Elon Musk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Elon Musk
Elon Musk in Mission Control at SpaceX.jpg
Elon Musk at SpaceX in 2012.
Born(1971-06-28) 28 June 1971 (age 42)
Pretoria, South Africa[1]
ResidenceLos Angeles, California
EducationQueen's University
The Wharton School (B.A.)
University of Pennsylvania, (BSc.)[2]
OccupationEntrepreneur, engineer, inventor, investor
Known forCo-founder of Zip2 and SpaceX, led PayPal and Tesla Motors
Salary$78,150,000 (2013)[3]
Net worthIncrease $8.8 Billion (September 2013)[4]
TitleCEO and CTO of SpaceX,
CEO of Tesla Motors,
Chairman of SolarCity
Political partyIndependent
Children5 sons
SignatureElon Musk
twitter.com/elonmusk/ elonmusk.com
Jump to: navigation, search
Elon Musk
Elon Musk in Mission Control at SpaceX.jpg
Elon Musk at SpaceX in 2012.
Born(1971-06-28) 28 June 1971 (age 42)
Pretoria, South Africa[1]
ResidenceLos Angeles, California
EducationQueen's University
The Wharton School (B.A.)
University of Pennsylvania, (BSc.)[2]
OccupationEntrepreneur, engineer, inventor, investor
Known forCo-founder of Zip2 and SpaceX, led PayPal and Tesla Motors
Salary$78,150,000 (2013)[3]
Net worthIncrease $8.8 Billion (September 2013)[4]
TitleCEO and CTO of SpaceX,
CEO of Tesla Motors,
Chairman of SolarCity
Political partyIndependent
Children5 sons
SignatureElon Musk
twitter.com/elonmusk/ elonmusk.com

Elon Musk (/ˈlɒn ˈmʌsk/; born 28 June 1971) is an American business magnate, investor, and inventor.[5][6] He is currently the CEO & CTO of SpaceX and CEO & Chief Product Architect of Tesla Motors.[7] After studying commerce at the Queen's School of Business for two years, Musk transferred to the University of Pennsylvania to obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in economics and a Bachelor of Science degree in physics.[2] He founded SpaceX and led Tesla Motors and PayPal.[8][9]

Early life[edit]

Musk was born in Pretoria, South Africa to a Canadian mother and a South African father.[10][11][12] Elon taught himself computer programming and at age 12 sold the computer code for a video game called Blastar for $500.[13]

Musk graduated from Pretoria Boys High School and moved to Canada in 1988 at the age of 17, after obtaining Canadian citizenship through his mother.[14][15] He did so to avoid service in the South African military,[13][16] and also because he concluded it would be easier to immigrate to the United States from Canada than from South Africa.[5] In 1992, after spending two years at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Musk transferred to the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania[2] and received an undergraduate degree in business[2] and a second degree in physics.[8] He moved to California to pursue a Ph.D. in applied physics at Stanford but left the program after two days to pursue his entrepreneurial aspirations in the areas of the Internet, renewable energy and outer space.[13][17] In 2002, he was naturalized an American citizen.[5]


Musk started Zip2, a web software company, with his brother, Kimbal Musk. The company developed and marketed an Internet "city guide" for the newspaper publishing industry.[8] Musk obtained contracts with The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune[18] and persuaded the board of directors to abandon plans for a merger with a company called CitySearch.[9] Compaq acquired Zip2 for US$307 million in cash and US$34 million in stock options in 1999.[19] Musk received 7% or $22 million from the sale.[18]

X.com and PayPal[edit]

In March 1999,. Musk co-founded X.com, an online financial services and e-mail payment company.[8][9] One year later, the company acquired Confinity,[18] which operated a subsidiary called PayPal.[18] Musk developed the person-to-person payment platform[18] and renamed his company PayPal.[20]

PayPal's early growth was due in large part to a successful viral growth campaign created by Musk.[21] In October 2002, PayPal was acquired by eBay for US$1.5 billion in stock.[22] Before its sale, Musk, the company's largest shareholder, owned 11.7% of PayPal's shares.[23]


Musk founded his third company, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), in June 2002[24] and is the CEO and CTO. SpaceX develops and manufactures space launch vehicles with a focus on advancing the state of rocket technology. The company's first two launch vehicles are the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets and its first spacecraft is Dragon.[25]

Musk and President Barack Obama at the Falcon 9 launch site in 2010

SpaceX was awarded a $1.6 billion NASA contract on 23 December 2008, for 12 flights of their Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station, replacing the Space Shuttle after it retired in 2011. Initially, Falcon 9/Dragon will replace the cargo transport function of the Shuttle and astronaut transport will be handled by the Soyuz. However, SpaceX has designed Falcon 9/Dragon with astronaut transport in mind and the Augustine commission has recommended that astronaut transport be handled by commercial companies like SpaceX.[26]

Musk has stated that he was influenced by Isaac Asimov's Foundation series,[27] and views space exploration as an important step in expanding—if not preserving—the consciousness of human life.[28] Musk has said that multiplanetary life may serve as a hedge against threats to the survival of the human species. "An asteroid or a super volcano could destroy us, and we face risks the dinosaurs never saw: An engineered virus, inadvertent creation of a micro black hole, catastrophic global warming or some as-yet-unknown technology could spell the end of us. Humankind evolved over millions of years, but in the last sixty years atomic weaponry created the potential to extinguish ourselves. Sooner or later, we must expand life beyond this green and blue ball—or go extinct." Musk's goal is to reduce the cost of human spaceflight by a factor of 10.[29] He founded SpaceX with $100 million of his early fortune. He remains chief executive officer and chief technology officer of the Hawthorne, Calif.-based company.[2]

In seven years, SpaceX designed the family of Falcon launch vehicles and the Dragon multi-purpose spacecraft from the ground up. In September 2009, SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket became the first privately funded liquid-fuelled vehicle to put a satellite into Earth orbit. NASA selected SpaceX to be part of the first program that entrusts private companies to deliver cargo to the International Space Station. This contract, which has a minimum value of $1.6 billion and a maximum value of $3.1 billion, has become a cornerstone of the Space Station's continued access to cargo delivery and return. In addition to these services, SpaceX's goals include simultaneously lowering the price of orbital spaceflight and improving reliability, both by an order of magnitude, while creating the first fully reusable orbital launch vehicle. In the coming years, Musk will focus on delivering astronauts to the International Space Station, but has stated his personal goal of eventually enabling human exploration and settlement of Mars. In a 2011 interview, he said he hopes to send humans to Mars' surface within 10–20 years.[30] On 25 May 2012, the SpaceX Dragon vehicle docked with the ISS, making history as the first commercial company to launch and dock a vehicle to the International Space Station.[31]

Tesla Motors[edit]

Musk observing an assembly demo at the reopening of the NUMMI plant, now known as the Tesla Factory (Fremont, CA) in 2010

Musk led the Series A financing of Tesla Motors, after he financed the company with Martin Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning, JB Straubel, and Ian Wright.[32] The Series A round included investment by several smaller investment groups, including SDL Ventures and Compass Technology Partners. As a result of the financial crisis in 2008,[33] Musk assumed the leadership of the company and currently serves as CEO and product architect.

Tesla Motors first built an electric sports car, the Tesla Roadster, with sales of about 2,500 vehicles to 31 countries. Tesla began delivery of its four-door Model S sedan on 22 June 2012 and unveiled its third product, the Model X, aimed at the SUV/minivan market, on 9 February 2012. Model X is scheduled to begin production in 2014.[34] In addition to its own cars, Tesla sells electric powertrain systems to Daimler for the Smart EV and Mercedes A Class, and to Toyota for the upcoming electric RAV4. Musk was also able to bring in both companies as long-term investors in Tesla.

Musk and Senator Dianne Feinstein next to a Tesla Model S (2010)

Musk has also favoured building a sub-$30,000 subcompact and building and selling electric vehicle powertrain components so that other automakers can produce electric vehicles at affordable prices without having to develop the products in house.[35] Several mainstream publications have compared him with Henry Ford for his work on advanced vehicle powertrains.[36]

To overcome the range limitations of electric cars, Musk said in an interview with All Things D in May 2013 that Tesla is "dramatically accelerating" their network of supercharger stations, tripling the number on the East and West coasts during the month of June, with plans for more expansion across North America, including Canada, throughout the year.[37] He is reported to have a 32% stake in Tesla, which is valued at $18 billion, as of November 2013.[38][39]


Musk provided the initial concept for SolarCity, where he remains the largest shareholder and chairman of the board. SolarCity is the largest provider of solar power systems in the United States. His cousin Lyndon Rive is the CEO and co-founder.[40][41] The underlying motivation for funding both SolarCity and Tesla is to help combat global warming.[42] In 2012, Musk announced that SolarCity and Tesla Motors are collaborating to use electric vehicle batteries to smooth the impact of rooftop solar on the power grid.[43]


On 12 August 2013, Musk unveiled a proposal for a new form of transportation between the Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area, after being disappointed with the approved California High-Speed Rail system. He named it "hyperloop," a subsonic air travel machine that stretches approximately 350 miles (560 km) from Sylmar (a northern district of Los Angeles) to Hayward (east of San Francisco) and would theoretically allow commuters to travel between the cities in 30 minutes or less, providing a shorter traveling time than even a commercial airplane can currently provide.[44] Musk's proposal would make travel cheaper than any other mode of transport for such long distances. The total cost of the whole system was estimated to be about $6 billion. The system is proposed to use a partial vacuum to reduce aerodynamic drag, which it is theorized would allow for high speed travel with relatively low power.[45] It was proposed to rely completely on solar energy for all power requirements.


Musk is chairman of the Musk Foundation, which focuses its philanthropic efforts on science education, pediatric health and clean energy. He is a trustee of the X Prize Foundation, promoting renewable-energy technologies. He sits on the boards of The Space Foundation, The National Academies Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, The Planetary Society, and Stanford Engineering Advisory Board. Musk is also a member of the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

He began a multi-million dollar program through his foundation in 2010 to donate solar-power systems for critical needs in disaster areas. The first such solar-power installation was donated to a hurricane response center in Alabama that had been neglected by state and federal aid. To make it clear that this was not serving Musk's commercial interests, SolarCity noted that it had no present or planned business activity in Alabama.[46] In a 2011 visit to Soma City in Fukushima, Japan, which had been devastated by tsunami, he donated a solar power project valued at $250,000 to this city.[47]

Musk had plans for a "Mars Oasis" project in 2001, which would land a miniature experimental greenhouse on Mars, containing food crops growing on Martian regolith.[48][49] He put this project on hold when he came to the conclusion that the fundamental problem preventing humanity from becoming a true spacefaring civilization was the lack of advancement in rocket technology. He has sought to address this by founding SpaceX to create revolutionary new interplanetary rockets.

His long-term goal is to help humanity through SpaceX by creating a true spacefaring civilization.[50] Musk's philosophy and description of what is needed to solve the problem are provided in the IEEE podcast "Elon Musk: a founder of Paypal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX"[51] and article "Risky Business."[49]

Musk joined The Giving Pledge in April 2012, offering an ethical commitment to donate the majority of his fortune to philanthropic causes.[52] Musk became a member of the campaign first popularised by Warren Buffett and Bill Gates with a class of 12 of America's wealthiest families and individuals, which included Arthur Blank and Michael Moritz.[52]

Car blog Jalopnik reported on 16 August 2012 that Musk was supporting an effort by Matthew Inman of The Oatmeal to preserve the site of Nikola Tesla's lab on Long Island, New York and turn it into a museum, the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe.[53]

Musk had been a supporter of the U.S. Political action committee FWD.us, which was started by fellow high-profile entrepreneur Mark Zuckerberg and advocates for immigration reform. However in May 2013, Musk publicly withdrew his support in protest of advertisements the PAC was running that supported causes like the Keystone Pipeline. It is common for PACs to support causes on both sides of the political spectrum in order to gain favor with lawmakers for the group's primary cause. Musk and other important members of the group, including David Sacks, pulled out of the organisation and criticized the strategy, calling it "cynical."[54]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Musk is a Director of the Planetary Society, a Trustee of The X-Prize Foundation and a member of the Stanford University Engineering Advisory Board. He has previously served as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.[71] In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Musk was ranked as the No. 10 (tied with rocketry pioneer and scientist Wernher von Braun) most popular space hero.[72]

Honorary doctorates[edit]


Musk has described himself as a workaholic who routinely invests 100 hours per week running Tesla Motors and SpaceX, often flying in a corporate jet.[75]

The SpaceX factory was used as a filming location for Iron Man 2, and Musk has a cameo in the movie.[76]

Musk previously owned a McLaren F1 sports car and a Czech-made jet trainer aircraft Aero L-39.[77] The 1994 model Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft used in the 2005 film Thank You for Smoking is registered to Musk (N900SX)[78] and Musk had a cameo as the pilot of his plane, opening the door for Robert Duvall and escorting Aaron Eckhart aboard.[79] Musk has attended the Burning Man festival, and says that he first thought up the idea for SolarCity at the 2004 festival.[43]


Musk lives in the Bel Air section of Los Angeles, California. Musk met his first wife, the Canadian-born author Justine Musk (née Wilson), while they were both students at Queen's University. They were married in 2000.[80] They announced their separation in September 2008. Musk announced in January 2012 that he had recently ended a four-year relationship with his second wife, British actress Talulah Riley.[12][81]

Musk has five children, all boys: a set of twins and one of triplets. He shares custody with Justine Musk.[12]

Tosca Musk, Elon's sister, is the founder of Musk Entertainment and has produced various movies.[82][83] Elon was the executive producer of her first movie, Puzzled.[84] His brother Kimbal was the CEO of a social search company OneRiot and owner of The Kitchen restaurant with locations in Boulder and Denver, Colorado.[85]

His cousin Lyndon Rive is the CEO and co-founder of Solar City.[40][41]


  1. ^ "Elon Musk (South African entrepreneur)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "SpaceX People: Elon Musk". SpaceX. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  3. ^ "Elon Musk". Forbes. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  4. ^ "Bloomberg billionaires (146)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-09-13. .
  5. ^ a b c Junod, Tom (15 November 2012). "Triumph of His Will". Esquire. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  6. ^ http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/p/Elon-Musk.htm
  7. ^ Elon Musk, "The World's Billionaires", Forbes, March 2013 .
  8. ^ a b c d Friedman, Josh (22 April 2003), Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space, The Los Angeles Times 
  9. ^ a b c Kidder, David; Hoffman, Reid (2013). The Startup Playbook: Secrets of the Fastest Growing Start-Ups from the founding Entrepreneurs. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. pp. 2224–228. 
  10. ^ The New Yorker Magazine 85 (23–30). 2009 http://books.google.ca/books?id=UaAeAQAAMAAJ&q=Maye+Musk+elon+father&dq=Maye+Musk+elon+father |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Masia, Seth (May 2011). "A Family Leads to the Installer Universe". Solar Today. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c Elliott, Hannah (3 March 2012). "At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire". Forbes. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c Belfiore, Michael (2007). "Chapter 7: Orbit on a Shoestring". Rocketeers. HarperCollins. pp. 166–95. ISBN 978-0-06-114902-3. 
  14. ^ Davis, Johnny (4 Aug 2007). "One more giant leap". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  15. ^ van Diggelen, Alison (7 February 2013). "Iron Man, Growing up in South Africa". Fresh Dialogues. Retrieved 1 November 2013. "I actually filled out the forms for her and got her a Canadian passport, and me too. Within three weeks of getting my Canadian passport, I was in Canada." 
  16. ^ Halvorson, Todd (29 January 2005). "Elon Musk Unveiled". Florida Today. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  17. ^ Inspirations with Elon Musk. OnInnovation. Retrieved 2010-06-24. 
  18. ^ a b c d e "Elon Musk Biography". Advameg. 23 August 2005. 
  19. ^ Junnarkar, Sandeep (16 February 1999). "Compaq buys Zip2". News. CNet. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. 
  20. ^ Ptacek, Megan (11 October 2000). "X.com Scraps Bank Strategy To Focus on PayPal System". American Banker. 
  21. ^ Friedman, Josh (22 April 2003). "Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space". The Los Angeles Times. 
  22. ^ "SEC 10-K" (PDF). eBay. 31 December 2002. 
  23. ^ "SEC 10-K". Paypal. 31 December 2001. 
  24. ^ Wayne, Leslie (5 February 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  25. ^ SpaceX .
  26. ^ Hinton, Christopher (13 August 2009). "NASA committee seeks more private industry involvement". Marketwatch. 
  27. ^ Carroll, Roy (17 July 2013). "Elon Musk's mission to Mars". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  28. ^ a b "75 most influential people: Elon Musk". Esquire. 1 October 2008. 
  29. ^ "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation". SpaceX. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  30. ^ "Elon Musk: I'll Put a Man on Mars in 10 Years". Market Watch (New York: The Wall Street Journal). 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  31. ^ Harwood, William. "SpaceX Dragon returns to Earth, ends historic trip". CBSNews. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  32. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com.au/tesla-co-founder-sues-elon-musk-2009-6
  33. ^ Morrison, Chris (15 October 2008). "Musk steps in as CEO". The New York Times. 
  34. ^ "Model X". Tesla Motors. 29 October 2012. 
  35. ^ Musk, Elon (2 August 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me)". Tesla Motors. 
  36. ^ Hamilton, Tyler (12 October 2009). "Tesla CEO following in Henry Ford's tracks". Toronto Star. 
  37. ^ Del Ray, Jason (29 May 2013), Musk: You'll Be Able to Drive Your Tesla Cross-Country by Year's End With Supercharger Expansion, All Things D .
  38. ^ "Tesla Should Be Profitable in 2013, CEO Musk Says – Video". Bloomberg. 
  39. ^ Melby, Caleb. "How Elon Musk Became A Billionaire Twice Over". Forbes. 
  40. ^ a b "Management Team". SolarCity. 
  41. ^ a b Kanellos, Michael (15 February 2008). "Newsmaker: Elon Musk on rockets, sports cars, and solar power". CNet. 
  42. ^ The unveiling of the Tesla Motors Electric Car. Autoblog. Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  43. ^ a b van Diggelen, Alison. "Tesla and SolarCity Collaborate on Clean Energy Storage". KQED. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  44. ^ "Hyperloop Designed for Quick, Convenient Commute". ABC News. Go. 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  45. ^ "Hyperloop". SpaceX. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  46. ^ "Elon Musk and SolarCity Donate Solar Power Project to Coastal Response Center in Alabama". Enhanced Online News. Business Wire. 
  47. ^ "Elon Musk Donates Solar Power Project to Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan". Business Wire. 
  48. ^ McKnight, John Carter (25 September 2001). "Elon Musk, Life to Mars Foundation". Mars Now, a weekly column. Space Frontier Foundation. 
  49. ^ a b Musk, Elon (June 2009). "Risky Business". IEEE Spectrum. 
  50. ^ Elon Musk (8 September 2006). "SpaceX wins NASA competition to replace Space Shuttle". SpaceX. 
  51. ^ Perry, Tesla. "Elon Musk: a founder of Paypal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX" (Podcast). IEEE Spectrum. http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/podcast/aerospace/space-flight/elon-musk-a-founder-of-paypal-tesla-motors-and-spacex.
  52. ^ a b Kroll, Luisa (19 April 2012). "The Giving Pledge Signs on 12 More Wealthy Americans Including Tesla's Elon Musk And Home Depot's Arthur Blank". Forbes. 
  53. ^ Hardigree, Matt (16 August 2012). "Elon Musk Pledges To Support Nikola Tesla Museum Project". Jalopnik. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  54. ^ Steven Kovach, Elon Musk Says He Quit Mark Zuckerberg's PAC Because It Was Too Cynical, 31 May 2013, Business Insider.
  55. ^ "The 2010 Time 100". Time. 29 April 2010. 
  56. ^ Dula, Art (16 June 2011). "Heinlein Prize Honors Elon Musk of SpaceX". The Heinlein Prize. 
  57. ^ Smith, Jacquelyn (14 February 2011). "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under". Forbes. Retrieved 2011-02-18. "To make this list, you had to be the chief executive of one of the 20 biggest publicly traded companies in the U.S. (as of Feb. 11, by market capitalization) with a CEO aged 40 or under." 
  58. ^ "Living Legend in Aviation Awards". Kittie Hawk Air Academy. 2010. 
  59. ^ "SPACEX SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES FALCON 1 TO ORBIT". Space Exploration Technologies Corp. 2008. 
  60. ^ "Space Community Gathers at National Space Society's ISDC 2009" (Press release). National Space Society. 17 June 2009. 
  61. ^ "Connie Awards". National Wildlife Federation. 2008. 
  62. ^ Michels, Jennifer (4 March 2009). "Aviation Week Reveals Laureate Award Winners". Aviation Week. 
  63. ^ "Rocket Man". R&D. 4 September 2007. 
  64. ^ "Automotive Executive of the Year". DNV Certification. 2010. 
  65. ^ Chafkin, Max (1 December 2007). "Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk". Inc. 
  66. ^ "Tesla Roadster". Index. 2007. 
  67. ^ "Tesla Motors team". Tesla Motors. 
  68. ^ "Caltech Elects Two Innovators to Board of Trustees". 
  69. ^ "2011 Churchill Club Awards". 
  70. ^ "2012 RAeS Gold Medal". 
  71. ^ Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power And Propulsion. The National Academies Press. 2006. 
  72. ^ "Space Foundation Survey Reveals Broad Range of Space Heroes". 
  73. ^ "Graduation show, Art Center College of Design, USA – 18 December 2010". Cumulusassociation.org. 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  74. ^ Surrey celebrates its honorary graduates, Surrey Graduate, Surrey Alumni Society, Autumn/Winter 2009.
  75. ^ Robinson, Aaron (9 September 2009). "Ampere Man" (PDF). Wheels Magazine. pp. 68–73. [dead link]
  76. ^ "Elon Musk in Iron Man 2". 2 April 2012. 
  77. ^ Wayne, Leslie (5 February 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times. 
  78. ^ FlightAware. "Aircraft Registration N900SK". `. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  79. ^ IMDB. "Thank You for Smoking: Full Cast and Crew". Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  80. ^ Musk, Justine (10 September 2010). ""I Was a Starter Wife": Inside America's Messiest Divorce". Marie Claire. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  81. ^ Lai, Jennifer (19 January 2012). "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter". Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  82. ^ "Tosca Musk". Musk entertainment. 
  83. ^ Tosca Musk at the Internet Movie Database
  84. ^ Elon Musk at the Internet Movie Database
  85. ^ "Kimbal Musk " The Kitchen Community". Thekitchencommunity.com. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 

External links[edit]