided between arable and pasture nearly in an equal proportion. The soil is, for the most part, clay. Boreham Wood, a waste of nearly 700 acres, was inclosed about the year 1778, and is now in culture. This parish pays the sum of £151 11s 0d to the land-tax, which is raised by a rate of about 1s 9d in the pound".[52]

Murders[edit]

The burial of William Weare at the parish church in Elstree.

Martha Ray murder[edit]

The Elstree Murder of Eliza Ebborn on 17 August 1882 by George Stratton, as illustrated in The Illustrated Police News Saturday, 11 November 1882

In 1779, Martha Ray (c. 1742–1779), singer and mistress of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, was buried in the parish church (illustrated, right) after she had been shot dead by the Rev. James Hackman, Rector of Wiveton in Norfolk.[53]

The Elstree murder of William Weare[edit]

In 1823 Elstree became notorious for the Elstree murder of William Weare, killed in Radlett and the body disposed of in a pond in Elstree by John Thurtell.[54] The incident was recalled by Charles Dickens in his Weekly Journal.[55] An inquest of the deceased was held on 31 October by county coroner Benjamin Rooke at the local Artichoke public house.[56]

The Elstree murder of Eliza Ebborn[edit]

On 17 August 1882, Eliza Ebborn of Watford was murdered by 24-year-old shoemaker George Stratton, who was subsequently sentenced to death.[57][58] She was buried at Elstree Parish Church.[59]

Administrative districts[edit]

Elstree Rural District armorial bearings (1957–1974)

Elstree used to be in the Hundred of Cashio, also known as the Liberty of St Albans.

Elstree Rural District[edit]

From 1941 to 1974, Elstree Rural District was the local government area, before being abolished and merged with Hertsmere. On 20 March 1957, Armorial Bearings were granted. The arms and crest are described as follows:

The background of royal ermine, represents the royal visits to and associations with the district, principally the visit of Henry VIII and his court to Tyttenhanger in 1525 to avoid the "sweatinge sicknesse" and the visits of Charles II to Salisbury Hall in Shenley. The oak tree with the Saxon crown represents Saxon Elstree – "Tidwulf's tree" – around which the district has grown. The tree also represents Boreham Wood and the district's woodlands, the gold acorns symbolize growth and prosperity. The waves at the base represent the River Colne, Aldenham Reservoir and link with the waves in the arms of the Hertfordshire CC and the Greater London Council.The gold saltire on blue is from the arms of the Abbey of St. Albans, the manor of Elstree came into the possession of the Abbey in 1188, and Tyttenhanger in Ridge stands on the site of a former possession of the Abbey, and the whole area lies in the Liberty of St. Albans. The scallop shells, the badge of pilgrims, recalls their passage along Watling Street through Elstree to St. Albans.
The hart is from one of the supporters of the County Council arms, wearing a mural crown, symbol of civic government. The spool of film (unique in civic heraldry) recalls the industry which had made the name of Elstree and Boreham Wood so widely known in modern times.
The motto is taken from the wall of Shenley Cage, and also links with the County motto "Trust and fear not". "[60]

Clubs, societies and organisations[edit]

References in the media[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

Napoleon's Death Mask, made in 1821 by Elstree resident, Francis Burton M.D., the uncle of explorer Richard Francis Burton
See also notable pupils at:
(a) Aldenham School (b) Elstree School before it moved in 1938, (b) Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, (c) Haberdashers' Aske's School for Girls

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population Density, 2011 (QS102EW)", Neighbourhood Statistics, 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 3 February 2011
  2. ^ Borehamwood and Elstree Times (Website). This was originally the Boreham Wood and Elstree Post, and before that, Boreham Wood & Elstree Local (see British Library record)
  3. ^ "The Borehamwood and Elstree Twin Town Association" website. Retrieved 22 September 2011
  4. ^ E. A. Labrum, Civil engineering heritage: Eastern and central England, Publisher Thomas Telford, 1994, ISBN 0-7277-1970-X, 9780727719706, 282 pages (page 197)
  5. ^ 'Parishes: Elstree', A History of the County of Hertford: volume 2 (1908), pp. 349–351. Date accessed: 20 September 2011. Refers to "Middlesex and Herts Notes and Queries, ii, 190"
  6. ^ Richard Riding and Grant Peerless, Elstree Aerodrome: The Past in Pictures, The History Press Ltd (26 November 2003), ISBN 0-7509-3412-3, ISBN 978-0-7509-3412-1, 192 pages. (Back cover)
  7. ^ John M. Houlder, C.B.E., "History of Elstree Aerodrome", at Firecrest Aviation Ltd website. Retrieved 20 September 2011
  8. ^ Report of the executive committee ... adopted at the annual meeting ..., Issue 15, Publ. Newport Chamber of Commerce (Newport, England), 1899 [1]
  9. ^ Marine news, Volume 54, World Ship Society, 2000 (page 578)
  10. ^ John Malcolm Slader, The fourth service: merchantmen at war, 1939–1945, Publisher Hale, 1994, ISBN 0-7090-4848-3, ISBN 978-0-7090-4848-0, 347 pages (page 41)
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  12. ^ "Aldenham House and Stable Block", List entry Number: 1346891, at English Heritage. Retrieved 20 September 2011
  13. ^ Hermann Muthesius, The English House, Volume 2, Publisher Frances Lincoln ltd, 2006, ISBN 0-7112-2688-1, ISBN 978-0-7112-2688-3, 768 pages (pages 188–190)
  14. ^ "The Leys", List entry Number: 1263392, at English Heritage. Retrieved 20 September 2011
  15. ^ "The Hotel". Laura Ashley Hotels. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  16. ^ The Edgwarebury Hotel, website. Retrieved 20 September 2011
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  22. ^ "Our History" Dorset House School website. Retrieved 19 September 2011
  23. ^ "Elstree Cricket Club" at hertsdirect.org website. Retrieved 22 September 2011
  24. ^ "Elstree CC" at Play Cricket website. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  25. ^ Saracens Hertfordshire Cricket League, Elstree CC Club information, website. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  26. ^ "Welcome To Elstree Golf Club" at The Internet Golf Club. Retrieved 23 September 2011
  27. ^ Radlett Park Golf Club, website. Retrieved 23 September 2011
  28. ^ a b "London Loop: Section 15 Hatch End to Elstree" route details, at Transport for London Website. Retrieved 22 September 2011
  29. ^ "London Loop: Section 16 Elstree to Cockfosters" route details, at Transport for London Website. Retrieved 22 September 2011
  30. ^ London LOOP Description and Maps, at the Walk London Website. Retrieved 2 September 2011
  31. ^ Hugh Prince, Parks in Hertfordshire since 1500, Publ. Univ of Hertfordshire Press, 2008, ISBN 0-9542189-9-X, 9780954218997, 334 pages (page 191)
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  33. ^ Avengers fan site by John Dineley. "On Location 4: Tyke's Water Lakes". Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  34. ^ London LOOP, Section 15, Hatch End to Elstree (page 3)
  35. ^ John Hassell, "Tour of the Grand Junction", Printed for J. Hassell, 1819. (page 11)
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  37. ^ Ira Jones, King of Air Fighters: The Biography of Major "Mick" Mannock, VC, DSO, MC, Casemate Publishers, 2009, ISBN 1-932033-99-8, ISBN 978-1-932033-99-1, 340 pages. (page 198)
  38. ^ Flight magazine, Stanley Spooner, editor. No. 471. (No. 1, Vol. X.) 3 January 1918. (page 1014)
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  50. ^ "The twelve churches; or, tracings along the Watling Street", Publisher Rivingtons, 1860, 56 pages (page 40)
  51. ^ <Journals of the House of Lords, Volume 34, Publisher HMSO, 1774 (page 614)
  52. ^ Daniel Lysons, 'The Environs of London: Counties of Herts, Essex & Kent. Volume 4 of The Environs of London: Being an Historical Account of the Towns, Villages, and Hamlets, Within Twelve Miles of that Capital, Publisher T. Cadell, 1796
  53. ^ Authoress of Red Rose, The twelve churches; or, tracings along the Watling street, Publ. Rivingtons, London 1860, 56 pages (page 39)
  54. ^ John Thurtell, A full account of the atrocious murder of the late Mr. W. Weare: containing the examinations before the magistrates, the proceedings of the coroner's inquest, with the whole of the evidence; the confessions of Hunt, and the statements of the other prisoners, verbatim, publ. Sherwood, Jones and Co., 1823, 56 pages (full text at Google Books)
  55. ^ Charles Dickens, All the year round, Volumes 15–16, "Dec 8, 1866", Publisher Charles Dickens, 1866 (page 521)
  56. ^ John Thurtell, A full account of the atrocious murder of the late Mr. W. Weare: containing the examinations before the magistrates, the proceedings of the coroner's inquest, with the whole of the evidence; the confessions of Hunt, and the statements of the other prisoners, verbatim, Published by Sherwood, Jones, and Co., 1823. 56 pages (page 13)
  57. ^ The Illustrated Police News, Saturday, 11 November 1882; Issue 978.
  58. ^ "Alleged Murder at Elstree", The Times, Tuesday, 22 August 1882; pg. 8; Issue 30592; col E
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  60. ^ "Elstree Rural District Council", Civic Heraldry of England and Wales. Retrieved 25 September 2011
  61. ^ Elstree and Borehamwood Museum and Website. Retrieved 20 September 2011
  62. ^ Elstree, Borehamwood & Radlett mencap Society website. Retrieved 20 September 2011
  63. ^ Elstree Golf & Country Club, website. Retrieved 20 September 2011
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  65. ^ William Betham, The baronetage of England: or The History of the English baronets, and such baronets of Scotland, as are of English families; with genealogical tables, and engravings of their coats of arms, Publisher: Burrell and Bransby, 1803. (page 234)
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