Elizabeth Woodville

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Elizabeth Woodville
ElizabethWoodville.JPG
Queen consort of England
Tenure1 May 1464 – 3 October 1470
Coronation26 May 1465
Queen consort of England
Tenure11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483
SpouseSir John Grey
m. c. 1452; dec. 1461
Edward IV of England
m. 1464; dec. 1483
IssueThomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset
Richard Grey
Elizabeth, Queen of England
Mary of York
Cecily of York, Viscountess Welles
Edward V of England
Margaret of York
Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York
Anne of York, Lady Howard
George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford
Catherine of York, Countess of Devon
Bridget of York
HouseHouse of York
FatherRichard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
MotherJacquetta of Luxembourg
Bornc. 1437
Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire
Died8 June 1492(1492-06-08) (aged 55)
Bermondsey, London
BurialSt. George's Chapel, Windsor
 
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Elizabeth Woodville
ElizabethWoodville.JPG
Queen consort of England
Tenure1 May 1464 – 3 October 1470
Coronation26 May 1465
Queen consort of England
Tenure11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483
SpouseSir John Grey
m. c. 1452; dec. 1461
Edward IV of England
m. 1464; dec. 1483
IssueThomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset
Richard Grey
Elizabeth, Queen of England
Mary of York
Cecily of York, Viscountess Welles
Edward V of England
Margaret of York
Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York
Anne of York, Lady Howard
George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford
Catherine of York, Countess of Devon
Bridget of York
HouseHouse of York
FatherRichard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
MotherJacquetta of Luxembourg
Bornc. 1437
Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire
Died8 June 1492(1492-06-08) (aged 55)
Bermondsey, London
BurialSt. George's Chapel, Windsor

Elizabeth Woodville (also spelled Wydville, Wydeville, or Widvile;[nb 1] c. 1437[1] – 8 June 1492) was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. At the time of her birth, her family was mid-ranked in the English aristocracy. Her first marriage was to a minor supporter of the House of Lancaster, Sir John Grey of Groby; he died at the Second Battle of St Albans, leaving Elizabeth a widowed mother of two sons. Her second marriage, to Edward IV, was a cause célèbre of the day, thanks to Elizabeth's great beauty and lack of great estates. Edward was only the second King of England since the Norman Conquest to have married one of his subjects, and Elizabeth was the first such consort to be crowned Queen.[nb 2] Her marriage greatly enriched her siblings and children, but their advancement incurred the hostility of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker', and his various alliances with the most senior figures in the increasingly-divided royal family.

This hostility turned into open discord between King Edward and Warwick, leading to a battle of wills that finally resulted in Warwick switching allegiance to the Lancastrian cause. Elizabeth remained politically influential even after her son, briefly proclaimed King Edward V of England, was deposed by her brother-in-law, Richard III, and she would play an important role in securing Henry VII's accession to the throne in 1485, which ended the Wars of the Roses. However, after 1485 she was forced to yield pre-eminence to Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, and her influence on events in these years, and her eventual departure from court into retirement, remains obscure.[2][3]

Woodville's children included the Princes in the Tower and Elizabeth of York; by the latter she was maternal grandmother of Henry VIII and great-grandmother of King Edward VI, Queen Mary I of England and Queen Elizabeth I and the great-great-grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Through her daughter, Elizabeth of York, she is the ancestor of every English monarch since Henry VIII and every Scottish monarch since James V of Scotland.

Early life and first marriage[edit]

Elizabeth Woodville was born about 1437, possibly in October,[nb 3][4] at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire. She was the first-born child of a socially unequal marriage that had briefly scandalised the English court. Her father, Sir Richard Woodville, was merely a Knight at the time of her birth. The Woodvilles, though an old and respectable family, were genteel rather than noble, a reasonably-landed and wealthy family that had previously produced Commissioners of the Peace, Sheriffs, and MPs rather than peers of the realm. Sir Richard's own father had made a good career in royal service, rising to be Chamberlain to John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford; Sir Richard followed his father into service with the Duke, and so first met Jacquetta of Luxembourg. The daughter of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, and Margaret de Baux, she had been married to the Duke of Bedford in 1433 at the age of 17; he was significantly older than Jacquetta of Luxembourg – his second wife – and in ill-health, and he died in 1435, leaving Jacquetta of Luxembourg a childless, wealthy widow. She was required to seek permission from the King before remarrying; but in March 1437, it was revealed that she had secretly married Sir Richard Woodville, who was far below her in rank and not considered a suitable husband for the lady still honoured as the King's aunt. The couple were fined £1000, but this was remitted in October of the same year.

Despite this inauspicious start, the married couple soon prospered, thanks mainly to Jacquetta of Luxembourg's continuing prominence in the royal family. She retained her rank and dower as Duchess of Bedford, the latter initially providing an income of between £7000 and £8000 per year (it would diminish over the years due to territorial losses in France and collapsing royal finances in England); Sir Richard was honoured with military ranks, in which he proved himself a capable soldier. Further honours for both came when Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou, whose uncle was Jacquetta's brother-in-law: the Woodvilles were among those chosen to escort the bride back to England, and the family benefited further through this double connection to the royal family, and Sir Richard was raised to the rank of Baron Rivers in 1448. Their children therefore would have grown up enjoying privilege and material comfort.

Thomas More claimed that Elizabeth was synonymous with "Isabel Grey", a maid of honour to Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI, in 1445; modern historians (such as A.R. Myers, George Smith, and David Baldwin) have noted that there are several more likely candidates to be this lady, including Lady Isabella Grey, who accompanied Margaret to England from France in 1445, or an Elizabeth Grey who was a widowed mother by 1445.[5]

In about 1452, Elizabeth Woodville married Sir John Grey of Groby, the heir to a Barony. He was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, fighting for the Lancastrian cause, which would become a source of irony as Edward IV was the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Elizabeth Woodville's two sons from this first marriage were Thomas (later Marquess of Dorset) and Richard.

Elizabeth Woodville was called "the most beautiful woman in the Island of Britain" with "heavy-lidded eyes like those of a dragon."[6]

Queen consort[edit]

Edward IV had many mistresses, the most notorious being Jane Shore, and did not have a reputation for fidelity. His marriage to the widowed Elizabeth Woodville took place secretly and, though the date is not accepted as exactly accurate, it is traditionally said to have taken place (with only the bride's mother and two ladies in attendance) at her family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464,[7] just over three years after he had taken the English throne after leading the Yorkists in an overwhelming victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton. Elizabeth Woodville was crowned Queen on 26 May 1465, the Sunday after Ascension Day.

In the early years of his reign, Edward IV's governance of England was dependent upon a small circle of supporters, most notably his cousin, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. At around the time of Edward IV's secret marriage, Warwick was negotiating an alliance with France in an effort to thwart a similar arrangement being made by his sworn enemy Margaret of Anjou, wife of the deposed Henry VI. The plan was that Edward IV should marry a French princess. When his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, who was both a commoner and from a family of Lancastrian supporters, became public, Warwick was both embarrassed and offended, and his relationship with Edward IV never recovered. The match was also badly received by the Privy Council, who according to Jean de Waurin told Edward with great frankness that "he must know she was no wife for a prince such as himself."

With the arrival on the scene of the new queen came a host of siblings who soon married into some of the most notable families in England.[8] Three of her sisters married the sons of the earls of Kent, Essex and Pembroke; another sister, Catherine Woodville, married the queen's 11-year-old ward Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham; however, Buckingham joined the Duke of Gloucester in opposition to the Woodvilles after the death of Edward IV. One marriage was that of her 20-year-old brother John Woodville to Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, by Joan Beaufort, and widow of John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Katherine Neville had been widowed three times and was probably in her sixties.

Elizabeth Woodville's arms as queen consort, the royal arms of England impaling Woodville (Quarterly, first argent, a lion rampant double queued gules, crowned or (Luxemburg, her mother's family), second quarterly, I and IV, gules a star of eight points argent; II and III, azure, semée of fleurs de lys or; third, barry argent and azure, overall a lion rampant gules; fourth, gules, three bendlets argent, on a chief of the first, charged with a fillet in base or, a rose of the second (here shown in inverse: the rose should be argent on a chief gules); fifth, three pallets vairy, on a chief or a label of five points azure, and sixth, argent a fess and a canton conjoined gules (Woodville))[9][10]

When Elizabeth Woodville's relatives, especially her brother, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, began to challenge Warwick's pre-eminence in English political society, Warwick conspired with his son-in-law, the Duke of Clarence, the king's younger brother. One of his followers accused Elizabeth Woodville's mother, the Dowager Duchess of Bedford, of practising witchcraft. Jacquetta of Luxembourg was acquitted the following year.[11] Warwick and Clarence twice rose in revolt and then fled to France. Warwick formed an uneasy alliance with the Lancastrian Queen Margaret of Anjou and restored her husband Henry VI to the throne in 1470, but, the following year, Edward IV returned from exile and defeated Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry VI was killed soon afterwards.

Following her husband's temporary fall from power, Elizabeth Woodville sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, where she gave birth to a son, Edward (later Edward V of England). Her marriage to Edward IV produced a total of ten children, including another son, Richard, Duke of York, who would later join his brother as one of the Princes in the Tower.[4] Five daughters also lived to adulthood.

Elizabeth Woodville engaged in acts of Christian piety, which was in keeping with what was expected of a medieval queen consort. Her acts included making pilgrimages, obtaining a papal indulgence for those who knelt and said the Angelus three times per day, and founding the chapel of St. Erasmus in Westminster Abbey.[12]

Queen Dowager[edit]

Following Edward IV's sudden death, possibly from pneumonia, in April 1483, Elizabeth Woodville became Queen Dowager for 63 days as her young son, Edward V became king, with his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, acting as Lord Protector. Fearing the Woodvilles would attempt to monopolise power, Gloucester quickly moved to take control of the young king and had Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, and Richard Grey, brother and son to Elizabeth Woodville, arrested. The young king was transferred to the Tower of London to await the Coronation. With her younger son and daughters, Elizabeth Woodville again sought sanctuary. Lord Hastings, the late king's leading supporter in London, initially endorsed Gloucester's actions, but Gloucester then accused him of conspiring with Elizabeth Woodville against him. Hastings was summarily executed. Whether any such conspiracy really occurred is not known.[13] Richard accused Elizabeth of plotting to "murder and utterly destroy" him.[14]

Gloucester now moved to take the throne himself and on 25 June 1483 he had Elizabeth Woodville's son and brother executed in Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire. In an act of Parliament, the Titulus Regius (1 Ric. III), he declared his elder brother's children with Elizabeth Woodville illegitimate on the grounds that his brother had a precontract with the widow Lady Eleanor Butler, which was considered a legally binding contract that rendered any other marriage contract invalid. One source, the Burgundian chronicler Philippe de Commines, says that Robert Stillington, Bishop of Bath and Wells, claimed to have carried out an engagement ceremony between Edward IV and Lady Eleanor.[15] The act also contained charges of witchcraft against Elizabeth Woodville, but gave no details and had no further repercussions. As a consequence, the Duke of Gloucester and Lord Protector became King Richard III. Edward V who was no longer king and his brother Richard, Duke of York, remained in the Tower of London. They were never seen again after mid-1483.

Life under Richard III[edit]

Now referred to as Dame Elizabeth Grey,[4] she conspired to free her sons and restore the elder to the throne. However, when the Duke of Buckingham, one of Richard III's closest allies, entered the conspiracy, he told her that the princes had been murdered.[citation needed] Elizabeth Woodville and Buckingham now allied themselves with Lady Margaret Beaufort and espoused the cause of Margaret Beaufort's son Henry Tudor, a great-great-great-grandson of King Edward III,[16] the closest male heir of the Lancastrian claim to the throne with any degree of validity.[nb 4] To strengthen his claim and unite the two feuding noble houses, Elizabeth Woodville and Margaret Beaufort agreed that the latter's son should marry the former's eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, who upon the death of her brothers became the heiress of the House of York. Henry Tudor agreed to this plan and in December publicly swore an oath to that effect in the cathedral in Rennes, France. A month earlier, an uprising in his favour, led by Buckingham, had been crushed.

Richard III's first Parliament of January 1484 stripped Elizabeth Woodville of all the lands given her during Edward IV's reign.[17] On 1 March 1484, Elizabeth Woodville and her daughters came out of sanctuary after Richard III publicly swore an oath that her daughters would not be harmed or molested and that they would not be imprisoned in the Tower of London or in any other prison. He also promised to provide them with marriage portions and to marry them to "gentlemen born". The family returned to Court, outwardly reconciled to Richard III. After the death of Richard III's queen, Anne Neville, in March 1485, rumours arose that the now-widowed King was going to marry his beautiful and young niece Elizabeth of York.[18] Richard III issued a denial; though according to the Crowland Chronicle he was pressured to do this by the Woodvilles' enemies who feared, among other things, that they would have to return the lands they had confiscated from the Woodvilles.

Life under Henry VII[edit]

In 1485, Henry Tudor invaded England and defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. As King, Henry VII married Elizabeth of York and had the Titulus Regius revoked.[19] Elizabeth Woodville was accorded the title and honours of a queen dowager.[20]

Scholars differ about why Dowager Queen Elizabeth spent the last five years of her life living at Bermondsey Abbey, to which she retired on 12 February 1487. Among her modern biographers, David Baldwin believes that Henry VII forced her retreat from the Court, while Arlene Okerlund presents evidence from July 1486 that she was already planning her retirement from court to live a religious, contemplative life at Bermondsey Abbey.[21] Another suggestion is that her retreat to Bermondsey was forced on her because she was in some way involved in the 1487 Yorkist rebellion of Lambert Simnel, or at least was seen as a potential ally of the rebels.[22]

At Bermondsey Abbey, Elizabeth Woodville was treated with all the respect due to a queen dowager, lived a regal life, and received a pension of £400 and small gifts from Henry VII. She was present at the birth of her granddaughter, Margaret, at Westminster Palace, in November 1489, and at the birth of her grandson, the future Henry VIII, at Greenwich Palace, in June 1491. Her daughter, Queen Elizabeth, visited her on occasion at Bermondsey, although one of her other daughters, Cecily of York, visited her more often.

Henry VII briefly contemplated marrying his mother-in-law off to King James III of Scotland, when James III's wife, Margaret of Denmark, died in 1486.[23] However, James III was killed in battle in 1488, rendering the plans of Henry VII moot.

Elizabeth Woodville died at Bermondsey Abbey on 8 June 1492.[4] With the exception of the Queen, who was awaiting the birth of her fourth child, and Cecily of York, her daughters attended the funeral at Windsor Castle: Anne of York (the future wife of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk), Catherine of York (the future Countess of Devon) and Bridget of York (a sister at Dartford Priory). Elizabeth Woodville's will specified a simple ceremony.[24] The surviving accounts of her funeral on 12 June 1492 suggest that at least one source "clearly felt that a queen's funeral should have been more splendid" and may have objected that "Henry VII had not seen fit to arrange a more queenly funeral for his mother-in-law", despite the fact that the simplicity was the queen dowager's own wish.[24] Elizabeth was laid to rest in the same chantry as her husband King Edward IV in St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle.[4]

Ancestry[edit]

Issue of Elizabeth Woodville[edit]

By Sir John Grey[edit]

By King Edward IV[edit]

In literature[edit]

Edward IV's love for his wife is celebrated in sonnet 75 of Philip Sidney's Astrophel and Stella.[26] (written by 1586, first pub. 1591). She is a character in Shakespeare's Henry VI Part 3 (written by 1592) and Richard III. (written approx. 1592)

Portraits of Elizabeth Woodville in novels include:

Screen portrayals[edit]

Film[edit]

Television[edit]

Schools named after Elizabeth Woodville[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although spelling of the family name is usually modernised to "Woodville", it was spelled "Wydeville" in contemporary publications by Caxton and her tomb at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle is inscribed thus; "Edward IV and his Queen Elizabeth Widvile".
  2. ^ John divorced his wife, Isabel of Gloucester, shortly after his accession, and she was never crowned; Henry IV's first wife Mary de Bohun died before he became King.
  3. ^ No record of Elizabeth's birth survives. However, her parents were pardoned for marrying without royal permission on 24 October 1437, and David Baldwin conjectures that the pardon may have coincided with the birth of Elizabeth Woodville, the couple's first-born child. See Baldwin, David, Elizabeth Woodville: The Mother of the Princes in the Tower
  4. ^ Henry Tudor's claim to the throne was weak due to Henry IV's declaration barring the accession to the throne of any heirs of the legitimised offspring of his father, John of Gaunt by his third wife Katherine Swynford. The original act legitimizing the children of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford passed by Parliament and the bull issued by the Pope in the matter legitimised them fully, which made the legality of Henry IV's declaration questionable.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karen Lindsey, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived, xviii, Perseus Books, 1995
  2. ^ Helen Jewell, Women in Medieval England (Manchester UP, 1996), p135
  3. ^ Baldwin, David, Elizabeth Woodville: Mother of the Princes in the Tower
  4. ^ a b c d e Hicks, Michael (2004). "Elizabeth (c.1437–1492)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8634. Retrieved 25 September 2010  (subscription required)
  5. ^ Myers, p. 182 n.2; Smith, p. 28.
  6. ^ Jane Bingham, The Cotswolds: A Cultural History, (Oxford University Press, 2009), 66
  7. ^ Robert Fabian, The New Chronicles of England and France, ed. Henry Ellis (London: Rivington, 1811), 654; “Hearne’s Fragment of an Old Chronicle, from 1460–1470,” The Chronicles of the White Rose of York. (London: James Bohn, 1845), 15–16.
  8. ^ Ralph A. Griffiths, "The Court during the Wars of the Roses". In Princes Patronage and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, cc. 1450–1650. Edited by Ronald G. Asch and Adolf M. Birke. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-19-920502-7. 59–61.
  9. ^ Boutell, Charles (1863). A Manual of Heraldry, Historical and Popular. London: Winsor & Newton. p. 277 
  10. ^ Blazon of Woodville quoted from: [1], The House of York
  11. ^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1467–77, pg. 190.
  12. ^ Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, "A 'Most Benevolent Queen;'"Laynesmith, pp. 111, 118–19.
  13. ^ C. T. Wood, "Richard III, William, Lord Hastings and Friday the Thirteenth", in R. A. Griffiths and J. Sherborne (eds.), Kings and Nobles in the Later Middle Ages, New York, 1986, 156–61.
  14. ^ Charles Ross, Richard III, University of California Press, 1981 p81.
  15. ^ Philipe de Commines, The memoirs of Philip de Commines, lord of Argenton, Volume 1, H.G. Bohn, 1855, pp.396–7.
  16. ^ Genealogical Tables in Morgan, (1988), p. 709.
  17. ^ "Parliamentary Rolls Richard III". Rotuli Parliamentorum A.D. 1483 1 Richard III Cap XV. 
  18. ^ Richard III and Yorkist History Server
  19. ^ "Rotuli Parliamentorum A.D. 1485 1 Henry VII – Annullment of Richard III's Titulus Regius". 
  20. ^ "Rotuli Parliamentorum A.D. 1485 1 Henry VII – Restitution of Elizabeth Queen of Edward IV". 
  21. ^ Arlene Okerlund, Elizabeth: England's Slandered Queen. Stroud: Tempus, 2006, 245.
  22. ^ Bennett, Michael, Lambert Simnel and the Battle of Stoke, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1987, pp.42; 51; Elston, Timothy, "Widowed Princess or Neglected Queen" in Levin & Bucholz (eds), Queens and Power in Medieval and Early Modern England, University of Nebraska Press, 2009, p.19.
  23. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O110-MargaretofDenmark.html.
  24. ^ a b J. L. Laynesmith, The Last Medieval Queens: English Queenship 1445–1503, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004, pp.127–8.
  25. ^ Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381, pp 304–7
  26. ^ University of Toronto Library, Astrophel and Stella, sonnet 75
  27. ^ http://www.elizabethwoodvilleprimaryschool.co.uk/
  28. ^ http://www.ews.northants.sch.uk/ – Elizabeth Woodville Secondary School.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

English royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Margaret of Anjou
Queen consort of England
Lady of Ireland

1 May 1464 – 30 October 1470
Succeeded by
Margaret of Anjou
Preceded by
Margaret of Anjou
Queen consort of England
Lady of Ireland

11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483
Vacant
Title next held by
Anne Neville