Elmwood Park, New Jersey

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Elmwood Park, New Jersey
Borough
Borough of Elmwood Park
Map highlighting Elmwood Park's location within Bergen County. Inset: Bergen County's location within New Jersey
Map highlighting Elmwood Park's location within Bergen County. Inset: Bergen County's location within New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Elmwood Park, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Elmwood Park, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°54′16″N 74°07′10″W / 40.904526°N 74.119514°W / 40.904526; -74.119514Coordinates: 40°54′16″N 74°07′10″W / 40.904526°N 74.119514°W / 40.904526; -74.119514[1][2]
Country United States of America
State New Jersey
CountyBergen
IncorporatedApril 18, 1916 (as East Paterson)[3]
RenamedJanuary 1, 1973 (to Elmwood Park)[4]
Government[8]
 • TypeBorough
 • MayorRichard A. Mola (R, term ends December 31, 2015)[5][6]
 • ClerkKeith Kazmark[7]
Area[2]
 • Total2.758 sq mi (7.143 km2)
 • Land2.648 sq mi (6.858 km2)
 • Water0.110 sq mi (0.285 km2)  3.99%
Area rank358th of 566 in state
32nd of 70 in county[2]
Elevation[9]46 ft (14 m)
Population (2010 Census)[10][11][12]
 • Total19,403
 • Estimate (2013)[13]20,094
 • Rank133rd of 566 in state
15th of 70 in county[14]
 • Density7,327.9/sq mi (2,829.3/km2)
 • Density rank55th of 566 in state
16th of 70 in county[14]
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code07407[15][16]
Area code(s)201[17]
FIPS code3400321300[18][2][19]
GNIS feature ID0885207[20][2]
Websitewww.elmwoodparknj.us
 
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For other places with the same name, see Elmwood Park (disambiguation).
Elmwood Park, New Jersey
Borough
Borough of Elmwood Park
Map highlighting Elmwood Park's location within Bergen County. Inset: Bergen County's location within New Jersey
Map highlighting Elmwood Park's location within Bergen County. Inset: Bergen County's location within New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Elmwood Park, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Elmwood Park, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°54′16″N 74°07′10″W / 40.904526°N 74.119514°W / 40.904526; -74.119514Coordinates: 40°54′16″N 74°07′10″W / 40.904526°N 74.119514°W / 40.904526; -74.119514[1][2]
Country United States of America
State New Jersey
CountyBergen
IncorporatedApril 18, 1916 (as East Paterson)[3]
RenamedJanuary 1, 1973 (to Elmwood Park)[4]
Government[8]
 • TypeBorough
 • MayorRichard A. Mola (R, term ends December 31, 2015)[5][6]
 • ClerkKeith Kazmark[7]
Area[2]
 • Total2.758 sq mi (7.143 km2)
 • Land2.648 sq mi (6.858 km2)
 • Water0.110 sq mi (0.285 km2)  3.99%
Area rank358th of 566 in state
32nd of 70 in county[2]
Elevation[9]46 ft (14 m)
Population (2010 Census)[10][11][12]
 • Total19,403
 • Estimate (2013)[13]20,094
 • Rank133rd of 566 in state
15th of 70 in county[14]
 • Density7,327.9/sq mi (2,829.3/km2)
 • Density rank55th of 566 in state
16th of 70 in county[14]
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code07407[15][16]
Area code(s)201[17]
FIPS code3400321300[18][2][19]
GNIS feature ID0885207[20][2]
Websitewww.elmwoodparknj.us

Elmwood Park is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 19,403,[10][11][12] reflecting an increase of 478 (+2.5%) from the 18,925 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,302 (+7.4%) from the 17,623 counted in the 1990 Census.[21]

Prior to 1916, the area was known as Dundee Lake, a section of Saddle River Township.[4] Residents of the Dundee Lake area voted on April 18, 1916, to secede from Saddle River Township to form the Borough of East Paterson.[3] In 1917, residents of the Rosemont section of Saddle River Township voted to be annexed to East Paterson.[4] In November 1972, residents voted to change the name of the borough to Elmwood Park. The new name became official on January 1, 1973.[4]

Elmwood Park, being located in Bergen County, has blue laws which require most retailers to be closed on Sunday.[22]

Geography[edit]

Elmwood Park is located at 40°54′16″N 74°07′10″W / 40.904526°N 74.119514°W / 40.904526; -74.119514 (40.904526,-74.119514). According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.758 square miles (7.143 km2), of which, 2.648 square miles (6.858 km2) of it was land and 0.110 square miles (0.285 km2) of it (3.99%) was water.[2][1] Its borders are: with Paterson in Passaic County across the Passaic River to the West; with Fair Lawn across Willow Street, Cyril Avenue, New Jersey Route 4 (Broadway), and the Bergen County Line to the North and East; and with Saddle Brook across the Bergen County Line (continued from the Fair Lawn / Saddle Brook Border along the extension of Rosario Court) and Dye Avenue continuing to between Garwood Court North and Kipp Avenue to the East and South.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900892
19101,39656.5%
19202,44174.9%
19304,77995.8%
19404,9373.3%
195015,386211.6%
196019,34425.7%
197020,5116.0%
198018,377−10.4%
199017,623−4.1%
200018,9257.4%
201019,4032.5%
Est. 201320,094[13]3.6%
Population sources: 1920[23]
1920-1930[24] 1900-2010[25][26][27]
2000[28][29] 2010[10][11][12]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,403 people, 7,032 households, and 5,140 families residing in the borough. The population density was 7,327.9 per square mile (2,829.3 /km2). There were 7,385 housing units at an average density of 2,789.1 per square mile (1,076.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 75.37% (14,624) White, 5.25% (1,019) Black or African American, 0.33% (65) Native American, 10.72% (2,080) Asian, 0.02% (4) Pacific Islander, 5.47% (1,062) from other races, and 2.83% (549) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 21.22% (4,117) of the population.[10]

There were 7,032 households, of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.9% were non-families. 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.25.[10]

In the borough, 20.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.5 years. For every 100 females there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.[10]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $66,719 (with a margin of error of +/- $8,506) and the median family income was $75,587 (+/- $4,326). Males had a median income of $50,943 (+/- $1,704) versus $41,654 (+/- $3,193) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $29,959 (+/- $2,217). About 3.7% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.[30]

Same-sex couples headed 49 households in 2010, an increase from the 33 counted in 2000.[31]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[18] there were 18,925 people, 7,089 households, and 5,075 families residing in the borough. The population density was 7,129.8 people per square mile (2,757.4/km2). There were 7,242 housing units at an average density of 2,728.3 per square mile (1,055.2/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 78.53% White, 4.16% African American, 0.11% Native American, 7.80% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.44% from other races, and 2.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.39% of the population.[28][29]

There were 7,089 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.4% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.17.[28][29]

In the borough the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.[28][29]

The median income for a household in the borough was $52,319, and the median income for a family was $59,131. Males had a median income of $40,684 versus $39,535 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $28,588. About 4.7% of families and 2.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.[28][29]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Elmwood Park is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.[8] The Borough form of government, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.[32]

As of 2013, the Mayor of Elmwood Park is Republican Richard A. Mola, whose term of office ends December 31, 2015. Members of the Elmwood Park Borough Council are Council President Frank Caramagna (Democratic Party, 2015), Glen Pettigano (D, 2015), Louis Vuoncino (R, 2014), Robert Colletti (R, 2014), Joseph Dombrowski (Democratic Party, 2016) and Steve Martino (Democratic Party, 2016).[6] [33] [34][35][36][37][38][39]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Elmwood Park is located in the 9th Congressional District[40] and is part of New Jersey's 35th state legislative district.[11][41][42] Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Elmwood Park had been in the 38th state legislative district.[43]

New Jersey's Ninth Congressional District is represented by Bill Pascrell (D, Paterson).[44] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[45][46] and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).[47][48]

The 35th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nellie Pou (D, North Haledon) and in the General Assembly by Shavonda E. Sumter (D, Paterson) and Benjie E. Wimberly (D, Paterson).[49] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[50] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[51]

Bergen County is governed by a directly elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders.[52] The County Executive is Kathleen Donovan (R, Rutherford; term ends December 31, 2014).[53] The seven freeholders are elected at-large in partisan elections on a staggered basis, with two or three seats coming up for election each year, with a Chairman, Vice Chairman and Chairman Pro Tempore selected from among its members at a reorganization meeting held each January.[54] As of 2014, Bergen County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chairman David L. Ganz (D, 2014; Fair Lawn),[55] Vice Chairwoman Joan Voss (D, 2014; Fort Lee),[56] Chairman Pro Tempore John A. Felice (R, 2016; River Edge),[57] Maura R. DeNicola (R, 2016; Franklin Lakes),[58] Steve Tanelli (D, 2015; North Arlington)[59] James J. Tedesco, III (D, 2015; Paramus)[60] and Tracy Silna Zur (D, 2015; Franklin Lakes).[61][62] Countywide constitutional officials are County Clerk John S. Hogan (D, Northvale),[63] Sheriff Michael Saudino (R),[64] Surrogate Michael R. Dressler (D, Cresskill)[65][66][52]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 10,470 registered voters in Elmwood Park, of which 3,256 (31.1% vs. 31.7% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 1,898 (18.1% vs. 21.1%) were registered as Republicans and 5,312 (50.7% vs. 47.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 4 voters registered to other parties.[67] Among the borough's 2010 Census population, 54.0% (vs. 57.1% in Bergen County) were registered to vote, including 68.2% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 73.7% countywide).[67][68]

In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 4,506 votes here (60.6% vs. 54.8% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 2,790 votes (37.5% vs. 43.5%) and other candidates with 59 votes (0.8% vs. 0.9%), among the 7,434 ballots cast by the borough's 11,262 registered voters, for a turnout of 66.0% (vs. 70.4% in Bergen County).[69][70] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 4,462 votes here (55.0% vs. 53.9% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 3,459 votes (42.7% vs. 44.5%) and other candidates with 93 votes (1.1% vs. 0.8%), among the 8,109 ballots cast by the borough's 11,201 registered voters, for a turnout of 72.4% (vs. 76.8% in Bergen County).[71][72] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 4,246 votes here (54.3% vs. 51.7% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 3,474 votes (44.4% vs. 47.2%) and other candidates with 56 votes (0.7% vs. 0.7%), among the 7,819 ballots cast by the borough's 10,922 registered voters, for a turnout of 71.6% (vs. 76.9% in the whole county).[73]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 2,297 ballots cast (48.4% vs. 48.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 2,099 votes (44.2% vs. 45.8%), Independent Chris Daggett with 264 votes (5.6% vs. 4.7%) and other candidates with 27 votes (0.6% vs. 0.5%), among the 4,750 ballots cast by the borough's 10,758 registered voters, yielding a 44.2% turnout (vs. 50.0% in the county).[74]

Education[edit]

The Elmwood Park Public Schools serve students in Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Schools in the district consist of the following schools (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[75]): Gantner Avenue Elementary School[76] (grades K-5; 321 students), Gilbert Avenue Elementary School[77] (K-5; 315), Sixteenth Avenue Elementary School[78] (K-5; 408), Memorial Middle School[79] (6-8; 557), Elmwood Park Memorial High School[80] (9-12; 724).[81]

Despite boasting several state championship football teams in the early 1970s, the Elmwood Park High School Crusaders' football team went into a lengthy period of decline. The Crusader football team had a 41-game losing streak in effect from 2002 until September 30, 2006, when they defeated the Manchester Regional High School Falcons, 33-14, snapping the four-year-long losing streak.[82]

Public school students from the borough, and all of Bergen County, are eligible to attend the secondary education programs offered by the Bergen County Technical Schools, which include the Bergen County Academies in Hackensack, and the Bergen Tech campus in Teterboro or Paramus. The district offers programs on a shared-time or full-time basis, with admission based on a selective application process and tuition covered by the student's home school district.[83][84]

Transportation[edit]

Roads and highways[edit]

The borough had a total of 52.86 miles (85.07 km) of roadways, of which 41.87 miles (67.38 km) are maintained by the municipality, 5.95 miles (9.58 km) by Bergen County and 3.40 miles (5.47 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 1.64 miles (2.64 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.[85]

Route 4, Interstate 80, U.S. Route 46, and the Garden State Parkway serve Elmwood Park.

Public transportation[edit]

Elmwood Park is served by New Jersey Transit buses 160 and 161 to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan, with local service on the 702, 712, 758 and 770 routes.[86] New Jersey Transit's Bergen County Line tracks travel through Elmwood Park, but does not have a station stop in the borough, with the nearest stations being the Radburn and Broadway stations in Fair Lawn.

The Passaic-Bergen Rail Line is a planned rail system that will have a stop in Elmwood Park.[87]

Points of interest[edit]

The Van Houten-Hillman House, named for Cornelius J. Van Houten who constructed the house c. 1782 and Herman Hillman who purchased it in 1898, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 9, 1983.[88]

Controversy[edit]

White supremacist groups had been meeting at a local branch of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics since the 1990s. David Duke stopped there during his 1988 presidential campaign. On September 25, 2007, the locks were changed, reported the secretary treasurer of the JOUAM. At this time, he states, "As soon as we found out, we took action," referring to the revelation that some members of the Junior Order chapter were white power activists. Numerous boxes were recovered that included tapes and books by the police, which were soon forwarded to the FBI.[89]

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Elmwood Park include:

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 14, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 77. Accessed July 18, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d Brief History of Elmwood Park, accessed June 23, 2006.
  5. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Mayor & Council, Borough of Elmwood Park. Accessed March 27, 2014.
  7. ^ Borough Clerk, Borough of Elmwood Park. Accessed December 12, 2011.
  8. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 160.
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Elmwood Park, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Elmwood Park borough, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 14. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  12. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Elmwood Park borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  13. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - 2013 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2014.
  14. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  15. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Elmwood Park, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed September 12, 2011.
  16. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 28, 2013.
  17. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Elmwood Park, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 9, 2013.
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  19. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed November 26, 2012.
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  21. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 18, 2012.
  22. ^ Verdon, Joan. "Foes of Bergen County blue laws gear up again", The Record (Bergen County), February 3, 2013. Accessed June 25, 2013. "Bergen County's blue laws — the rules that keep most of the county's stores closed on Sundays — are being scrutinized for signs of weakness by groups that believe the time is right to repeal them.... Bergen County is the last county in the state to retain blue laws, which prohibit sales of certain goods on Sundays, and keep all of the county's department stores and malls closed, with the exception of mall restaurants and movie theaters. Paramus has even more restrictive laws that prohibit all work in the borough on Sunday."
  23. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed October 9, 2013.
  24. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 714. Accessed December 12, 2011.
  25. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990 at the Wayback Machine (archived May 2, 2009), Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed December 12, 2011.
  26. ^ Bergen County Data Book 2003, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed August 28, 2013. Data for years prior to the borough's formation, was extrapolated by analysts from Bergen County.
  27. ^ Historical Population Trends in Bergen County (1900-2010), Bergen County Department of Planning & Economic Development, 2011. Accessed December 5, 2013. Data for years prior to the borough's formation, was extrapolated by analysts from Bergen County.
  28. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Elmwood Park borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 16, 2012.
  29. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Elmwood Park borough, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 18, 2012.
  30. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Elmwood Park borough, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 18, 2012.
  31. ^ Lipman, Harvy; and Sheingold, Dave. "North Jersey sees 30% growth in same-sex couples", The Record (Bergen County), August 14, 2011. Accessed July 26, 2013.
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  33. ^ Milsop, Katherine. "Democrats unseat Republican incumbents in Elmwood Park", Community News, November 6, 2013. Accessed March 27, 2014. "Unofficially, Democrats Joseph Dombrowski (1,894 votes) and Stephen Martino (1,771) defeated Republican Incumbents Lawrence Castiglia (1,734) and Thomas Conboy (1,682)."
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  51. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
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  56. ^ Joan M. Voss, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  57. ^ John A. Felice, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  58. ^ Maura R. DeNicola, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  59. ^ Steve Tanelli, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  60. ^ James, J. Tedesco, III, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  61. ^ Tracy Silna Zur, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
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  63. ^ About the Clerk, Bergen County Clerk. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  64. ^ About Sheriff Michael Saudino, Bergen County Sheriff's Office. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  65. ^ Michael R. Dressler, Bergen County Surrogate's Court. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  66. ^ Constitutional Officers, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed July 15, 2014.
  67. ^ a b Voter Registration Summary - Bergen, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed December 5, 2013.
  68. ^ GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 5, 2013.
  69. ^ Presidential November 6, 2012 General Election Results - Bergen County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 15, 2013. Accessed December 5, 2013.
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