On March 13, 1855, the City of Elizabeth was created by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature, combining and replacing both Elizabeth Borough (which dated back to 1740) and Elizabeth Township (which had been formed in 1693), subject to the results of a referendum held on March 27, 1855. On March 19, 1857, the city became part of the newly created Union County. Portions of the city were taken to form Linden Township on March 4, 1861.
The first major industry, the Singer Sewing Machine Company came to Elizabeth and employed as many as 2,000 people. In 1895, it saw one of the first car companies, when Electric Carriage and Wagon Company was founded to manufacture the Electrobat, joined soon by another electric car builder, Andrew L. Riker. The Electric Boat Company got its start building submarines for the United States Navy in Elizabeth, New Jersey beginning with the launch of USS Holland (SS-1) in 1897. These pioneering naval craft [known as A-Class] were developed at Lewis Nixon'sCrescent Shipyard in Elizabeth between the years 1896–1903. Elizabeth grew in parallel to its sister city of Newark for many years, but has been more successful in retaining a middle class presence and was spared riots in the 1960s.
Portions of the city are covered by the Urban Enterprise Zone, which cuts the sales tax rate to 3½% (half of the 7% charged statewide) and offers other incentives to businesses within the district. The Elizabeth UEZ has the highest business participation rate in the state, with approximately 1,000 businesses participating in — and benefiting from — the program. The UEZ has helped bring in more than $1.5 billion in new economic development to the City and has brought in over $50 million in sales tax revenue that has been reinvested in funding for additional police, streetscape and other infrastructure improvements.
Celadon, a mixed-use development containing 14 glass skyscrapers, offices, retail, a hotel, boardwalk and many other amenities is proposed to border the east side of the Jersey Gardens mall, directly on the Port Newark Bay. It is planned to break ground in the summer As of 2008[update] on the ferry, roads and parking, and will continue construction for at least twelve more years.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 124,969 people, 41,596 households, and 29,325 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,144.1 per square mile (3,916.7 /km2). There were 45,516 housing units at an average density of 3,694.7 per square mile (1,426.5 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 54.65% (68,292) White, 21.08% (26,343) Black or African American, 0.83% (1,036) Native American, 2.08% (2,604) Asian, 0.04% (52) Pacific Islander, 16.72% (20,901) from other races, and 4.59% (5,741) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 59.50% (74,353) of the population. The city's Hispanic population was the tenth-highest percentage among municipalities in New Jersey as of the 2010 Census.
There were 41,596 households of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 22.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.5% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.43.
In the city, 25.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.2 years. For every 100 females there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $43,770 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,488) and the median family income was $46,891 (+/- $1,873). Males had a median income of $32,268 (+/- $1,205) versus $27,228 (+/- $1,427) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,196 (+/- $604). About 14.7% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 18.5% of those age 65 or over.
The nation where the highest number of foreign-born inhabitants of Elizabeth were born was Colombia, which was the birthplace of 8,731 Elizabeth residents as of the 2000 Census. This exceeded the combined total of Mexico and Central America of 8,214. It also far exceeded the next highest single nation count of Cuba at 5,812. The largest number for a non-Spanish speaking country and third highest overall was immigrants from Portugal numbering 4,544. The next largest groups were Salvadoran immigrants numbering 4,043, Peruvians 3,591 and Dominican immigrants of whom there were 3,492.
There were 40,482 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.45.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 33.7% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,175, and the median income for a family was $38,370. Males had a median income of $30,757 versus $23,931 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,114. About 15.6% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 17.2% of those age 65 or over.
Districts and neighborhoods
The city of Elizabeth has several distinct districts and neighborhoods.
Midtown / Uptown
Midtown (Broad Street and Morris Avenue), also occasionally known as Uptown, is the main commercial district. Midtown is a historic section as well. It includes the First Presbyterian Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, and its St. John's Episcopal Churchyard. The First Presbyterian Church was a battleground for the American Revolution. Located here are also the Art Deco Hersh Tower, the Thomas Jefferson Arts Academy, and the Ritz Theatre which has been operating since 1926. Midtown/Uptown includes the area once known as "Brittanville" which contained many English type gardens.
Art Deco Hersh Tower
Bayway is located in the southern part of the City and borders the City of Linden. From US 1&9 & Allen St, between the Elizabeth River & the Arthur Kill, it has maintained a strong Polish Community for years. Developed at the turn of te 20th Century, many of the area residents once worked at the refinery which straddles both Elizabeth & Linden. There are unique ethnic restaurants, bars, and stores along Bayway Avenue, and a variety of houses of worship. Housing styles are older and well maintained. There are many affordable two to four-family housing units, and multiple apartment complexes. The western terminus of the Goethals Bridge, which spans the Arthur Kill to Staten Island can be found here. A small section of the neighborhood was isolated with both the completion of the Goethals Bridge in 1928 and the construction of the New Jersey Turnpike in the 1950s. This section known as "Relocated Bayway" will soon be a memory and piece of history as many of the residents have been relocated themselves to make way for the expansion of the Goethals Bridge.
DownTown / ElizabethPort
Downtown / E-Port (a.k.a The Port & Elizabethport) is the oldest neighborhood in Elizabeth and perhaps the most diverse place in the City. It is a collection of old world Elizabeth, new America, and a mix of colonial-style houses and apartment buildings that stretch east of 7th Street to its shores. The name derived from its dependency of businesses catering to sea going ventures. It was a thriving center of business between approximately the 1660s through the middle of the 20th Century. This area has had a great deal of improvement in the last fifteen years. Many homes have been refurbished or replaced with new, more ornate constructions. Housing projects that stood for years along First Street were demolished and replaced with attractive apartment complexes for those with low to moderate incomes. New townhomes on the waterfront have been developed & new 2 family homes are currently under construction. The area formally had three subdividing neighborhoods called Buckeye, New Mexico & Diamondville. It is the former home of the Singer Manufacturing Company, makers of Singer sewing machines.
The Elizabeth Marina, which in the past was filled with trash and debris along its walkway, has also beautified and many celebrations are held year round, from a Hispanic festival in the late spring to the lighting of a Christmas tree in the winter. Living conditions in this area continue to improve year after year. Historically, there was a Slavic community here, centered by a church (Sts. Peter and Paul Byzantine) and a Lithuanian (Sts. Peter and Paul, R.C.) and Polish (St. Adalbert) Roman Catholic Church still stands in the neighborhood. St. Patrick Church, originally Irish, dominates the 'Port and was built in 1888.
Elmora & The West End
Warinanco Park, Elmora
Elmora is a middle/working-class neighborhood in the western part of Elizabeth. The main thoroughfare, Elmora Avenue, boasts some of the best restaurants, shops and boutiques. A few of the City’s most luxurious high-rise building complexes- affording views of the New York skyline - dot the edge of this neighborhood and are convenient to the Midtown NJ Transit Train Station. The neighborhood area forms a "V" from its approximate borders of the Central RR tracks to Rahway Av.
Immaculate Heart of Mary and St. Patrick's Church, Elizabethport
The northwestern part of Elmora is known as Elmora Hills. It is a strongly middle- to upper-middle-class neighborhood. Originally called Shearerville, the name Elmora came from the developers of the area, the El Mora Land Company. This area was annexed from Union, returning to Elizabeth in the early part of the 20th Century. This was done to increase the city's tax base as major improvements to infrastructure were necessary at the time.
Frog Hollow is a small community of homes east of Atlantic St, west of the Arthur Kill, and south of Elizabeth Avenue. Its name is derived from the excellent frog catching in its marshes as well as the excellent oyster & fishing of the past. The area expanded east and includes the area formally known as Helltown. Helltown included many of the docs, shipyards as well as several drydocks. The area developer was Edward N Kellogg who also laid out the neighborhood in Keighry Head. Frog Hollow contains older style, affordable homes, rentals and some quality restaurants in a working-class community. The statue honoring former Mayor Mack on Elizabeth Avenue is a landmark in the community. Frog Hollow is also convenient to the Veteran’s Memorial Waterfront Park.
The name is attributed to James Keighry of the Isle of Kerry, Ireland. He was a notable resident who owned a business facing the square formed at the junction of Jackson, Madison, Chestnut & Magnolia Avenues. The approximate borders of this neighborhood extended north from East Grand St to Flora St and from Walnut to Division St. Developed by Edward N. Kellogg, many of the streets were named after family & friends. Keighry Head is located close to Midtown, containing affordable one and two-family homes, and apartment houses, convenient to the Midtown shopping district, and transportation.
War monument; north Elizabeth
North End / North Elizabeth
The North End also known as "North Elizabeth" is mainly a diverse working-class neighborhood. The borders are approximately the Arch north to the city line between North Broad St & US 1 & 9. Developed mostly in the 1920s for workers in the Dusenburg automobile plant (later Durant Auto, Burry Biscuits & Interbake Foods). Initially not having an ethnic composition, the area was heavily settled by the Irish and then Portuguese. The North End has easy access to New York and Newark via its own NJ Transit train station, Routes 1&9 & the NJ Turnpike. The neighborhood also has Crane Square, the Historic Nugents Tavern, and Kellogg Park and its proximity to Newark Airport. There is currently a plan in place to develop the former Interbake Foods facility into shopping and residential town houses and condominiums. This community contains many larger one and two-family homes that have been rebuilt over the past decade. North Elizabeth also features many well-kept apartment houses and condominium units on and around North Avenue that are home to professionals who work in New York or the area. In addition, the only Benedictine women's community in New Jersey is located at Saint Walburga Monastery on North Broad Street.
Peterstown (also known as "The Burg") is a middle/working-class neighborhood in the southeastern part of the city. Its borders run west of Atlantic St. to South Spring St & from 1st Av to the Elizabeth River. The name is derived from John Peters who owned most of the land with George Peters. They divided the land and developed in during the end of the 19th Century. The area of Peterstown was once predominantly occupied its earliest settlers who were German and during the 1920s was gentrified by newly immigrated Italians. Peterstown has clean, quiet streets and has many affordable housing opportunities with a “village” feel. The area contains the historic Union Square, home to produce stands, meat markets, fresh fish and poultry stores. Peterstown is also home to the DeCavalcante crime family, one of the most infamous Mafia families in the United States.
The Point / The Crossroads
The Point formally known as the Crossroads is centrally located and defined by New Point Road & Division St. It is located close to Midtown and contains many new affordable two-family homes, apartment houses and is undergoing a transformation. The former Elizabeth General Hospital site is currently being demolished and awaiting a new development.
Home to St. Mary's & the "Hilltoppers" this area once was lined with mansions. The approximate borders were South Broad St to Grier Av & Pearl St to what is now US 1 & 9. During its development in the 1860s it was the most fashionable area of the city to live. It is now a strong & quiet middle class community experiencing a re-development with many new condominiums.
Developed by Edward J. Grassman, Westminster got its name from the City’s largest residential estates, of the Tudor style and was inhabited by many residents who traced their ancestry to England. This neighborhood borders Hillside with the Elizabeth River running its border creating a dramatic splash of greenery and rolling hills off of North Avenue, near Liberty Hall. Residents use this area for recreation, whether it is at the newly christened Phil Rizzuto Park area, or for bird watching or for sunbathing by the river. It is one of the more affluent areas of Elizabeth.
Elizabeth City Hall
The City of Elizabeth is governed under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government under the Faulkner Act. The City government of Elizabeth is made up of a Mayor and a City Council. The Elizabeth City Council is made up of nine members, who are elected to serve four-year terms of office on a staggered basis with elections held in even years. The three Council members elected at large and mayor come up for election together in leap years and two years later the six members who are elected from each of Elizabeth's six wards are all up for election.
As of 2013[update], the city's Mayor is J. Christian Bollwage, a lifelong resident of Elizabeth who is serving his fifth term as Mayor (D, term ends December 31, 2016). Council members are Council President William Gallman, Jr. (Fifth Ward; D, 2014), Carlos Cedeño (Fourth Ward; D, 2014), Frank Cuesta (at-large; D, 2016), Nelson Gonzalez (Second Ward; D, 2014), Manny Grova, Jr. (at-large; D, 2016), Joseph Keenan (Third Ward; D, 2014), Frank Mazza (Sixth Ward; D, 2014), Patricia Perkins-Auguste (at-large; D, 2016) and Carlos Torres (First Ward; D, 2014).
Union County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose nine members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis with three seats coming up for election each year, with an appointed County Manager overseeing the day-to-day operations of the county. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Chairman and Vice Chairman from among its members. As of 2014[update], Union County's Freeholders are Chairman Christopher Hudak (D, Linden, term ends December 31, 2014), Vice Chairman Mohamed S. Jalloh (D, Roselle, 2015), Bruce Bergen (D, Springfield Township, 2015), Linda Carter (D, Plainfield, 2016), Angel G. Estrada (D, Elizabeth, 2014), Sergio Granados (D, Elizabeth, 2016) Bette Jane Kowalski (D, Cranford, 2016), Alexander Mirabella (D, Fanwood, 2015) and Vernell Wright (D, Union, 2014). Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Joanne Rajoppi (D, Union, 2015), Sheriff Ralph Froehlich (D, Union, 2016) and Surrogate James S. LaCorte (D, Springfield Township, 2014). The County Manager is Alfred Faella.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 44,415 registered voters in Elizabeth, of which 24,988 (56.3% vs. 41.8% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 2,430 (5.5% vs. 15.3%) were registered as Republicans and 16,985 (38.2% vs. 42.9%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties. Among the city's 2010 Census population, 35.5% (vs. 53.3% in Union County) were registered to vote, including 47.8% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 70.6% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 24,751 votes here (80.8% vs. 66.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 5,213 votes (17.0% vs. 32.3%) and other candidates with 166 votes (0.5% vs. 0.8%), among the 30,640 ballots cast by the city's 50,715 registered voters, for a turnout of 60.4% (vs. 68.8% in Union County). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 23,524 votes here (74.3% vs. 63.1% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 7,559 votes (23.9% vs. 35.2%) and other candidates with 202 votes (0.6% vs. 0.9%), among the 31,677 ballots cast by the city's 48,294 registered voters, for a turnout of 65.6% (vs. 74.7% in Union County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 18,363 votes here (67.2% vs. 58.3% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 8,486 votes (31.0% vs. 40.3%) and other candidates with 144 votes (0.5% vs. 0.7%), among the 27,334 ballots cast by the city's 45,882 registered voters, for a turnout of 59.6% (vs. 72.3% in the whole county).
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 10,258 ballots cast (66.8% vs. 50.6% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 4,386 votes (28.6% vs. 41.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 376 votes (2.4% vs. 5.9%) and other candidates with 131 votes (0.9% vs. 0.8%), among the 15,355 ballots cast by the city's 46,219 registered voters, yielding a 33.2% turnout (vs. 46.5% in the county).
The Elizabeth Police Department was established in May 1858.
The Elizabeth Fire Department (EFD) provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the City of Elizabeth, NJ, operating out of seven fire stations, located throughout the city, under the command of one Deputy Chief and one Battalion Chief per shift. EFD operates and staffs a fire apparatus fleet of seven engines, three ladders and one rescue unit. Reserve and unstaffed rigs include a Haz-Mat Unit, Special Operations/Collapse Rescue Unit, Air Supply Unit, Tactical Rescue Unit, Quick Attack pickup truck, Foam Tender Unit, Neptune Pump Unit, Ironman Trailer, 12" Hose Wagon, and various special and support units, as well as a Reserve Apparatus fleet of 3 Reserve Engines and 1 Reserve Ladder. The Elizabeth Fire Department was established in 1837 when Engine Company #1 was organized. In 1901, the volunteer department was no longer adequate and the department reorganized into a paid department on January 1, 1902.
Fire station locations and apparatus
24 S. Broad Street
651 S. Broad Street
Haz-Mat. 1, Air Supply Unit, Decon. Trailer
442 Trumbull Street
Tac. 1, Quick Attack Unit, Foam Tender, Foam Units
147 Elizabeth Avenue
472 Catherine Street
Rescue 1, Rescue 2 (Special Operations), Special Operations/Collapse Unit
Car 42 (DC), Car 43 (BC)
411 Irvington Avenue
524 W. Grand Street
Emergency Medical Services
Emergency Medical Services are provided by the Elizabeth Fire Department's Division of Emergency Medical Services. This is a civilian Division of the Fire Department and handles approx 40,000 calls a year. The Division is made up of an EMS Chief, 5 Supervisors, 28 Full Time Emergency Medical Technicians, and approximately 12 Per Diem EMTs. The Division, at its maximum staffing, aims to operate four ambulances and a supervisor on days (7A-7P) and three ambulances and a supervisor on nights (7P-7A).
The John E. Dwyer Technology Academy and Dunn Sports Center
As of the 2010–11 school year, the district's 34 schools had an enrollment of 24,258 students and 1,890.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.83:1.
With 5,300 students, Elizabeth High School was the largest high school in the state of New Jersey and one of the largest in the United States, and underwent a split that created five new academies and a smaller Elizabeth High School under a transformation program that began in the 2009–10 school year. The school was the 294th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 322 schools statewide, in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2010 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked 302nd in 2008 out of 316 schools. Before the 2008-09 school year, all of the district's schools (except high schools) became K–8 schools, replacing the middle schools and elementary schools. SchoolDigger.com, which maintains detailed profiles for over 136,000 schools in every state in the US, ranked Elizabeth 431st of 559 districts evaluated in New Jersey.
These and other indicators reveal a seriously declining performance standard in the city's schools. Data reported by the state Department of Education showed that a majority of students in a majority of the Elizabeth public schools failed basic skills tests.
Following the closure of Saint Patrick High School by the Newark Archdiocese in June 2012 in the face of increasing costs and declining enrollment, administrators and parents affiliated with the defunct school opened an independent non-denominational school located on Morris Avenue in Elizabeth called "The Patrick School" in September 2012.
The Jewish Educational Center comprises the Yeshiva of Elizabeth (nursery through sixth grades), the Rav Teitz Mesivta Academy (boys, seventh through twelfth grades), and Bruriah High School (girls, seventh through twelfth grades).
Portions of Elizabeth are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).
Residents of Elizabeth can tune into the Public-access televisioncable-TV channel at anytime to view public information such as the city bulletin board, live meetings, important health information and tips. This service is provided by Cablevision Local Programming. The service can be found on channel 18. The channel also has features such as Top 10 Ranked Television Shows, Educational Facts, Quote of The Day, Gas Price Statistics, and tips for keeping the city safe and clean.
^DePalma, Anthony. "If You're Thinking of Living in: Elizabeth", The New York Times, August 28, 1983. Accessed December 21, 2011. "Elizabethtown, as it was originally called, missed the Elizabethan era by just 60 years and, in any event, the Elizabeth for whom it was named was not the queen but the wife of Sir George Carteret, who had received all the land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers as a gift."
^via Associated Press. "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in", NJ.com, October 31, 2013. Accessed October 31, 2013. "Former Newark Mayor Cory Booker was sworn in as a Democratic senator from New Jersey today, taking the oath of office, exchanging hugs with Vice President Joe Biden and acknowledging the applause of friends and family members seated in the visitor's gallery that rings the chamber.... Booker, 44, was elected to fill out the term of the late Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who died earlier this year."
^What are SDA Districts?, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 14, 2012. "SDA Districts are 31 special-needs school districts throughout New Jersey. They were formerly known as Abbott Districts, based on the Abbott v. Burke case in which the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts. ... The districts were renamed after the elimination of the Abbott designation through passage of the state's new School Funding Formula in January 2008."
^Stanmyre, Matthew. "Recently closed St. Patrick High closing in on new location", The Star-Ledger, July 20, 2012. Accessed August 15, 2013. "The Archdiocese of Newark—which had provided oversight for St. Patrick—decided to close the school June 30 because of dwindling enrollment and serious financial struggles.The Patrick School will re-open in the fall as a private school out of the Archdiocese's oversight. The new school has commitments from about 150 students, Picaro said."
^Araton, Harvey. "A Faith Is Tested, and Then Renewed", The New York Times, February 27, 2013. Accessed August 15, 2013. "To mark the one-year anniversary of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark's announcement that it would close St. Patrick—forcing it to soldier on as the nondenominational, grades 7-to-12 Patrick School—Picaro's beloved boys basketball team will begin state tournament play on Friday, a triumph in itself."
^Queally, James. "Police hope TV show helps nab alleged drug lord on the run", The Star-Ledger, November 18, 2009. Accessed December 21, 2011. "Twice in the past six months, Luqman Abdullah has been within arm's reach of a police officer.... 'Since 2003, Abdullah rose to prominence and ran the cocaine trade in his particular area of Elizabeth,' Union County Prosecutor Theodore Romankow said."
^Americans Playing Abroad, Soccer Times, as of September 15, 2013. Accessed November 1, 2013. "Ryan Adeleye - defender - Hapoel Ashkelon - Elizabeth, N.J."
^Goldblatt, Jennifer. "Blume's Day", The New York Times, November 14, 2004. Accessed December 21, 2011. "And looking back at a childhood spent in the Elmora section of Elizabeth, Ms. Blume sees many signs that point toward a literary career: all her neighborhood streets were named for writers like Byron and Browning, her house on Shelley Avenue was stuffed with books, and she constantly conjured stories inside her head."
^Nicholas Murray Butler: The Nobel Peace Prize 1931, Nobel Prize Organization. Accessed June 10, 2007. "Born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, this son of Henry L. Butler, a manufacturer, and Mary Murray Butler, daughter of Nicholas Murray, a clergyman and author, began his career with a brilliant record as a student."
^Hasan, Khalid. "Bush nominee a rabbi’s son", Daily Times (Pakistan), January 13, 2005. Accessed June 23, 2007. "According to JTA, a Jewish news service, “Chertoff has strong ties to the Jewish community. Born and raised in Elizabeth, N.J., Chertoff is the son of a rabbi, his two children have attended Jewish day schools and his wife, Meryl, was a co-chairwoman of the regional Anti-Defamation League’s civil rights committee when he was the US attorney in New Jersey in the mid 1990s.”"
^Staff. "Freddie (Red) Cochrane, Boxer, 77", The New York Times, January 19, 1993. Accessed August 15, 2013. "He was born in Elizabeth and won a New Jersey Golden Gloves lightweight title before winning the world welterweight championship in July 1941 with a 15-round decision over Fritzie Zivic in Newark."
^Major General Alexander Hamilton, Historic Valley Forge, accessed April 21, 2007. "He started school in Elizabethtown NJ, but by 1773 was entered at Kings College (Now Columbia)."
^Davis, Seth. "Postcard: Stacked Blue Devils boast burgeoning star in freshman Irvin", Sports Illustrated, November 2, 2010. Accessed March 17, 2012. "It's not often that a team boasts two returning seniors from a championship team -- one of whom is a leading candidate for national player of the year -- and neither is the most talented player on his team. By my lights, that is Kyrie Irving, a 6-foot-2 freshman point guard from Elizabeth, N.J., who was named a Parade and McDonald's All-American last year."
^Idec, Keith. "NBA dream fulfilled, Jenkins hungry for more", Herald News, January 12, 2005. "The Elizabeth native's athletic ability and scoring skills were obvious to Billups, but he has been more impressed recently with Jenkins' understanding of what Brown expects from his point guards."
^Smith, Bruce. "Mickey Spillane, creator of Detective Mike Hammer, dies", Star Tribune, July 17, 2006, accessed April 21, 2007. "Spillane was born Frank Morrison Spillane on March 9, 1918, in the New York borough of Brooklyn. He grew up in Elizabeth, N.J., and attended Fort Hayes State College in Kansas where he was a standout swimmer before beginning his career writing for magazines."