Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.

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Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
Efrem Zimbalist Jr.JPG
Zimbalist in 1956
Born(1918-11-30)November 30, 1918
New York, New York
DiedMay 2, 2014(2014-05-02) (aged 95)
Solvang, California
Cause of death
Natural causes
ResidenceSolvang, California
NationalityAmerican
EducationFay School
Alma materYale University
OccupationActor
Years active1945–2014
Known forDandy Jim Buckley,
Alfred Pennyworth,
DC Animated Universe
Home townNew York City, New York
Television77 Sunset Strip,
The F.B.I.,
Maverick,
Batman: The Animated Series
Political party
Republican Party[1]
Spouse(s)Emily Munroe McNair (m. 1941–50)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1956–61)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1962–2007)
ChildrenWith McNair:
Nancy Zimbalist
Efrem "Skip" Zimbalist III
With Spaulding:
Stephanie Zimbalist
ParentsEfrem Zimbalist, Sr.,
Alma Gluck
AwardsGolden Globe Award
 
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Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
Efrem Zimbalist Jr.JPG
Zimbalist in 1956
Born(1918-11-30)November 30, 1918
New York, New York
DiedMay 2, 2014(2014-05-02) (aged 95)
Solvang, California
Cause of death
Natural causes
ResidenceSolvang, California
NationalityAmerican
EducationFay School
Alma materYale University
OccupationActor
Years active1945–2014
Known forDandy Jim Buckley,
Alfred Pennyworth,
DC Animated Universe
Home townNew York City, New York
Television77 Sunset Strip,
The F.B.I.,
Maverick,
Batman: The Animated Series
Political party
Republican Party[1]
Spouse(s)Emily Munroe McNair (m. 1941–50)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1956–61)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1962–2007)
ChildrenWith McNair:
Nancy Zimbalist
Efrem "Skip" Zimbalist III
With Spaulding:
Stephanie Zimbalist
ParentsEfrem Zimbalist, Sr.,
Alma Gluck
AwardsGolden Globe Award

Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. (November 30, 1918 – May 2, 2014) was a Golden Globe-winning American actor known for his starring roles in the television series 77 Sunset Strip and The F.B.I. He is also known as recurring character "Dandy Jim Buckley" in the series Maverick and as the voice behind the character Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series and associated spin-offs. He also voiced Dr. Octopus from the Spider-Man 1994 series, and Justin Hammer from the second season of Iron Man 1994.

Early years[edit]

Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. was born in New York, New York, the son of Jewish parents — Russian-born violinist Efrem Zimbalist, Sr.[2] and Romanian-born operatic soprano Alma Gluck.[3][4] His stepmother was Mary Louise Curtis Bok Zimbalist, the founder of the Curtis Institute of Music. He attended Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts.[citation needed]

Zimbalist attended Yale University in the late 1930s, worked as a page for NBC radio in New York, and served in the United States Army for five years during World War II, where he became friends with Garson Kanin. He was awarded the Purple Heart for a leg wound received during the battle of Hürtgen Forest.

Early career[edit]

Following the war, Zimbalist returned to New York and made his Broadway acting debut in The Rugged Path, starring Spencer Tracy. This led to a stage career as both an actor and producer. His producing successes included bringing three Gian Carlo Menotti operas to Broadway, one of which, The Consul, won the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1950.

From 1954–1955 he co-starred in his first television series Concerning Miss Marlowe.

Warner Bros. star[edit]

In 1956, Zimbalist was put under contract by Warner Brothers and moved to Hollywood.[5]

Zimbalist's first recurring role in a Warner Bros. Television series was as roguish gambler "Dandy Jim Buckley" on Maverick opposite James Garner in 1957; making five appearances as the character. In 1958 Zimbalist played the co-lead, Stuart "Stu" Bailey, in 77 Sunset Strip, a popular detective series running until 1964. During this period he not only made several concurrent appearances in other Warner Bros. Television shows such as Hawaiian Eye, The Alaskans and Bronco but starred as the lead in several feature films for Warners such as Bombers B-52, The Deep Six, A Fever in the Blood and The Chapman Report. Zimbalist was in such demand that he was given leave by Jack Warner due to exhaustion from his busy schedule.

Jack Warner lent him to Columbia Pictures for By Love Possessed in exchange for adding several years to his Warners' contract but refused to let him make Butterfield 8 for MGM.[6]

In 1959 he was awarded the Golden Globe for "Most Promising Newcomer – Male".

The F.B.I. television series[edit]

The F.B.I., first episode

Zimbalist was arguably most widely known for his starring role as Inspector Lewis Erskine in the Quinn Martin television production, The F.B.I., which premiered on September 19, 1965 and ended with its final episode on September 8, 1974. Zimbalist was generous in his praise of producer Martin and of his own experience starring in the show. Those who worked with Zimbalist on the show were equally admiring of the star's professionalism and likable personality.[7]

Zimbalist maintained a strong personal relationship with J. Edgar Hoover, who requested technical accuracy for the show, and that agents be portrayed in the best possible light. Actors who played F.B.I. employees were required by Hoover to undergo a background check.[7] Zimbalist passed his background check with ease. He subsequently spent a week in Washington, D.C., where he was interviewed by Hoover, and at the F.B.I. academy in Quantico, Virginia. Hoover and Zimbalist remained mutual admirers for the rest of Hoover's life.[7] Hoover would later hold Zimbalist up as an image role model for F.B.I. employees to emulate in their personal appearance.[8]

The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation[9][dead link] honored the character of Lewis Erskine in 1985 with a set of retired credentials.[10] On June 8, 2009 FBI Director Robert Mueller presented Zimbalist with a plaque of an honorary special agent for his work on the television series The F.B.I., on which he worked in collaboration with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and his friend J. Edgar Hoover.[10][11] The run of the show on ABC was followed in the 1980s by a revival show, Today's FBI with Zimbalist returning as Erskine.

Other television work[edit]

After 77 Sunset Strip, he appeared in other series, including CBS's short-lived The Reporter starring Harry Guardino as a journalist, Danny Taylor of the fictitious New York Globe. He also appeared in leading and supporting roles in several feature films, including Harlow, A Fever in the Blood (a film about a ruthless politician), Wait Until Dark and Airport 1975.

Zimbalist had a recurring role as Daniel Chalmers, a white-collar con man, on his daughter Stephanie Zimbalist's 1980s television detective series, Remington Steele and in the television dramatic series, Hotel.

In 1990, he played the father of Zorro in the (then Christian Broadcasting Network's – a.k.a. CBN) Family Channel's remake The New Zorro. Zimbalist relinquished the role after the program's first season due to the filming at studios outside Madrid, Spain, and the role subsequently went to Henry Darrow. He had a small recurring role in the 1990s hit science fiction TV series Babylon 5 as William Edgars.

Also in the 1990s, Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. played Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series as well as in Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Justice League, Static Shock, and the animated films Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero, and Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman and villain Doctor Octopus in Spider-Man: The Animated Series. He appeared on the Trinity Broadcasting Network[12] and as himself in the 1998 Smithsonian production of Gemstones of America.[13] He performed as the narrator in "Good Morning, America," by Elinor Remick Warren—Cambria CD #1042 (1993).

Zimbalist penned an autobiography, My Dinner of Herbs, published by Limelight Editions, New York.

In 2008, he appeared in the short film The Delivery, where he played a professor who helps a young girl in her struggles for literacy. The film won first place in fantasy at the Dragon*Con Film Festival and was an official selection at the Los Angeles International Children's Festival and the Reel Women International Film Festival in 2009.

Personal life and religion[edit]

Zimbalist in 1972

Efrem Zimbalist married his first wife, Emily Munroe McNair, in 1945 and she died of cancer five years later, in 1950.[14] Zimbalist's second marriage was to Loranda Stephanie Spaulding, in 1956. She died of lung cancer on February 5, 2007, at the age of 73.[14] Zimbalist was the father of Efrem Zimbalist III and Nancy Zimbalist (by Emily McNair) and actress Stephanie Zimbalist (by Stephanie Spaulding).

Zimbalist considered himself to be a man of abiding faith and was involved in a number of Christian media productions. His parents, Alma Gluck and Efrem Zimbalist, Sr., were assimilated non-practicing Jews who rejected their Jewish heritage. [15] Efrem Sr. was raised in a non-practicing household and would later state, "As far as I am concerned, there has been no Jew in the family for sixty-five years."[15] Alma and Efrem Sr. had their children baptized Christians in the Episcopal Church and raised them in that church. Efrem Jr. stated that he was taken to church every Sunday and attended St. Paul's School, an Episcopal boarding school in New Hampshire.[16] He also attended church every Sunday with his first wife, and it was his faith which allowed him peace when she succumbed to cancer.[17] A spiritual pilgrim, Zimbalist was an early practitioner and proponent of Transcendental Meditation, as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. He described the Maharishi Yogi as a "fascinating character", but found that his nine-year association with the meditation method "... was a total waste of energy for me."[17] He returned to the Episcopal Church for a time. In the late 1970s, Zimbalist was drawn to the Charismatic Christianity he found on the Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN).[18] Efrem's face and voice has appeared on scores of TBN announcements, including the station identification at the top of every hour. He was also the TBN voice of the Bible, which he read through verse by verse, for interludes and station breaks on TBN. He once told a reporter in 1989 "for a while I did go overboard in my association with a fundamentalist group", but never made a verbal association with any ministry. As of July 2014, his voice is still used as a TBN network identification.[19] Eventually, he resumed active participation in the Episcopal Church, feeling comfortable with that denominational style.[17]

In 1963 and 1964, Zimbalist joined fellow actors William Lundigan, Chill Wills, and Walter Brennan, in making appearances on behalf of U.S. Senator Barry M. Goldwater, the Republican nominee in his election campaign against U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.[20]

Death[edit]

Zimbalist died on May 2, 2014 from natural causes at the age of 95. His daughter Stephanie announced the news saying "He was 95 years old, a devout Christian. He actively enjoyed his life to the last day, showering love on his extended family, playing golf and visiting with close friends."[21]

Acting credits[edit]

Stage[edit]

Opening dateClosing dateTitleRoleTheatreRefs
Nov 10, 1945Jan 19, 1946The Rugged PathGil HartnickPlymouth[22][23]
Nov 6, 1946Feb 21, 1947King Henry VIIIDuke of SuffolkInternational Theatre[24][23]
Nov 8, 1946Feb 15, 1947What Every Woman KnowsA Butler, EnsembleInternational Theatre[25][23]
Dec 19, 1946Feb 22, 1947A Pound on Demand
Androcles and the Lion
SecutorInternational Theatre[26][23]
Feb 27, 1947Mar 15, 1947Yellow JackAristides AgramonteInternational Theatre[27][23]
May 1, 1947Nov 1, 1947The Telephone
The Medium
(producer)Ethel Barrymore Theatre[28]
Feb 24, 1948Mar 6, 1948Hedda GablerEilert LovborgCort Theatre[29][23]
Dec 7, 1948Jan 9, 1949The Telephone(producer)City Center[30]
Dec 7, 1948Jan 9, 1949The Medium(producer)City Center[31]
Mar 15, 1950Nov 4, 1950The Consul(producer)Ethel Barrymore Theatre[32]
Jan 17, 1956Aug 11, 1956Fallen AngelsMaurice DuclosPlayhouse[33][23]
Oct 16, 2004Nov 7, 2004Night of the IguanaNonnoRubicon Theatre Company
Apr 26, 2007May 20, 2007HamletThe Player KingRubicon Theatre Company

Film and television[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotesRefs
1946Mr. and Mrs. NorthTV movie[34]
1949House of StrangersTony Monetti[23]
1954–1955Concerning Miss MarloweJim GavinUnknown episodes[23]
1956Star TonightTV series, episode: "The Long View"[35]
United States Steel Hour, TheThe United States Steel HourSean O'NeillTV series, episode "Stopover at Sublimity"[23]
1957ConflictStuart BaileyTV series, episodes: "Execution Night"
and "Anything For Money"
[36]
Band of AngelsLt. Ethan Sears[23]
Bombers B-52Colonel Jim Herlihy[23]
1957–1958MaverickDandy Jim BuckleyTV series, episodes: "Stampede" (1957), "Trail West to Fury", "High Card Hangs", "The Jail at Junction Flats" and "Shady Deal at Sunny Acres" (all 1958)
1958Deep Six, TheThe Deep SixLt. Blanchard[23]
Too Much, Too SoonVincent Bryant[23]
Violent RoadGeorge Lawrence[23]
Girl on the RunStuart BaileyPilot for TV series 77 Sunset Strip[23]
SugarfootKerrigan the GreatTV series, episode: "The Wizard"
Home Before DarkJacob 'Jake' Diamond[23]
1958–196477 Sunset StripStu Bailey163 episodes[37]
1959–1962Hawaiian EyeStu BaileyTV series, episodes: "Malahini Holiday" and "Three Tickets to Lani" (both 1959), "I Wed Three Wives" (1960) and "Blackmail in Satin" (1962)
1960Alaskans, TheThe AlaskansJohn ConradTV series, episode: "The Trial of Reno McKee"
Crowded Sky, TheThe Crowded SkyDale Heath[23]
1961Fever in the Blood, AA Fever in the BloodJudge Leland Hoffman[23]
By Love PossessedArthur Winner[23]
BroncoEdwin BoothTV series, episode: "The Prince of Darkness"[38]
1962Chapman Report, TheThe Chapman ReportPaul Radford[23]
1963InsightTV series, episode: "The Phony"
1964InsightCharles de FoucauldTV series, episode: "The Hermit"
Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler TheatrePaul RadfordTV series, episode: "The Sojourner"[39]
Alfred Hitchcock Hour, TheThe Alfred Hitchcock HourStrangerTV series, episode: "See the Monkey Dance"
Reporter, TheThe ReporterCharles DurwoodTV series, episode: "Super-Star"
1965InsightTV series, episode: "Stranger in My Shoes"
RawhideJeff McKeeverTV series, episode: "The Diehard"
HarlowWilliam Mansfield[23]
Reward, TheThe RewardFrank Bryant[23]
1965–1974F.B.I., TheThe F.B.I.Inspector Lewis ErskineTV series, 241 episodes[40]
1966InsightTV series, episode: "The Coffee House"
1967Cosa Nostra, Arch Enemy of the F.B.I.Inspector Lewis ErskineTV movie[41]
Wait Until DarkSam Hendrix[23]
1968InsightDon FordTV series, episode: "He Lived With Us, Ate With Us, What Else, Dear?"
1970InsightTV series, episode: "The Day God Died"
1974Airport 1975Captain Stacy[23]
InsightTV series, episode: "When You See Arcturus"
1975Who Is the Black Dahlia?Sgt. Harry HansenTV movie[23]
1978Family Upside Down, AA Family Upside DownMike LongTV movie[23]
Terror Out of the SkyDavid MartinTV movie[23]
1979Best Place to Be, TheThe Best Place to BeBill ReardanTV movie[23]
Gathering, Part II, TheThe Gathering, Part IIVictor WainwrightTV movie[23]
InsightGodTV series, episode: "Checkmate"
InsightTV series, episode: "A Family of Winners"
1980ScruplesEllis IkehornTV mini-series[23]
1982Avenging, TheThe AvengingJacob Anderson[23]
Beyond Witch MountainAristotleTV movie[23]
Family in BlueMarty MaloneTV movie[23]
1983InsightTV series, episode: "The Hit Man"
Tempest, TheThe TempestProsperoVideo[42]
Charley's AuntCol. Francis ChesneyTV movie[43]
Baby SisterTom BurroughsTV movie[23]
Shooting StarsRobert ClusoTV movie[23]
Fantasy IslandMr. BaldwinTV series, episode: "The Butler's Affair/Roarke's Sacrifice"
Remington SteeleDaniel ChalmersTV series, episode: "Sting of Steele"[23]
1984Love Boat, TheThe Love BoatDan WhitmanTV series, episode: "Polly's Poker Palace, Parts 1 and 2"
Hardcastle and McCormickEmmett ParnellTV series, episode: "The Georgia Street Motors"[44]
Partners in CrimeGrant LathamTV series, episode: "Murder in the Museum"
Cover UpE.G. DawsonTV series, episode: "Writer's Block"
Remington SteeleDaniel ChalmersTV series, episode: "Blue Blooded Steele"[23]
HotelAlexander HeathTV series, episode: "Flesh and Blood"[23]
You Are the JuryNarratorTV series: "The Case of the People of Florida v Joseph Lamdrum"[45]
1985Finder of Lost LovesJudge Alex HaleTV series, episode: "Mister Wonderful"
Remington SteeleDaniel ChalmersTV series, episode: "Steele Searching, Part 2"[23]
1986You Are the JuryNarratorTV series, episode: "The State of Arizona v Dr. Evan Blake"[45]
HotelCharles CabotTV series, episodes: "Opening Moves", "Queen's Gambit", "Enemies Within", "Double Jeopardy", "Hornet's Nest", "Undercurrents" and "Forsaking All Others"[23]
1987Remington SteeleDaniel ChalmersTV series, episode: "Steeled With a Kiss, Parts 1 and 2"[23]
1988HotelCharles CabotTV series, episode: "Power Play"[23]
HunterClarence HylandTV series, episode: "Murder He Wrote"
Murder, She WroteGen. HavermeyerTV series, episode: "The Last Flight of the Dixie Damsel"
1990ZorroDon Alejandro de la VegaTV series, 25 episodes[23]
Murder, She WroteRichard Thompson GrantTV series, episode: "Hannigan's Wake"
Who's the Boss?Robert RobinsonTV series, episode: "Operation Mona"
1991Hot Shots!Wilson[23]
1992Murder, She WroteAdam QuatrainTV series, episode: "Sugar, Spice, Malice and Vice"
1992–1993Legend of Prince Valiant, TheThe Legend of Prince ValiantKing Arthur (voice)TV series, 53 episodes
1992–1995Batman: The Animated SeriesAlfredTV series, 57 episodes[23]
1993Jack L. Warner: The Last MogulNarrator
Trade WindsChristof PhilipsTV mini-series[23]
Gabriel Knight: Sins of the FathersWolfgangVideo game
Batman: Mask of the PhantasmAlfred PennyworthMajor Motion Picture (Movie)[23]
1994Burke's LawSam GallagherTV series, episode: "Who Killed the Legal Eagle?"
Nanny, TheThe NannyTheodore TimmonsTV series, episode: "Material Fran"
1995Street Corner Kids: The Sequel, TheThe Street Corner Kids: The SequelMarty
Biker Mice from MarsKing ArthurTV series, episode: "Knights of the Round Table, Parts 1 and 2"
One West WaikikiWalter MansfieldTV series, episode: "Flowers of Evil"
GargoylesMace MaloneTV series, episode: "Revelations"
Iron ManJustin HammerTV series, episodes: "The Armor Wars: Part 1 & 2", "The Beast Within"
1995–1997Spider-ManDr. Octopus
Dr. Otto Octavius
TV series, 11 episodes
1996Picket FencesHal KlostermanTV series, episode: "Forget Selma"
Mighty DucksDr. Denton P. HookermanTV series, episode: "Zap Attack"
1997Babylon 5William EdgarsTV series, episodes: "Conflicts of Interest", "Moments of Transition", "Exercise of Vital Powers", "The Face of the Enemy"[46]
Visitor, TheThe VisitorWayland ScottTV series, episode: "Miracles"
1997–1998New Batman Adventures, TheThe New Batman AdventuresAlfred Pennyworth12 episodes[23]
1997–1999Superman: The Animated SeriesAlfred Pennyworth4 episodes[23]
1998SubZeroAlfred Pennyworth[23]
Batman Superman Movie: World's Finest, TheThe Batman Superman Movie: World's FinestAlfred Pennyworth[23]
1999Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man, TheThe Amazing Adventures of Spider-ManDr. Octopusanimated short film
2000Spider-ManDr. OctopusVideo game
2001Batman VengeanceAlfred PennyworthVideo game[23]
First Day, TheThe First DayBenjamin HartTV movie[23]
2003–2004Justice LeagueAlfred PennyworthTV series, episodes: "Hereafter Part 1", Starcrossed Part 2 & 3"[23]
2003Static ShockAlfred Pennyworth[23]
Batman: Mystery of the BatwomanAlfred Pennyworth[23]
2008Delivery, TheThe DeliveryDr. Engel

Television appearances as self[edit]

YearTitleNotesRefs
1961What About Linda?March of Dimes fund raising program
1962Here's HollywoodNovember 2, 1962
1965Password All-StarsEpisode: "Angie Dickinson vs. Efrem Zimbalist Jr."
1972Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, TheThe Tonight Show Starring Johnny CarsonFebruary 16, 1972
197830th Primetime Emmy AwardsPresenter
1980Anita Bryant Spectacular, TheThe Anita Bryant Spectacular[47]
198638th Primetime Emmy AwardsPresenter
1991Hot Shots: The Making of an Important Movie
1994Vicki!
1998Gemstones of AmericaHost
1999Year to Remember, AA Year to RememberHost
2003Batman: Behind the Mystery
2004TVLand Moguls
2008Brothers Warner, TheThe Brothers Warner

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "'FBI Agent' Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Remembered as Staunch Conservative". Newsmax.com. May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ Malan, Roy (May 2004). Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. Amadeus Press. p. 1. ISBN 1-57467-091-3. 
  3. ^ Marston Records bio of Alma Gluck
  4. ^ 1922-Year Radio's Population Soared-Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.'s parents at radio station WSB, Atlanta, in 1922. Broadcasting. May 14, 1962. p. 119. Retrieved March 6, 2014. (PDF)
  5. ^ Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., My Dinner of Herbs, Limelight Editions, 2004.
  6. ^ http://www.americanlegends.com/actors/efrem%20zimbalist/
  7. ^ a b c Etter, Jonathan (2008). Quinn Martin, Producer: A Behind-the-Scenes History of QM Productions and Its Founder. McFarland. pp. 62–87. ISBN 978-0-7864-3867-9. 
  8. ^ Kessler, Ronald (2003). The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. St. Martin's Paperbacks. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-312-98977-4. 
  9. ^ "Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI Inc.". Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Robert S. Mueller, III (8 June 2009). "Presentation of Honorary Special Agent Badge to Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.Los Angeles, California". Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Actor Efrem Zimbalist Jr. honored by FBI". Associated Press. 9 June 2009. 
  12. ^ TBN – Trinity Broadcasting Network
  13. ^ Gemstones of America
  14. ^ a b USA TODAY
  15. ^ a b Malan, Roy (2004). Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. Amadeus Press. pp. 139–142. ISBN 978-1-57467-091-2. 
  16. ^ Stanford, Monty (2008). "EZimablist Jr". Christus Rex 1 (5). 
  17. ^ a b c Silversten, Linda (1998). Lives Charmed: Intimate Conversations with Extraordinary People. HCI. pp. 173–194. ISBN 978-1-55874-593-3. 
  18. ^ Jeannie, Pugh (23 April 1979). "Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Revitalized His Faith Through Christian TV". St. Petersburg Times. 
  19. ^ Mary Evertz, "At 65 Still a Sex Symbol: Veteran Actor Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. is Back on Stage," St. Petersburg (Florida) Times, May 26, 1989.
  20. ^ "The Impact of the Draft Goldwater Committee on the Republican Party". ashbrook.org(archive.org). Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  21. ^ Statement from Stephanie Zimbalist and Efrem Zimbalist III
  22. ^ "The Rugged Path". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be Monush 2003, p. 816.
  24. ^ "King Henry VIII". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  25. ^ "What Every Woman Knows". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  26. ^ "A Pound on Demand / Androcles and the Lion". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  27. ^ "Yellow Jack". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  28. ^ "The Telephone/The Medium". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  29. ^ "Hedda Gable". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "The Telephone". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  31. ^ "The Medium". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  32. ^ "The Consul". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "Fallen Angels". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  34. ^ Roberts 2009, p. 90.
  35. ^ Terrace 2011, p. 1011.
  36. ^ Terrace 2013a, p. 15.
  37. ^ Terrace 2013, pp. 121–122.
  38. ^ Marill 2011, p. 57.
  39. ^ Neibaur 2004, p. 178.
  40. ^ Terrace 2013, p. 79.
  41. ^ Roberts 2009, p. 383.
  42. ^ Coursen 2010, p. 127.
  43. ^ Terrace 2013b, p. 90.
  44. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 165.
  45. ^ a b Terrace 2013a, p. 331.
  46. ^ Garcia & Phillips 2012, p. 21.
  47. ^ Terrace 2013b, p. 33.

References[edit]

External links[edit]