Economy of the Philippines

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Economy of the Philippines
Cetral Business District jpeg. xcf12.jpg
Skyline of Makati
CurrencyPhilippine peso (PHP) = 100 centavos (English)
piso = 100 sentimo (Filipino)
Fiscal yearCalendar year
Trade organisationsAPEC, ASEAN, WTO, EAS, Asian Development Bank, ASEAN Plus Three, and others
Statistics
GDP

$257 billion nominal(2012)[1]

$424.355 billion PPP (2012)[2]
GDP growthIncrease 7.5% (Q2 2013)[3][4]
GDP per capita

$2,614 (2012)[5] (nominal 126th)

$4,430 (2012)[5] (PPP 126th)
GDP by sectoragriculture (12.3%), industry (33.3%), services (54.4%) (2011 est.)[6]
Inflation (CPI)2.1% (August 2013)[7]
Population
below poverty line
national – 22.9% (2006 est.)[6]
international – 22.6% (2006)[8]
regional – 27% (2006)[9]
Gini coefficient43.0 (2009)[10]
Labour force59.81 million (2011 est.)[6]
Labour force
by occupation
services (52%) agriculture (33%), industry (15%) (2010 est.)[6]
Unemployment7.1% (January 2013)[11]
Main industrieselectronics assembly, Business Process Outsourcing, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing[6]
Ease of doing business rank108th of 183 countries ranked[12]
External
Exports$52 billion (2012)[13]
Export goodssemiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits[6]
Main export partners Japan 19.0%
 United States 14.2%
 China 11.8%
 Hong Kong 9.2%
 South Korea 5.5%
 Thailand 4.7% (2012 est.)[14]
Imports$57.24 billion (2010)
Import goodselectronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic[6]
Main import partners United States 11.5%
 China 10.8%
 Japan 10.4%
 South Korea 7.3%
 Singapore 7.1%
 Thailand 5.6%
 Saudi Arabia 5.6%
 Indonesia 4.4%
 Malaysia 4.0% (2012 est.)[15]
Gross external debtDecrease $60.3 billion (2012)[16]
Public finances
Public debt48.9 % of GDP (Q1 2013)[17]
Revenues$31.38 billion (2011)
Expenses$35.95 billion (2011)[18]
Economic aid$1.67 billion[19]
Credit rating
Foreign reservesIncrease $85.761 billion (January 2013)[25]
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars
 
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Economy of the Philippines
Cetral Business District jpeg. xcf12.jpg
Skyline of Makati
CurrencyPhilippine peso (PHP) = 100 centavos (English)
piso = 100 sentimo (Filipino)
Fiscal yearCalendar year
Trade organisationsAPEC, ASEAN, WTO, EAS, Asian Development Bank, ASEAN Plus Three, and others
Statistics
GDP

$257 billion nominal(2012)[1]

$424.355 billion PPP (2012)[2]
GDP growthIncrease 7.5% (Q2 2013)[3][4]
GDP per capita

$2,614 (2012)[5] (nominal 126th)

$4,430 (2012)[5] (PPP 126th)
GDP by sectoragriculture (12.3%), industry (33.3%), services (54.4%) (2011 est.)[6]
Inflation (CPI)2.1% (August 2013)[7]
Population
below poverty line
national – 22.9% (2006 est.)[6]
international – 22.6% (2006)[8]
regional – 27% (2006)[9]
Gini coefficient43.0 (2009)[10]
Labour force59.81 million (2011 est.)[6]
Labour force
by occupation
services (52%) agriculture (33%), industry (15%) (2010 est.)[6]
Unemployment7.1% (January 2013)[11]
Main industrieselectronics assembly, Business Process Outsourcing, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing[6]
Ease of doing business rank108th of 183 countries ranked[12]
External
Exports$52 billion (2012)[13]
Export goodssemiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits[6]
Main export partners Japan 19.0%
 United States 14.2%
 China 11.8%
 Hong Kong 9.2%
 South Korea 5.5%
 Thailand 4.7% (2012 est.)[14]
Imports$57.24 billion (2010)
Import goodselectronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic[6]
Main import partners United States 11.5%
 China 10.8%
 Japan 10.4%
 South Korea 7.3%
 Singapore 7.1%
 Thailand 5.6%
 Saudi Arabia 5.6%
 Indonesia 4.4%
 Malaysia 4.0% (2012 est.)[15]
Gross external debtDecrease $60.3 billion (2012)[16]
Public finances
Public debt48.9 % of GDP (Q1 2013)[17]
Revenues$31.38 billion (2011)
Expenses$35.95 billion (2011)[18]
Economic aid$1.67 billion[19]
Credit rating
Foreign reservesIncrease $85.761 billion (January 2013)[25]
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

The Economy of the Philippines is the 40th largest in the world, according to 2012 International Monetary Fund statistics and it is also one of the emerging markets in the world.[26] The Philippines is considered as a newly industrialized country, it has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. According to the CIA Factbook, the estimated 2012 GDP (purchasing power parity) was 424.355 billion.[6] Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, the Philippines will be the 14th largest economy in the world, Goldman Sachs also included the Philippines in its list of the Next Eleven economies. According to HSBC, the Philippine economy will become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the Southeast Asian region by 2050.[27]

Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. The Philippines has been named as one of the Tiger Cub Economies together with Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. It is currently one of Asia's fastest growing economies. However, major problems remain, mainly having to do with alleviating the wide income and growth disparities between the country's different regions and socioeconomic classes, reducing corruption, and investing in the infrastructure necessary to ensure future growth.

Macroeconomic trends[edit]

The Philippine economy has been growing steadily over decades and the International Monetary Fund in 2011 reported it as the 45th largest economy in the world. However its growth has been behind that of many of its Asian neighbors, the so-called Asian Tigers, and it is not a part of the Group of 20 nations. Instead it is often grouped in a second tier of emerging markets or of newly industrialized countries. Depending upon the analyst, this second tier can go by the name the Next Eleven or the Tiger Cub Economies.

In the years 2012 and 2013, the Philippines posted high GDP growth rates, reaching 6.8% in 2012 and 7.7% in the first quarter and 7.5% in the second quarter of 2013,[3][28] the highest GDP growth rates in Asia for the first two quarters of 2013, followed by China and Indonesia.[29]

A chart of selected statistics showing trends in the gross domestic product of the Philippines using data taken from the International Monetary Fund.[30][31]

YearGDP growth in percent
(constant prices, base year = 2000)
GDP
in PHP Billion
(current prices)
GDP
in USD Billion
(current prices)
GDP per capita
in USD
(current prices)
GDP
in USD Billion
(PPP)
GDP per capita
in USD
(PPP)
Peso vs Dollar
Exchange Rate
19805.15270.135.974464.413347.51
19813.42312.039.579772.914717.90
19823.62351.441.181080.115788.54
19831.88408.936.870784.9163011.11
1984-7.32581.134.865281.6153016.70
1985-7.31633.634.162377.9142618.61
19863.42674.633.159182.4147120.39
19874.31756.536.864188.4154020.57
19886.75885.542.071597.6166321.09
19896.211025.347.3786107.6179121.70
19903.041190.548.9796115.2187324.33
1991-0.581379.950.2797118.6188227.48
19920.341497.558.7912121.8189125.51
19932.121633.660.2914127.1192927.12
19944.391875.771.01052135.5200726.42
19954.682111.783.71224144.8211825.24
19965.852406.493.51336156.1223226.22
19975.192688.792.81297167.1233628.98
1998-0.582952.873.81009168.1229740.02
19993.083244.283.01110175.8235239.09
20004.413580.781.01053187.5243744.19
20012.893888.876.3971197.3251150.99
20023.654198.381.41014207.8259151.60
20034.974548.183.91025222.7272054.20
20046.705120.491.41093242.7290556.04
20054.785677.8103.11209261.0306155.09
20065.246271.2122.21405283.5326051.31
20076.626892.7149.41684311.1350746.15
20084.157720.9173.61919331.2366144.47
20091.158026.1168.51827338.5367047.64
20107.639003.5199.62123368.5392045.11
20113.729734.8224.752345391.1408043.31
2012[5]6.810568.4257.512701424.3443042.23

GDP growth at constant 1985 prices in Philippine pesos:[30][32][33]

Year1970197119721973197419751976197719781979
GDP growth %4.64.94.89.256.485.65.25.6
Year1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
GDP growth %5.1493.4233.6191.875-7.324-7.3073.4174.3126.7536.205
Year1990199119921993199419951996199719981999
GDP growth %3.037-0.5780.3382.1164.3884.6795.8465.185-0.5773.082
Year2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012
GDP growth %4.4112.8943.6464.9706.6984.7785.2437.1174.1531.1487.6323.66.8

Composition by sector[edit]

As a newly industrialized country, the Philippines is still an economy with a large agricultural sector; however, services have come to dominate the economy.[citation needed] Much of the industrial sector is based on processing and assembly operations in the manufacturing of electronics and other high-tech components, usually from foreign multinational corporations.

Filipinos who go aboard to work–-known as Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs—are a significant contributor to the economy but are not reflected in the below sectoral discussion of the domestic economy. OFW remittances is also credited for the Philippines' recent economic growth resulting to investment status upgrades from credit ratings agencies such as the Fitch Group and Standard & Poor's.[34]

Agriculture[edit]

Pineapples on a fruit stand in Cagayan de Oro.
Sacks of raw sugar in the Philippines

The agriculture sector makes up 12% of the GDP and employs 33% of the workforce. The type of activity ranges from small subsistence farming and fishing to large commercial ventures with significant export focus, such as major multinational corporations like Dole Food Company and Del Monte Foods.

The Philippines is the world's largest producer of coconuts producing 19,500,000 tons in 2009. Coconut production in the Philippines is generally concentrated in medium-sized farms.[35] By 1995, the production of coconut in the Philippines had experienced a 6.5% annual growth and later surpassed Indonesia in total output in the world.[36] The Philippines is also the world's largest producer of pineapples, producing 2,198 thousand metric tons in 2009.[37] Rice production in the Philippines is important to the food supply in the country and economy. The country is the 8th largest rice producer in the world, accounting for 2.8% of global rice production.[38] However, the country was also the world's largest rice importer in 2010.[39] Rice is the most important food crop, a staple food in most of the country. It is produced extensively in Luzon, the Western Visayas, Southern Mindanao, and Central Mindanao.

The Philippines is one of the largest producers of sugar in the world according to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistics Division.[40] At least 17 provinces located in 8 regions of the country have grown sugarcane crops, of which Negros island accounts for half of the country’s total production. As of Crop Year 2012-2013, 29 mills are operational divided as follows: 6 mills in Luzon, 13 mills in Negros, 4 mills in Panay, 3 mills in Eastern Visayas and 3 mills in Mindanao.[41] A range from 360,000 to 390,000 hectares are devoted to sugarcane production. The largest sugarcane areas are found in Negros which accounts for 51% of sugarcane areas planted. This is followed by Mindanao which accounts for 20%; Luzon, 17%; Panay islands, 7% and Eastern Visayas, 4%.[42]

Shipbuilding and repair[edit]

The Philippines is a major player in the global shipbuilding industry with shipyards in Subic, Cebu, General Santos City and Batangas.[43][44] It became the fourth largest shipbuilding nation in 2010.[45][46] Subic-made cargo vessels are now exported to countries where shipping operators are based. South Korea's Hanjin started production in Subic in 2007 of the 20 ships ordered by German and Greek shipping operators.[47] The country’s shipyards are now building ships like bulk carriers, container ships and big passenger ferries. General Santos' shipyard is mainly for ship repair and maintenance.[48]

Being surrounded by waters, the country has abundant natural deep-sea ports ideal for development as production, construction and repair sites. On top of the current operating shipyards, two additional shipyards in Misamis Oriental and Cagayan province are being expanded to support future locators. It has a vast manpower pool of 60,000 certified welders that comprise the bulk of workers in shipbuilding.

In the ship repair sector, the Navotas complex in Metro Manila is expected to accommodate 96 vessels for repair.[49]

Automotive[edit]

The ABS used in Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Volvo cars are made in the Philippines. Ford,[50] Toyota,[51] Mitsubishi, Nissan and Honda are the most prominent automakers manufacturing cars in the country.[citation needed] Kia and Suzuki produce small cars in the country. Isuzu also produces SUVs in the country. Honda and Suzuki produce motorcycles in the country. A 2003 Canadian market research report predicted that further investments in this sector were expected to grow in the following years. Toyota sells the most vehicles in the country.[52] By 2011, China's Chery Automobile company is going to build their assembly plant in Laguna, that will serve and export cars to other countries in the region if monthly sales would reach 1,000 units.[53] Automotive sales in the Philippines moved up from 165,056 units in 2011 to over 180,000 in 2012. Japan’s automotive manufacturing giant Mitsubishi Motors has announced that it will be expanding its operations in the Philippines.[54]

Aerospace[edit]

Aerospace products in the Philippines are mainly for the export market and include manufacturing parts for aircraft built by both Boeing and Airbus. Moog is the biggest aerospace manufacturer with base in Baguio in the Cordillera region. The company produces aircraft actuators in their manufacturing facility.

In 2011, the total export output of aerospace products in the Philippines reached US $3 billion.[55]

Electronics[edit]

A Texas Instruments plant in Baguio has been operating for 20 years and is the largest producer of DSP chips in the world.[56] Texas Instruments' Baguio plant produces all the chips used in Nokia cell phones and 80% of chips used in Ericsson cell phones in the world.[57] Until 2005, Toshiba laptops were produced in Santa Rosa, Laguna. Presently the Philippine plant's focus is in the production of hard disk drives. Printer manufacturer Lexmark has a factory in Mactan in the Cebu region.

Mining and extraction[edit]

The country is rich with mineral and geothermal energy resources. In 2003, it produced 1931 MW of electricity from geothermal sources (27% of total electricity production), second only to the United States,[58] and a recent discovery of natural gas reserves in the Malampaya oil fields off the island of Palawan is already being used to generate electricity in three gas-powered plants. Philippine gold, nickel, copper and chromite deposits are among the largest in the world. Other important minerals include silver, coal, gypsum, and sulphur. Significant deposits of clay, limestone, marble, silica, and phosphate exist.

About 60% of total mining production are accounted for by non-metallic minerals, which contributed substantially to the industry's steady output growth between 1993 and 1998, with the value of production growing 58%. In 1999, however, mineral production declined 16% to $793 million.[citation needed] Mineral exports have generally slowed since 1996. Led by copper cathodes, Philippine mineral exports amounted to $650 million in 2000, barely up from 1999 levels. Low metal prices, high production costs, lack of investment in infrastructure, and a challenge to the new mining law have contributed to the mining industry's overall decline.[citation needed]

The industry rebounded starting in late 2004 when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of an important law permitting foreign ownership of Philippines mining companies.[citation needed] However, the DENR has yet to approve the revised Department Administrative Order (DAO) that will provide the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Financial and Technical Assistance Agreement (FTAA), the specific part of the 1994 Mining Act that allows 100% foreign ownership of Philippines mines.[citation needed]

Offshoring and outsourcing[edit]

A business process outsourcing office in Bacolod

According to an IBM Global Location Trends Annual Report, as of December 2010 the Philippines has surpassed India as the world leader in business process outsourcing.[59][60] The majority of the top ten BPO firms of the United States operate in the Philippines.[citation needed] Total jobs in the industry grew to 100,000 and total revenues were placed at $960 million for 2005. In 2012, BPO sector employment ballooned to over 700,000 people and is contributing to a growing middle class. BPO facilities are located mainly in Metro Manila and Cebu City although other regional areas such as Baguio, Bacolod, Cagayan de Oro, Clark Freeport Zone, Dagupan, Davao City, Legazpi, Dumaguete, Lipa, Iloilo City, and CamSur are now being promoted and developed for BPO operations.

Call centers began in the Philippines as plain providers of email response and managing services and is now a major source of employment. Call center services include customer relations, ranging from travel services, technical support, education, customer care, financial services, online business to customer support, and online business to business support. Business process outsourcing (BPO) is regarded as one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The Philippines is also considered as location of choice due to its many outsourcing benefits such as less expensive operational and labor costs and high proficiency in spoken English and highly educated labor pool. In 2011, the business process outsourcing industry in the Philippines generated 700 thousand jobs[61] and some US$11 billion in revenue,[62] 24 percent higher than 2010. By 2016, the industry is projected to reach US$27.4 billion in revenue with employment generation to almost double at 1.3 million workers.[63]

BPOs and the call center industry in general is also credited for the Philippines' recent economic growth resulting to investment status upgrades from credit ratings agencies such as Fitch and S&P.[34]

Regional Accounts[edit]

Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) is GDP measured at regional levels. Figures are for the year 2011.

RegionGRDP (in billion PHP)Agriculture (in billion PHP)% of GRDPIndustry (in billion PHP)% of GRDPServices (in billion PHP)% of GRDPper capita GRDP
Metro Manila3,479.90517.8910.51591.03516.982,870.97982.50288,062
Cordillera210.07921.08210.04116.52255.4772.47434.50127,614
Ilocos293.91875.09725.5579.44827.03139.37247.4261,076
Cagayan Valley167.49271.76942.8517.80510.6377.91946.5251,100
Central Luzon882.806145.97516.54373.25042.28363.58041.1885,186
CALABARZON1,644.843108.9406.621,015.50161.74520.40131.64126,589
MIMAROPA176.17648.02827.2665.13536.9763.01335.7762,995
Bicol206.61957.72827.9444.85521.71104.03650.3537,526
Western Visayas395.417115.61329.2466.23816.75213.56554.0154,870
Central Visayas601.88051.8908.62213.96835.55336.02355.8386,880
Eastern Visayas242.59458.43424.09104.20742.9679.95232.9658,335
Zamboanga Peninsula200.88366.20632.9651.76225.7782.91541.2857,815
Northern Mindanao467.100115.28331.40102.25127.85149.56640.7493,628
Davao Region408.450104.79225.66112.82127.62190.83746.7289,552
SOCCSKSARGEN261.54897.93237.4471.44527.3297.17135.2462,080
Caraga99.03730.24827.5626.58324.2252.93448.2244,472
Muslim Mindanao86.04858.28767.743.6414.2324.12028.0326,004
Total9,735.5211,245.19612.793,056.46831.405,433.85755.81103,366

Note: Green-colored cells indicate higher value or best performance in index, while yellow-colored cells indicate the opposite.

Economic indicators and international rankings[edit]

OrganizationTitleAs ofChange from previousRanking
International Monetary FundGross Domestic Product (PPP)2012(Increase 1)31st[64]
International Monetary FundGross Domestic Product (nominal)2012(Increase 3)40th[65]
International Monetary FundGDP per Capita (PPP)2011(Steady)126th[66]
International Monetary FundGDP per Capita (nominal)2011(Increase 1)124th[67]
International Monetary FundForeign Reserves201225th[68]
United NationsPopulation2012(Steady)12th[69]
United NationsArea2012(Steady)73rd[70]
United NationsPopulation Density201045th[71]
Central Intelligence AgencyLife Expectancy2011133rd out of 221st[72]
United NationsLiteracy Rate201184th out of 182nd[73]
The World FactbookExternal Debt201046th[74]
World Tourism OrganizationTourist Arrival2010(Increase 1)52 out of 198[75]
United NationsHuman Development Index2012(Decrease 2)114 out of 187[76]
World Economic ForumGlobal Competitiveness2013(Increase 6)59 out of 148[77]
Fraser InstituteEconomic Freedom of the World2013(Increase 5)56 out of 144[78]
World Economic ForumGlobal Gender Gap Report2012(Increase 1)8 out of 135[79]
World Economic ForumTravel and Tourism Competitiveness2013(Increase 12)82 out of 140[80]
World Economic ForumGlobal Enabling Trade Report2012(Increase 20)72 out of 132[81]
World BankEase of Doing Business2013(Increase 30)108 out of 183[82]
Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index2012(Increase 24)105 out of 176[83]
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street JournalIndex of Economic Freedom2013(Increase 10)97 out of 177[84]
The Economist Intelligence UnitGlobal Peace Index2013(Increase 4)129 out of 158[85]
Reporters Without BordersPress Freedom Index2013(Decrease 7)147 out of 178[86]
World Economic ForumFinancial Development Index201144 out of 60[87]

Statistics[edit]

Percentage of population in 2007 living below poverty line, by province. Provinces with darker shades have more people living below the poverty line.
Economic growth[88][89][90]
Year % GDP % GNI
19993.12.7
20004.47.7
20012.93.6
20023.64.1
20035.08.5
20046.77.1
20054.87.0
20065.25.0
20077.16.2
20084.25.0
20091.16.1
20107.68.2
20113.72.6
20126.85.8
2013 Q27.56.8
* Computed at Constant 2000 Prices
** Source: NEDA and NSCB
Filipino exports in 2006
Graphical depiction of Philippines' product exports in 28 color-coded categories.

Most of the following statistics are sourced from the International Monetary Fund - Philippines (as of 2012; figures are in US dollars unless otherwise indicated).

Government budget[edit]

The national government budget for 2012 has set the following budget allocations:[96] Noticeably enough, the Department of Science & Technology[97] is not reflected in the chart below which underlines the Philippine government's need to invest more on education, particularly in the sciences and engineering fields to solidify its current growth momentum.[34]

Budget AllocationMillions of Pesos
(PHP)
Millions of US Dollars
(USD)
 %
Department of Education₱238,800$5,513.713.15
Department of Public Works and Highways126,4002,918.56.96
Department of National Defense108,1002,496.05.95
Department of Interior and Local Government99,8002,304.35.50
Department of Agriculture61,4001,417.73.38
Department of Social Welfare and Development48,8001,126.82.69
Department of Health45,8001,057.52.52
Department of Transportation and Communications34,700801.21.91
State Universities and Colleges25,800595.71.42
Department of Finance23,600544.91.30
Department of Environment and Natural Resources17,500404.10.96

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects| Global Finance". imf.org. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  3. ^ a b "Philippine economy grows a stunning 7.8%". Asia News Network. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  4. ^ "PHILIPPINE ECONOMY POSTS 7.8 PERCENT GDP GROWTH". NSCB. Retrieved May 30, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae CIA World Factbook, Philippines, Retrieved May 15, 2009.
  7. ^ National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines. (2013-09-05). "Summary Inflation Report Consumer Price Index (2006=100) : August 2013". Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  8. ^ "18. Poverty and inequality". Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2009. United Nations – Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. March 24, 2010 (Table 18.1). 
  9. ^ Dumlao, Doris. (August 27, 2008). 23 million Filipinos living below Asia-Pacific poverty line. The Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  10. ^ GINI index | Data | Table
  11. ^ a b "April 2011 Labor Force Survey (LFS)". Census.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  12. ^ "Doing Business in Philippines 2013". World Bank. Retrieved 2013. 
  13. ^ "Exports hit record $52 B". Philstar Business. Retrieved February 18, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Export Partners of Philippines". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  15. ^ "Import Partners of Philippines". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  16. ^ "Phl trims foreign debt to $60.3B". philstar.com. 1986-07-28. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  17. ^ "PH November dollar reserves exceed 2012 target". www.rappler.com. 2012-12-07. Retrieved 2012-12-07. 
  18. ^ "Manila business". Sun.Star. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  19. ^ "NEDA: Foreign aid releases slightly increased in 2011 | Inquirer Business". Business.inquirer.net. 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  20. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 09 Oct 2013. 
  21. ^ "Philippines secures 2nd investment grade rating from S&P". Philippine Star Business. 2013-10-09. 
  22. ^ "Rating Action: Moody's upgrades Philippines to Baa3, revises outlook to positive". Moody's. 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  23. ^ "PH wins investment grade from Moody's". Rappler. 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  24. ^ "Philippines Wins First Investment Grade Rating From Fitch". CNBC. Reuters. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  25. ^ "Forex reserves hit record high at $86-B in January". www.abs-cbnnews.com. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ "World’s top economies in 2050 will be...". CNN. 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 
  28. ^ "2012 PH GDP growth revised to 6.8 pct". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Philippines is fastest growing Asian country for first quarter of 2013". Inquirer News. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]