Economy of the European Union

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Economy of the European Union
Euro note close 1.jpg
Currency1 Euro (€) = 100 cents

Other currencies in member states
Bulgarian lev • Czech koruna • Danish krone • Hungarian forint • Latvian lats • Lithuanian litas • Polish złoty • Romanian leu • Swedish krona • British Pound sterling

Statistics
GDP ranking1st (2011)
GDP (Nominal)US $17.578 trillion (2011)
12.629 trillion (2011)
GDP (PPP)US $15.821 trillion(2011)
GDP growth rate1.6% (2011)
GDP per capitaUS$35,116 (nominal)
US$31,607 (PPP) (2011)
GDP by sector (2006)70.5% services
27.3% industry
  2.1% agriculture
Inflation3.1% (2011)
Population below poverty threshold17%
Labour force239.3 million[3]
Labour force by occupation (2010)69.5% services
25.4% industry
  5.2% agriculture
Unemployment10.3% (April 2012)
Sources: [4] [5] [6] [7]

[8] [9]

Trading partners
Export of goods1.531 trillion (2011)
$2.131 trillion (2011)
Export of services579.5 billion (2011)
$806.6 billion (2011)

Export goods (2011)

machinery and transport equipment 42.4%; other manufactured goods 23.0%; chemicals and related products 16.5%; food, drinks and tobacco 5.8%; mineral fuels and lubricants 6.5%; raw materials 2.9%; commodities and transactions 2.7%

Main export partners (2011)
United States, 17,0%; China, 8,9%; Switzerland, 7,9%; Russia, 7,1%; Turkey, 4,7% etc.

Import of goods1.685 trillion (2011)
$2.344 trillion (2011)
Import of services470.4 billion (2011)
$654.8 billion (2011)

Import goods (2011)

machinery and transport equipment 26.1%; other manufactured goods 23.6%; mineral fuels and lubricants 28.9%; chemicals and related products 9.0%; food, drinks and tobacco 5.4%; raw materials 5.1%; commodities and transactions 1.8%

Main import partners (2011)
China, 17,3%; United States, 10,9%; Russia, 11,8%;Norway, 5,5%; Switzerland, 5,4%; etc.

FDI inward stock 2.964 trillion (2010)
$ 3.929 trillion (2010)
FDI outward stock 4.152 trillion (2010)
$ 5.504 trillion (2010)
Sources: [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]
Public finances
Public debt€ 10,421.9 billion
(82.5% of GDP) (2011)
Public deficit€ -565.1 billion
(-4.5% of GDP) (2011)
Expenditure49.1% of GDP (2011)
Revenue44.6% of GDP (2011)
Sources: [19]

The economy of the European Union generates a GDP of over €12.629 trillion (US$17.578 trillion in 2011) according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), making it the largest economy in the world. The European Union (EU) economy consists of a Internal Market and the EU is represented as a unified entity in the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Contents

Currency

The official currency of the European Union is the euro used in all its documents and policies. The Stability and Growth Pact sets out the fiscal criteria to maintain for stability and (economic) convergence. The euro is also the most widely used currency in the EU, which is in use in 17 member states known as the Eurozone.

All other member states, apart from Denmark and the United Kingdom, which have special opt-outs, have committed to changing over to the euro once they have fulfilled the requirements needed to do so. Also, Sweden can effectively opt out by choosing when or whether to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, which is the preliminary step towards joining. The remaining states are committed to join the Euro through their Treaties of Accession.

Budget

The operation of the EU has an agreed budget of €141 billion for the year 2011, and €862 billion for the period 2007–2013,[1] this represents around 1% of the EU's GDP.

Economic variation

Below is a table showing, respectively, the GDP and the GDP (PPP) per capita for the European Union and for each of its 27 member states, sorted by GDP (PPP). This can be used as a rough gauge to the relative standards of living among member states, with Luxembourg the highest and Bulgaria the lowest. Eurostat, based in Luxembourg, is the Official Statistical Office of the European Communities releasing yearly GDP figures for the member states as well as the EU as a whole, which are regularly updated, supporting this way a measure of wealth and a base for the European Union's budgetary and economic policies. Figures are stated in euro.

Member statesGDP 2011
millions of
euro
Population
in millions
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (Nominal)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
EU27 = 100

Eurozone
yes/no
 European Union12,629,45850125,20025,200100.0%
 Germany2,770,80081.430,30031,700120%yes
 France2,190,00063.327,00030,600107%yes
 United Kingdom1,737,08962.627,30027,700108%no
 Italy1,580,22061.525,30026,000101%yes
 Spain1,073,38346.024,90023,10099%yes
 Netherlands602,10516.632,90036,100131%yes
 Sweden387,0599.331,70041,000126%no
 Poland370,01338.216,3009,300(2010)65%no
 Belgium368,30410.829,80033,700118%yes
 Austria301,3088.432,20035,700129%yes
 Denmark239,7765.531,40043,000125%no
 Greece215,088(p)11.320,700(p)19,00082%yes
 Finland191,5715.328,90035,200116%yes
 Portugal171,01610.619,40016,00077%yes
 Ireland156,4384.431,90034,900(2010)127%yes
 Czech Republic154,91310.520,00014,70080%no
 Romania136,48021.512,3005,800(2010)49%no
 Hungary100,77810.016,50010,10066%no
 Slovakia69,0585.418,40012,70073%yes
 Luxembourg42,8220.568,90082,700274%yes
 Bulgaria38,4837.611,3004,800(2010)45%no
 Slovenia35,6392.021,00017,40084%yes
 Lithuania30,7053.215,5009,50062%no
 Latvia20,0502.214,6009,80058%no
 Cyprus17,7610.823,00020,60092%yes
 Estonia15,9731.316,80011,90067%yes
 Malta6,3930.421,10015,30083%yes
EU CandidatesGDP 2011
millions of
euro
Population
in millions
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (Nominal)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
perc. of EU27

Eurozone
yes/no
 Iceland10,0990.327,60031,700110%no
 Croatia45,8674.515,30010,400(p)(2010)61%no
 Turkey553,89471.013,4007,50052%no
 Macedonia7,3132.09,0003,400(2010)36%no
 Montenegro0.610,80043%no
 Serbia28,671[2]7.38,8003,87635%no
Current EU applicantsGDP 2010
millions of
euro
Population
in millions
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (Nominal)
per capita 2009
euro
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
perc. of EU27

Eurozone
yes/no
 Albania8,975[3]3.27,800(e)2,80331%no
 Bosnia & Herzegovina[4]3.87,30029%no
EFTA membersGDP 2010
millions of
euro
Population
in millions
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (Nominal)
per capita 2011
euro
GDP (PPP)
per capita 2011
perc. of EU27

Eurozone
yes/no
 Norway311,8554.647,50070,500189%no
 Switzerland398,8787.739,50060,800151%no

p: provisional value
e: estimated value
Source: GDP Millions of PPS:EUROSTAT,[5] GDP(PPP) per inhabitant: EUROSTAT,[5] GDP per capita in PPS :EUROSTAT(,[6] GDP per capita expressed in PPS in percentage of EU (2011): EUROSTAT[7]

Past and future GDP at market prices (millions of euro)[8][nb 1]
2007200820092010201120122013
 European Union12,397,498.012,466,896.511,752,175.412,256,226.412,649,146.512,957,700.313,381,221.5
Member states
 Austria274,019.8282,746.0274,818.2286,197.3300,891.3310,133.3322,190.4
 Belgium335,610.0346,130.0340,398.0354,378.0370,436.4381,779.9396,273.8
 Bulgaria30,772.435,430.534,932.836,033.538,989.9--
 Cyprus15,901.517,157.116,853.517,333.617,928.618,409.619,167.5
 Czech Republic131,908.6154,269.7141,449.8149,313.3157,538.3155,688.8160,030.9
 Denmark227,533.9235,133.0223,985.3235,608.6241,148.1249,122.9258,155.3
 Estonia16,069.416,304.213,839.614,305.316,011.617,006.018,163.9
 Finland179,830.0185,651.0173,267.0180,253.0190,257.4198,251.5206,115.5
 France1,886,792.11,933,195.01,889,231.01,932,801.51,987,699.42,027,969.82,092,928.4
 Germany2,428,500.02,473,800.02,374,500.02,476,800.02,570,000.02,626,427.92,705,181.1
 Greece222,771.1232,920.3231,642.0227,317.9217,828.8212,139.9214,309.2
 Hungary99,430.5105,545.191,402.597,094.899,285.595,398.7100,059.5
 Ireland189,932.9179,989.8160,595.9155,992.3156,109.2158,864.9164,621.6
 Italy1,554,198.91,575,143.91,526,790.41,556,028.61,586,209.01,617,154.71,660,133.6
 Latvia21,026.522,889.818,521.317,974.819,605.920,701.621,888.0
 Lithuania28,738.832,461.726,620.127,535.430,367.832,342.534,545.2
 Luxembourg37,490.539,436.537,392.640,266.941,778.342,893.045,035.9
 Malta5,434.35,814.65,812.76,154.26,440.06,690.07,008.3
 Netherlands571,773.0594,481.0571,145.0588,414.0607,435.2622,714.639,563.6
 Poland311,001.7363,153.7310,418.2354,310.0369,318.3355,346.3372,417.2
 Portugal169,319.2171,983.1168,503.6172,571.2171,632.4168,286.4172,647.7
 Romania124,728.5139,765.4118,196.0124,058.9131,527.8136,278.1147,800.8
 Slovakia54,810.864,500.162,895.565,887.469,944.571,614.0
 Slovenia34,562.337,279.535,310.635,415.836,446.38,018.475,123.1
 Spain1,053,161.01,087,749.01,047,831.01,051,342.01,074,940.51,094,290.1,123,495.9
 Sweden337,944.2333,255.7291,347.0346,536.4386,201.6396,188.4409,582.5
 United Kingdom2,054,237.71,800,710.81,564,467.91,706,301.91,747,315.61,862,190.71,931,407.6
Candidate countries
 Croatia43,380.447,760.245,666.145,899.246,021.646,781.048,175.2
 Macedonia5,966.56,692.66,702.46,948.17,275.87,743.68,386.1
 Turkey479,209.1506,431.9440,367.3552,842.4546,713.3566,640.2620,400.7
EFTA countries
 Iceland14,932.410,303.78,673.79,494.810,080.410,713.411,346.1
 Norway287,712.2311,284.9270,010.7315,233.8343,998.3364,416.8383,818.3
 Switzerland317,222.0343,346.1354,734.9398,877.5477,197.4502,272.1521,523.8
Main economic partners
 USA10,236,191.29,716,820.89,993,547.510,957,607.310,831,809.811,822,419.812,148,404.6
 Japan3,197,025.73,308,478.83,613,140.24,122,481.14,285,853.34,735,371.44,785,085.4

Economies of member states

Economic performance varies from state to state. The Growth and Stability Pact governs fiscal policy with the European Union. It applies to all member states, with specific rules which apply to the eurozone members that stipulate that each state's deficit must not exceed 3% of GDP and its public debt must not exceed 60% of GDP. However, many larger members have consistently run deficits substantially in excess of 3%, and the eurozone as a whole has a debt percentage exceeding 60% (see below).

The following table shows information relating to the member states of the European Union, ordered according to the 'Size' of their economies. (NB: Were the table ordered according to 'GDP per capita' this would perhaps better reflect the strength of an individual economy. But this is not how such tables are commonly structured.) The colours denote how a member state is performing relative to the rest of the European Union, above average (green) or below average (red). The smallest and greatest values in each column are emphasised.

The data for GDP and GDP per capita (PPP) are based on the World Economic Outlook, April 2012 (International Monetary Fund).[9]

Member State
sorted by GDP
GDP
in billions
of USD
(2011)
[9]
GDP
% of EU
(2010)
Annual
change
 % of GDP
(2011)
GDP
per capita
in PPP US$
(2011)
Public Debt[10]
% of GDP
(2011)
Deficit (-)/
Surplus (+)[11]
% of GDP
(2011)
Inflation
% Annual[12]
(2011)
Unemp.[13]
%
2012 M8
 European Union[14]17,577.7100.01.531,60782.5-4.53.1*10.5
 Germany3,577.020.2%3.037,89781.2-1.02.55.5
 France2,776.315.8%1.835,15685.8-5.22.310.6
 United Kingdom2,417.613.9%0.836,09085.7-8.33.3*8.0*
 Italy2,198.712.7%0.430,464120.1-3.92.910.7
 Spain1,493.58.7%0.730,62668.5-8.53.125.1
 Netherlands840.44.8%1.242,18365.2-4.72.5*5.3
 Poland513.82.9%4.320,33456.3-5.13.910.1
 Belgium513.42.9%1.937,73798.0-3.73.57.4
 Sweden538.22.8%3.940,39438.40.31.47.8
 Austria419.22.3%3.141,82272.2-2.63.6*4.5
 Denmark333.21.9%1.037,15246.5-1.82.78.0
 Greece303.01.9%-6.826,294165.3-9.83.124.4*
 Finland266.61.5%2.936,23648.6-0.53.37.9
 Portugal238.91.4%-1.623,361107.8-4.23.615.9
 Ireland217.71.3%0.939,639108.2-13.1-1.6*15.0
 Czech Republic215.31.2%1.727,06241.2-3.12.16.7
 Romania189.81.0%2.512,47633.3-5.25.87.1
 Hungary140.30.8%1.719,59180.64.33.910.7
 Slovakia96.10.5%3.323,30443.3-4.84.114.2
 Luxembourg58.40.3%1.180,11918.2-0.63.75.2
 Bulgaria53.50.3%1.713,59716.3-2.13.412.5
 Slovenia49.60.3%-0.228,64247.6-6.42.18.4
 Lithuania42.70.2%5.918,85638.5-5.54.112.9
 Latvia28.30.1%5.515,66242.6-3.54.215.9*
 Cyprus24.90.1%0.529,07471.6-6.33.511.7
 Estonia22.20.1%7.620,3806.01.05.110.1*
 Malta8.90.1%2.125,42872.0-2.72.4*6.5

Economic growth

Population and GDP per capita of EU member states and some candidates.

The EU's share of Gross world product (GWP) is stable at around one fifth.[15]

The twelve new member states of the European Union have enjoyed a higher average percentage growth rate than their elder members of the EU. Slovakia has the highest GDP growth in the period 2005-2011 among all countries of the European Union (See Tatra Tiger). Notably the Baltic states have achieved massive GDP growth, with Latvia topping 11%, close to China, the world leader at 9% on average for the past 25 years (though these gains have been in great part cancelled by the late-2000's recession).

Reasons for this massive growth include government commitments to stable monetary policy, export-oriented trade policies, low flat-tax rates and the utilisation of relatively cheap labour. For the last year (2011), Estonia had the highest GDP growth from all the states in EU (7,6%). The current map of EU growth is one of huge regional variation, with the larger economies suffering from stagnant growth and the new nations enjoying sustained, robust economic growth.

Although EU27 GDP is on the increase, the percentage of Gross world product is decreasing due to the emergence of economic powers such as China, India and Brazil. In the medium to long term, the EU will be looking forward to increase GDP growth in Italy and the UK in order to stabilise growth in European Union states. This is to ensure sustained economic prosperity.

EU Member States GDP growth rates[16]
Member State % GDP Growth
20052006200720082009201020112005 - 2011
 Austria2.43.73.71.4−3.82.33.013,2
 Belgium1.72.72.91.0−2.82.21.99,9
 Bulgaria6.46.56.46.2−5.50.41.723,6
 Cyprus3.94.15.13.6−1.91.10.517,4
 Czech Republic6.87.05.73.1−4.72.71.724,0
 Denmark2.43.41.6−0.8−5.81.30.82,6
 Estonia8.910.17.5-3.7−14.32.37.617,1
 Finland2.94.45.30.3-8.43.72.910,9
 France1.92.72.3-0.1−2.31.91.78,1
 Germany0.73.73.31.1−5.14.23.010,9
 Greece2.35.53.0-0.2-3.3-3.5-6.9-3.4
 Hungary4.03.90.10.9−6.81.31.64,7
 Ireland5.35.35.2-3.0−7.0-0.40.75,5
 Italy0.92.21.7−1.2−5.51.80.40,0
 Latvia10.111.29.6−3.3-17.7−0.35.512,3
EU Member States GDP growth rates[16]
Member State % GDP Growth
20052006200720082009201020112005 - 2011
 Lithuania7.87.89.82.9−14.81.45.920,1
 Luxembourg5.45.06.60.8−5.32.71.617,5
 Malta3.72.94.34.1−2.62.52.118,1
 Netherlands2.03.43.91.8−3.51.71.210,8
 Poland3.66.26.85.11.63.94.336,0
 Portugal0.81.42.40.0−2.91.4-1.61,4
 Romania4.27.96.37.3−6.6-1.62.520,8
 Spain3.64.13.50.9−3.7−0.30.48,6
 Slovakia6.78.310.55.8−4.94.23.338,3
 Slovenia4.05.86.93.6−8.01.4-0.213,5
 Sweden3.24.33.3−0.6−5.06.23.915,9
 United Kingdom2.12.63.5−1.1−4.42.10.75,4
 European Union2.03.33.10.5−4.32.01.58,2
Eurozone1.73.33.00.4−4.31.91.57,5
GDP per capita in 2008 2009
  >30,000 €
  >25,000 €
  >20,000 €
  >15,000 €
  >10,000 €

Energy resources

The European Union has large coal, oil, and natural gas reserves. There are six oil producers in the European Union, primarily in North Sea oilfields. The United Kingdom by far is the largest producer, however Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania and the Netherlands all produce oil. If it is treated as a single unit, which is not conventional in the oil markets, the European Union is the 7th largest producer of oil in the world, producing 3,424,000 (2001) barrels a day.

It is also the world's 2nd largest consumer of oil, consuming much more than it can produce, at 14,590,000 (2001) barrels a day. Much of the difference comes from Russia and the Caspian Sea basin. All countries in the EU have committed to the Kyoto Protocol, and the European Union is one of its biggest proponents. The European Commission published proposals for the first comprehensive EU energy policy on 10 January 2007.

see also: Renewable energy in the European Union and category:Energy in the European Union

Trade

  EU
  Top 10 trading partners (2010)
  Top 11-20 trading partners (2010)
EU imports, exports and balance of trade in goods from 2007 to 2011 (in billions of euro)

The European Union is the largest exporter in the world[17] and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services.[18] Internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls. In the eurozone, trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members.[19]

The European Union Association Agreement does something similar for a much larger range of countries, partly as a so-called soft approach ('a carrot instead of a stick') to influence the politics in those countries. The European Union represents all its members at the World Trade Organization (WTO), and acts on behalf of member states in any disputes. When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member.[20]

Main trading partners(2011)[21]
RankPartnersImports (Millions Euro)% (of total)Exports (Millions Euro)% (of total)Total trade (Millions Euro)% (of total)
-Total EU1,685,398100%1,531,358100%3,216,756100%
1 United States184,245.610.9%260,553.417.0%444,799.013.8%
2 China292,129.617.3%136,222.38.9%428,351.913.3%
3 Russia198,342.611.8%108,434.07.1%306,776.69.5%
4 Switzerland91,205.45.4%121,671.57.9%212,876.96.6%
5 Norway93,449.85.5%46,529.03.0%139,978.84.4%
6 Turkey47,592.72,8%72,670.94.7%120,263.63.7%
7 Japan67,451.74.0%48,967.53,2%116,419.23.6%
8 India39,314.72.3%40,425.12,6%79,739.82.5%
9 Brazil37,776.02,2%35,728.62,3%73,504.62,3%
10 South Korea36,100.72,1%32,417.22,1%68,517.82,1%
11 Saudi Arabia28,122.61.7%26,395.11,7%54,517.71,7%
12 Canada22,862.31,4%29,609.11,9%52,471.41,6%
13 Singapore18,941.51,1%27,131.31,8%46,072.81,4%
14 Algeria27,678.41,6%17,205.41,1%44,883.81,4%
15 South Africa17,785.01,1%25,634.21,7%43,419.11,3%
16 Australia11,761.90,7%30,805.72,0%42,567.61,3%
17 United Arab Emirates8,775.70,5%32,614.82,1%41,390.51,3%
18 Hong Kong10,133.50,6%30,188.02,0%40,321.51,3%
19 Taiwan23,946.81,4%16,213.41,1%40,160.31,2%
20 Mexico16,270.41,0%23,802.41,6%40,072.81,2%
21 Nigeria24,147.41,4%12,471.90,8%36,619.31,1%
22 Ukraine14,987.50,9%21,196.41,4%36,183.91,1%
23 Malaysia21,004.01,2%11,914.90,8%32,918.91,0%
24 Israel12,645.00,8%16,835.61,1%29,480.70,9%
25 Thailand17,534.61,0%11,858.40,8%29,393.00,9%
26 Kazakhstan22,725.21,3%5,999.50,4%28,724.70,9%
27 Iran16,340.81,0%10,488.40,7%26,829.30,8%
28 Morocco8,688.80,5%15,167.71,0%23,856.40,7%
29 Indonesia16,149.51,0%7,349.80,5%23,499.40,7%
30 Egypt9,510.70,6%13,943.70,9%23,454.40,7%
31 Tunisia9,874.10,6%10,930.90,7%20,804.90,6%
32 Argentina10,656.70,6%8,320.00,5%18,976.80,6%
33 Chile10,869.70,6%7,651.30,5%18,521.00,6%
34 Qatar13,321.40,8%4,885.40,3%18,206.80,6%
35 Vietnam12,801.40,8%5,209.30,3%18,010.70,6%
36 Azerbaijan14,841.90,9%2,862.40,2%17,704.30,6%
37 Croatia5,604.20,3%11,300.70,7%16,904.90,5%
38 Iraq9,469.60,6%3,883.50,3%13,353.10,4%
39 Serbia4,716.00,3%8,486.10,6%13,202.10,4%
40 Libya10,437.10,6%2,066.10,1%12,503.20,4%
41 Colombia6,897.80,4%4,986.10,3%11,883.90,4%
42 Angola6,651.30,4%4,853.40,3%11,504.70,4%
43 Belarus4,220.20,3%7,218.30,5%11,438.50,4%
44 Bangladesh8,585.40,5%1,701.70,1%10,287.10,3%
45 Peru6,342.20,4%2,808.60,2%9,150.70,3%
46 Philippines5,111.40,3%3,978.80,3%9,090.20,3%
47 Venezuela4,086.40,2%4,886.10,3%8,972.50,3%
48 Kuwait4,797.20,3%3,706.70,2%8,503.90,3%
49 Pakistan4,569.30,3%3,740.60,2%8,310.00,3%
50 Gibraltar217.50,0%7,889.90,5%8,107.40,3%
Trade with partner country groupings(2011)[21]
RankPartner regionImports (Millions Euro)% (of total)Exports (Millions Euro)% (of total)Total trade (Millions Euro)% (of total)
-Total EU1,683,931.0100%1,531,122.0100%3,215,053.0100%
-ACP86,277.85,1%80,197.05,2%166,474.85,2%
-Andean Community15,906.90,9%9,652.00,6%25,558.90,8%
-ASEAN93,203.45,5%68,458.54,5%161,661.95,0%
-BRIC567,257.633,7%320,814.821,0%888,072.427,6%
-CACM8,274.50,5%4,335.20,3%12,609.70,4%
-EU Candidate Countries55,324.23,3%86,723.05,7%142,047.24,4%
-CIS257,570.015,3%152,602.010,0%410,172.012,8%
-EFTA188,650.811,2%171,141.911,2%359,792.711,2%
-Latin America Countries106,354.46,3%96,141.46,3%202,495.96,3%
-MEDA(Excl. EU and Turkey)71,958.94,3%85,634.85,6%157,593.74,9%
-Mercosur50,950.83,0%45,820.23,0%96,771.03,0%
-NAFTA223,262.713,3%313,976.620,5%537,239.316,7%

Unemployment

Unemployment rate by country in the EU-27 in March 2009
Unemployment rates in Europe's major economies.

The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in the European Union (EU27) in March 2009 was 8.3% compared to 6.7% in March 2008. The Eurozone (EA16) unemployment figure for January 2009 was 8.2% compared to 7.3% in January 2008.[23] The unemployment rate (EU25) had previously declined in prior years from 8.9% in March 2005 to 8.4% in March 2006 to 7.3% in March 2007.[24]

The rate varies widely by member state. There has been a steep upturn in the unemployment rate since 2008 due to the worldwide credit crunch and following recession. The countries within the EU which were most affected were Spain, Ireland and the Baltic countries with the unemployment rate doubling or in case of the Baltic countries nearly tripling. By comparison in March 2009 the United States had an unemployment rate of 8.6% (2008: 5.1; 2007: 4.4; 2006: 4.7) which was higher than the EU-27's unemployment rate but lower than the EU-16 Eurozone rate of 8.9%. Japan's unemployment rate remained comparatively steady at 4.4% (2008: 3.9; 2007: 4.0; 2006: 4.1).[24][25][26] The following tables show the current unemployment rate of all Member States for March 2009 with comparisons to March 2008, 2007, 2006 and 2005 and comparisons to the United States and Japan:

Industries

The services sector is by far the most important sector in the European Union, making up 69.4% of GDP, compared to the manufacturing industry with 28.4% of GDP and agriculture with only 2.3% of GDP.

Agriculture

The agricultural sector is supported by subsidies from the European Union in the form of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). This currently represents 40–50% of the EU's total spending. It guarantees a minimum price for farmers in the EU. This is criticised as a form of protectionism, inhibiting trade, and damaging developing countries; one of the most vocal opponents is the UK, the third largest economy within the bloc, which has repeatedly refused to give up the annual UK rebate unless the CAP undergoes significant reform; France, the biggest benefactor of the CAP and the bloc's second largest economy, is its most vocal proponent.

Tourism

The European Union is a major tourist destination, attracting visitors from outside of the Union and citizens travelling inside it. Internal tourism is made more convenient for the citizens of some EU member states by the Schengen treaty and the Euro. All citizens of the European Union are entitled to travel to any member state without the need of a visa.

France is the world's number one tourist destination for international visitors, followed by Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom at 2nd, 5th and 6th spots respectively. It is worth noting however a significant proportion of international visitors to EU countries are from other member states.

Companies

The European Union's member states are the birthplace of many of the world's largest leading multinational companies, and home to its global headquarters. Among these are distinguished companies ranked first in the world within their industry/sector, like Allianz, which is the largest financial service provider in the world by revenue; WPP plc which is the world's largest advertising agency by revenue; Airbus, which is the world's largest aircraft manufacturer;[30] Air France-KLM, which is the largest airline company in the world in terms of total operating revenues; Amorim, which is the world's largest cork-processing and cork producer company; ArcelorMittal, which is the largest steel company in the world; Inditex which is the biggest fashion group in the world; Groupe Danone, which has the world leadership in the dairy products market.

Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest beer company in the world; L'Oréal Group, which is the world's largest cosmetics and beauty company; LVMH, which is the world's largest luxury goods conglomerate; Nokia Corporation, which is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones; Royal Dutch Shell, which is one of the largest energy corporations in the world; and Stora Enso, which is the world's largest pulp and paper manufacturer in terms of production capacity, in terms of banking and finance the EU has some of the worlds largest notably HSBC and Grupo Santander, the largest bank in Europe in terms of Market Capitalisation.

Many other European companies rank among the world's largest companies in terms of turnover, profit, market share, number of employees or other major indicators. A considerable number of EU-based companies are ranked among the worlds' top-ten within their sector of activity. Europe is also home to many prestigious car companies such as Fiat, Mercedes, Jaguar Land Rover, Volkswagen, BMW group and Renault.

Gini index

To date, one of the most commonly used measures of income inequality is the Gini index. The Gini coefficient measures income inequality on a scale from 0 to 1. On this scale 0 represents perfect equality with everyone having exactly the same income and 1 represents perfect inequality with one person having all income. According to the UN (UN), Gini index ratings for countries range from 0.247 in Denmark to 0.743 in Namibia. Most post-industrial nations had a Gini coefficient in the range 0.25 to 0.40. In 2005 the gini index for the EU was estimated at 0.31,[31] as a comparison the USA has 0.463,[32] a surprising result[original research?] since the EU has virtually no interstate income redistribution power[citation needed] and poorer new member states joined in 2004.

Regional variation

Comparing the richest areas of the EU can be a difficult task. This is because the NUTS 1 & 2 regions are not homogenous, some of them being very large regions, such as NUTS-1 Hesse (21,100 km²) or NUTS-1 Île-de-France (12,011 km²), whilst other NUTS regions are much smaller, for example NUTS-1 Hamburg (755 km²) or NUTS-1 Greater London (1,580 km²). An extreme example is Finland, which is divided for historical reasons into mainland Finland with 5.3 million inhabitants and Åland, an autonomous archipelago with a population of 27,000, or about the population of a small Finnish city.

One problem with this data is that some areas, including Greater London, are subject to a large number of commuters coming into the area, thereby artificially inflating the figures. It has the effect of raising GDP but not altering the number of people living in the area, inflating the GDP per capita figure. Similar problems can be produced by a large number of tourists visiting the area. The data is used to define regions that are supported with financial aid in programs such as the European Regional Development Fund. The decision to delineate a Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) region is to a large extent arbitrary (i.e. not based on objective and uniform criteria across Europe), and is decided at European level (See also: Regions of the European Union).

Top 10: economically strongest NUTS-1 and NUTS-2 regions

The 10 NUTS-1 and NUTS-2 regions with the highest GDP per capita are almost all, except two, in the first fifteen member states: Prague and Bratislava are the only ones in the 12 new member states that joined in May 2004 and January 2007.[33] The leading regions in the ranking of NUTS-2 regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 were Inner London in the United Kingdom (343% of the average), the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (279%) and Bruxelles/Brussels in Belgium (216%). Figures for these three regions, however, are artificially inflated by the commuters who do not reside in these regions ("Net commuter inflows in these regions push up production to a level that could not be achieved by the resident active population on its own. The result is that GDP per inhabitant appears to be overestimated in these regions and underestimated in regions with commuter outflows."[34]).

Another example of artificial inflation is Groningen. The calculated GDP per capita is very high due to the large natural gas reserves in this region. However, Groningen is in fact one of the poorest parts in the Netherlands. Among the 40 NUTS-2 regions exceeding the 125% level, ten were in Germany, five in the Netherlands, four each in Austria and United Kingdom, three each in Spain and Italy, two each in Belgium and Finland, one each in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, France, Slovakia and Sweden, as well as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The NUTS Regulation lays down a minimum population size of 3 million and a maximum size of 7 million for the average NUTS-1 region, whereas a minimum of 800,000 and a maximum of 3 million for NUTS-2 regions ¹ [20]. This definition, however, is not respected by Eurostat. E.g.: the région of Île-de-France, with 11.6 million inhabitants, is treated as a NUTS-2 region, while the state of Bremen, with only 664,000 inhabitants, is treated as a NUTS-1 region.

RankNUTS-2 RegionMember stateGDP per capita
in EurosAs % of EU-27 average
1.Inner London United Kingdom78,000332 %
2.Luxembourg Luxembourg62,500266%
3.Île-de-France France54,100223 %
4.Hamburg Germany44,100188 %
5.Bratislavský kraj Slovakia41,800178 %
6.Bruxelles-Cap., Brussels Hfdst. Belgium41,500177 %
7.Praha Czech Republic41,200175 %
8.Stockholm Sweden40,400172 %
9.Groningen Netherlands40,000170 %
10.Åland Finland38,500164 %
RankNUTS-1 RegionMember stateGDP per capita
in EurosAs % of EU-27 average
1.Luxembourg Luxembourg70,000279%
2.Île-de-France France54,100216 %
3.Bruxelles-Cap., Brussels Hfdst. Belgium51,100206 %
4.London United Kingdom49,200196 %
5.Hamburg Germany47,100188 %
6.Bremen Germany39,500158 %
7.Åland Finland36,300145 %
8.West-Nederland Netherlands36,300145 %
9.Östra Sverige Sweden35,000140 %
10.Hessen Germany34,800139 %
11.Noord-Holland Netherlands34,500138 %
12.Bayern Germany33,900135 %
13.España central Spain33,500134 %
14.Ireland Ireland33,300133%
15.Baden-Württemberg Germany32,400129 %
16.Ostösterreich Austria32,400129 %
17.Westösterreich Austria32,200128 %
18.Zuid-Nederland Netherlands32,100128 %
19.Catalunya Spain31,900127 %
20.Nord Ovest Italy31,500126 %

Source: Eurostat[34]

Economically weakest NUTS-2 regions

The twenty lowest regions in the ranking in 2008 were all in Bulgaria, Romania, Poland and Hungary, with the lowest figures recorded in Severozapaden in Bulgaria (27% of the average), followed by Nord-Est (29%) in Romania, Severen tsentralen in Bulgaria (29%) and Yuzhen tsentralen in Bulgaria (31%). Among the 64 regions below the 75% level, fifteen were in Poland, seven each in the Czech republic and Romania, six each in Bulgaria and Hungary, four each in Italy and Portugal, three each in Greece, France (all overseas departments) and Slovakia, two in the United Kingdom, one in Spain, as well as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.[33]

RankNUTS-2 RegionMember stateGDP per capita
in EurosAs % of EU-27 average
1.Severozapaden Bulgaria6,40027 %
2.Nord-Est Romania6,90029 %
3.Severen tsentralen Bulgaria6,90029 %
4.Yuzhen tsentralen Bulgaria7,20031 %
5.Sud-Vest Oltenia Romania8,40036 %
6.Severoiztochen Bulgaria8,40036 %
8.Yugoiztochen Bulgaria8,50036 %
7.Sud-Est Romania8,90038 %
9.Észak Magyaroszág Hungary9,30040 %
10.Sud – Muntenia Romania9,50040 %
RankNUTS-1 RegionMember stateGDP per capita
in EurosAs % of EU-27 average
1.Severna i Iztochna Bulgaria Bulgaria8,30033 %
2.Macroregiunea Doi Romania8,30033 %
3.Region Wschodni Poland10,10040 %
4.Alföld és Észak Hungary10,30041 %
5.Macroregiunea Patru Romania10,70043 %
6.Macroregiunea Unu Romania10,80043 %
7.Region Północny Poland12,20049 %
8.Yugozapadna i Yuzhna Tsentralna Bulgaria Bulgaria13,70055 %
9.Region Północno-Zachodni Poland13,70055 %
10.Dunántúl Hungary13,80055 %
11.Region Południowy Poland14,00056 %
12.Latvia Latvia14,10056%
13.Region Południowo-Zachodni Poland14,30057 %
14.Lithuania Lithuania15,30061%
15.Départements d'Outre-Mer France16,40065 %
16.Estonia Estonia17,00068%
17.Sud Italy17,20069 %
18.Macroregiunea Trei Romania17,30069 %
19.Isole Italy17,40069 %
20.Açores Portugal18,10072 %

Source: Eurostat[34]

Richest & Poorest NUTS Regions (GDP PPP 2009)

Richest & Poorest NUTS-2 Regions (GDP PPP 2009)

Member StateRegionGDP per capita
in EurosAs % of EU-27 average
 European Union23,500100.0%
 Austria29,300125%
RichestWien37,900161 %
Salzburg33,400142 %
Vorarlberg30,900131 %
Tirol30,800131 %
Oberösterreich29,200124 %
Steiermark25,400108 %
Kärnten24,400104 %
Niederösterreich24,100102 %
PoorestBurgenland19,80084 %
 Belgium27,700118%
RichestBruxelles-Cap., Brussels Hfdst.52,500223 %
Antwerpen31,700135 %
Vlaams Brabant29,700126 %
Brabant Wallon28,100119 %
West-Vlaanderen26,000111 %
Oost-Vlaanderen25,000107 %
Limburg22,30095 %
Liége20,70088 %
Namur19,60084 %
Luxembourg18,80080 %
PoorestHainaut18,10077 %
 Bulgaria10,30044%
RichestYugozapaden17,70075 %
Yugoiztochen8,50036 %
Severoiztochen8,40036 %
Yuzhen tsentralen7,20031 %
Severen tsentralen6,90029 %
PoorestSeverozapaden6,40027 %
 Cyprus23,500100%
 Czech Republic19,30080%
RichestPraha41,200175 %
Jihovýchod17,50075 %
Střední Čechy17,30074 %
Jihozápad16,70071 %
Moravskoslezsko15,90068 %
Severozápad15,70067 %
Severovýchod15,70067 %
PoorestStřední Morava15,50066 %
 Denmark28,900123%
RichestHovedstaden34,900149 %
Midtjylland27,000115 %
Nordjylland25,900110 %
Syddanmark25,800110 %
PoorestSjælland21,10090 %
 Estonia14,90064%
 Finland26,900115%
RichestÅland38,500164 %
Etelä-Suomi31,000132 %
Länsi-Suomi24,200103 %
Pohjois-Suomi22,20095 %
PoorestItä-Suomi20,00085 %
 France25,400108%
RichestÎle-de-France54,100223%
Rhône-Alpes25,500109 %
Alsace23,900102 %
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur23,700101 %
Midi-Pyrénées22,80097 %
Pays de la Loire22,60096 %
Aquitaine22,60096 %
Champagne-Ardenne21,80093 %
Upper Normandy21,80093 %
Burgundy21,60092 %
Centre21,60092 %
Brittany21,20090 %
Corsica21,20090 %
Nord-Pas-de-Calais20,70088 %
Auvergne20,50087 %
Poitou-Charentes20,30086 %
Franche-Comté20,20086 %
Languedoc-Roussillon20,20086 %
Lorraine20,00085 %
Lower Normandy19,80084 %
Limousin19,70084 %
Picardy19,40083 %
Martinique16,90072 %
Réunion15,70067 %
Guadeloupe15,50066 %
PoorestFrench Guiana12,40053 %
 Germany27,200116%
RichestHamburg44,100188 %
Oberbayern37,700160 %
Bremen37,500160 %
Darmstadt37,100158 %
Düsseldorf31,300133 %
Stuttgart31,100132 %
Mittelfranken31,000132 %
Karlsruhe30,700131 %
Oberpfalz28,600122 %
Tübingen28,100120 %
Schwaben27,900119 %
Köln27,400117 %
Niederbayern27,000115 %
Unterfranken26,900115 %
Hannover26,900114 %
Kassel26,700114 %
Oberfranken26,400112 %
Freiburg26,200111 %
Saarland25,800110 %
Detmold25,400108 %
Gießen25,200107 %
Braunschweig25,200107 %
Berlin24,800106 %
Arnsberg24,700105 %
Rheinhessen-Pfalz24,600105 %
Schleswig-Holstein24,100103 %
Weser-Ems23,700101 %
Münster23,10098 %
Koblenz22,60096 %
Trier22,40095 %
Leipzig21,60092 %
Brandenburg-Südwest21,30091 %
Dresden20,90089 %
Lüneburg19,90085 %
Sachsen-Anhalt19,80084 %
Thüringen19,80084 %
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern19,80084 %
Chemnitz19,60084 %
PoorestBrandenburg-Nordost18,40078 %
 Greece22,10094%
RichestΑττικής – Attica29,100124 %
Βορείου Αιγαίου – North Aegean26,800114 %
Στερεά Ελλάδα – Central Greece20,50087 %
Δυτικής Μακεδονίας – West Macedonia20,30086 %
Κρήτη – Crete19,90085 %
Ιονίων Νησιών – Ionian Islands19,10081 %
Πελοποννήσου – Peloponnese17,90076 %
Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας – Central Macedonia17,90076 %
Νοτίου Αιγαίου – South Aegean17,90076 %
Θεσσαλίας – Thessaly17,00072 %
Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας και Θράκης – East Macedonia and Thrace16,50070 %
Δυτική Ελλάδα – West Greece15,50066 %
PoorestΗπείρου – Hepirus15,30065 %
 Hungary15,20065%
RichestKözép Magyarország25,500109 %
Nyugat Dunántúl14,20060 %
Közép Dunántúl12,60054 %
Dél Dunántúl10,50045 %
Dél Alföld10,10043 %
Észak Alföld9,90042 %
PoorestÉszak Magyaroszág9,30040 %
 Ireland30,000128%
RichestSouthern and Eastern33,300142 %
PoorestBorder, Midland and Western20,80089 %
 Italy24,300104%
RichestSouth Tyrol34,700148 %
Lombardia31,300133 %
Valle d’Aosta31,100133 %
Emilia–Romagna29,900127 %
Trentino29,300125 %
Lazio28,400121 %
Veneto28,100120 %
Friuli-Venezia Giulia27,200116 %
Toscana26,800114 %
Piemonte26,100111 %
Liguria26,100111 %
Marche24,600105 %
Umbria22,50096 %
Abruzzo20,30086 %
Molise19,70084 %
Sardegna18,80080 %
Basilicata17,60075 %
Puglia16,20069 %
Sicilia16,10068 %
Calabria15,90068 %
PoorestCampania15,80067 %
 Latvia12,00051%
 Lithuania12,80055%
 Luxembourg62,500266%
 Malta19,20082%
 Netherlands31,000132%
RichestGroningen40,000170 %
Utrecht36,900157 %
Noord-Holland35,400151 %
Noord-Brabant31,100132 %
Zuid-Holland30,900131 %
Zeeland28,600122 %
Limburg26,900114 %
Overijssel26,900114 %
Gelderland26,600113 %
Friesland25,300108 %
Drenthe23,700101 %
PoorestFlevoland22,70097 %
 Poland14,30061%
RichestMazowieckie22,80097 %
Dolnośląskie15,50066 %
Śląskie15,30065 %
Wielkopolskie15,10065 %
Pomorskie13,90059 %
Łódzkie13,00055 %
Zachodniopomorskie12,50053 %
Małopolskie12,20052 %
Lubuskie12,20052 %
Kujawsko-Pomorskie12,10051 %
Opolskie11,60050 %
Świętokrzyskie11,10047 %
Warmińsko-Mazurskie10,50045 %
Podlaskie10,50045 %
Podkarpackie9,80042 %
PoorestLubelskie9,60041 %
 Portugal18,80080%
RichestLisboa26,400112 %
Madeira24,600105 %
Algarve19,90085 %
Açores17,70075 %
Alentejo17,00072 %
Centro15,60066 %
PoorestNorte14,90064 %
 Romania11,00047%
RichestBucureşti – Ilfov26,100111 %
Vest12,10052 %
Centru10,70046 %
Nord-Vest10,10043 %
Sud – Muntenia9,50040 %
Sud-Est8,90038 %
Sud-Vest Oltenia8,40036 %
PoorestNord-Est6,90029 %
 Slovakia17,00073%
RichestBratislavský kraj41,800178 %
Západné Slovensko16,10068 %
Stredné Slovensko13,60058 %
PoorestVýchodné Slovensko11,50049 %
 Slovenia20,50087%
RichestZahodna Slovenija24,600105 %
PoorestVzhodna Slovenija16,90072 %
 Spain24,200103%
RichestMadrid31,900136 %
Basque Country31,600134 %
Navarre30,500130 %
Catalonia28,200120 %
Aragón26,700113 %
La Rioja26,500113 %
Islas Baleares25,700110 %
Cantabria23,500100 %
Castilla y León23,20099 %
Asturias22,50096 %
Ceuta22,00094 %
Galicia21,80093 %
Comunidad Valenciana21,40091 %
Islas Canarias20,50087 %
Melilla20,30087 %
Murcia20,30086 %
Castilla-La Mancha19,60084 %
Andalucía18,60079 %
PoorestExtremadura16,90072 %
 Sweden28,100119%
RichestStockholm40,400172 %
Västsverige26,200112 %
Mellersta Norrland25,800110 %
Övre Norrland24,800106 %
Småland med öarna24,000102 %
Sydsverige24,000102 %
Östra Mellansverige23,800101 %
PoorestNorra Mellansverige23,500100 %
 United Kingdom26,000111%
RichestInner London78,000332 %
North Eastern Scotland37,200158 %
Berkshire, Buckinghamshire & Oxfordshire33,400142 %
Bedfordshire & Hertfordshire27,200116 %
Gloucestershire, Wiltshire & Bristol26,800114 %
Cheshire26,600113 %
Surrey, East & West Sussex26,600113 %
Hampshire & Isle of Wight25,900110 %
Eastern Scotland25,800110 %
Leicestershire, Rutland & Northamptonshire24,700105 %
South Western Scotland23,500100 %
East Wales23,30099 %
East Anglia23,20099 %
Outer London22,60096 %
Greater Manchester22,50096 %
West Yorkshire22,50096 %
West Midlands22,00094 %
Herefordshire, Worcestershire & Warwickshire22,00093 %
Dorset & Somerset22,00093 %
North Yorkshire21,80093 %
Derbyshire & Nottinghamshire21,80093 %
Kent21,10090 %
Essex20,90089 %
Northumberland and Tyne & Wear20,70088 %
Cumbria20,60088 %
Devon20,30086 %
East Riding & Northern Lincolnshire19,80084 %
Highlands & Islands19,80084 %
Lancashire19,60083 %
Northern Ireland19,50083 %
Shropshire & Staffordshire19,30082 %
South Yorkshire19,30082 %
Merseyside18,60079 %
Lincolnshire18,50079 %
Tees Valley & Durham18,20077 %
Cornwall & Isles of Scilly16,90072 %
PoorestWest Wales & The Valleys16,10068 %

Richest & Poorest NUTS-1 Regions (GDP PPP 2008)

Member StateRegionGDP per capita
in EurosAs % of EU-27 average
 European Union25,100100.0%
 Austria31,100124%
RichestOstösterreich32,400129 %
Westösterreich32,200128 %
PoorestSüdösterreich26,700106 %
 Belgium28,800115%
RichestBruxelles-Cap., Brussels Hfdst.54,100216 %
Vlaams Gewest28,800115 %
PoorestRégion Wallonne21,00084 %
 Bulgaria10,90044%
RichestYugozapadna i Yuzhna Tsentralna Bulgaria13,70055 %
PoorestSeverna i Iztochna Bulgaria8,30033 %
 Cyprus24,40097%
 Czech Republic20,20080%
 Denmark30,800123%
 Estonia17,00068%
 Finland29,500118%
RichestÅland36,300145 %
PoorestManner-Suomi29,500118 %
 France26,700107%
RichestÎle-de-France51,100212 %
Centre-est26,000104 %
Sud-ouest23,70095 %
Méditerranée23,60094 %
Ouest23,30093 %
Bassin parisien23,00092 %
Est22,80091 %
Nord-Pas-de-Calais21,70087 %
PoorestDépartements d'Outre-Mer16,40065 %
 Germany29,000116%
RichestHamburg47,100188 %
Bremen39,500158 %
Hessen34,800139 %
Bayern33,900135 %
Baden-Württemberg32,400129 %
Nordrhein-Westfalen29,100116 %
Saarland28,700114 %
Niedersachsen25,500102 %
Rheinland-Pfalz25,100100 %
Schleswig-Holstein24,90099 %
Berlin24,70099 %
Sachsen21,50086 %
Sachsen-Anhalt21,40085 %
Thüringen21,10084 %
Brandenburg20,50082 %
PoorestMecklenburg-Vorpommern20,40081 %
 Greece23,50094%
RichestAttica28,200113 %
Aegean Islands, Crete24,20097 %
Central Greece20,90083 %
PoorestNorthern Greece19,60078 %
 Hungary16,20064%
RichestKözép Magyarország26,800107 %
Dunántúl13,80055 %
PoorestAlföld és Észak10,30041 %
 Ireland33,300133%
 Italy26,000104%
RichestNord Ovest31,500126 %
Nord Est31,000124 %
Centro29,000116 %
Isole17,40069 %
PoorestSud17,20069 %
 Latvia14,10056%
 Lithuania15,30061%
 Luxembourg70,000279%
 Malta19,50078%
 Netherlands33,500134%
RichestWest-Nederland36,300145 %
Noord-Nederland34,500138 %
Zuid-Nederland32,100128 %
PoorestOost-Nederland28,200112 %
 Poland14,10056%
RichestRegion Centralny19,20077 %
Region Południowo-Zachodni14,30057 %
Region Południowy14,00056 %
Region Północno-Zachodni13,70055 %
Region Północny12,20049 %
PoorestRegion Wschodni10,10040 %
 Portugal19,50078%
RichestMadeira25,800103 %
Continente19,40077 %
PoorestAçores18,30073 %
 Romania11,70047%
RichestMacroregiunea Trei17,30069 %
Macroregiunea Unu10,80043 %
Macroregiunea Patru10,70043 %
PoorestMacroregiunea Doi8,30033 %
 Slovakia18,10072%
 Slovenia22,80091%
 Spain25,900103%
RichestMadrid33,500134 %
Noreste31,900127 %
Este27,400110 %
Noroeste23,30093 %
Canarias22,60090 %
Centro22,00088 %
PoorestSur20,20081 %
 Sweden30,700122%
RichestÖstra Sverige35,000140 %
Södra Sverige28,100112 %
PoorestNorra Sverige27,800111 %
 United Kingdom28,700115%
RichestLondon49,200196 %
South East (England)30,400121 %
Scotland28,000112 %
East of England27,200109 %
South West (England)26,100104 %
East Midlands (England)25,100100 %
West Midlands (England)24,80099 %
North West (England)24,20097 %
Yorkshire & the Humber24,00096 %
Northern Ireland22,80091 %
North East (England)22,20089 %
PoorestWales21,20085 %

Source: Eurostat[35]

See also

References

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  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ BiH Application
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  6. ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 11 March 2011. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tsieb010. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  7. ^ "GDP per capita in the Member States ranged from 45% to 274% of the EU27 average in 2011" (PDF). 20 June 2012. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/2-20062012-AP/EN/2-20062012-AP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  8. ^ GDP at market prices
  9. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. 17 April 2012. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=39&pr.y=16&sy=2011&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=941%2C946%2C137%2C122%2C181%2C124%2C918%2C138%2C964%2C182%2C968%2C423%2C935%2C128%2C936%2C939%2C961%2C172%2C184%2C132%2C134%2C174%2C144%2C944%2C178%2C136%2C112&s=NGDPD%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
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  15. ^ "2020_REPORT" (PDF). http://graphics.eiu.com/files/ad_pdfs/eiuForesight2020_WP.pdf. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
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  17. ^ "Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  18. ^ "World trade report 2009". WTO information website. http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/anrep_e/world_trade_report09_e.pdf. 
  19. ^ Se-jeong, Kim (19 July 2009). "EU-Korea FTA Will Be a Long Process: Greek Ambassador". The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2009/07/139_48696.html. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  20. ^ Se-jeong, Kim (19 July 2009). "EU-Korea FTA Will Be a Long Process: Greek Ambassador". The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2009/07/139_48696.html. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  21. ^ a b EU top trading partners
  22. ^ Extra-EU27 trade, by main partners, total product
  23. ^ "Euro Area unemployment up to 8.2%". http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/PGP_PRD_CAT_PREREL/PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2009/PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2009_MONTH_02/3-27022009-EN-AP.PDF. 
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  27. ^ Euro area unemployment rate at 10.0%Eurostat. 30. April 2010
  28. ^ Euro area unemployment rate at 9.9%Eurostat. 31. May 2011
  29. ^ Euro area unemployment rate at 10.9%Eurostat. 3. May 2012
  30. ^ "Airbus beats Boeing in 2010". News.ninemsn.com.au. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=8198192. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
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  32. ^ DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica Smith (August 2008). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2008pubs/p60-235.pdf. Retrieved 13 November 2008. 
  33. ^ a b Eurostat (24 February 2011). "Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008". Europa web portal. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/1-24022011-AP/EN/1-24022011-AP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  34. ^ a b c Eurostat (18 February 2010). "Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2007". Europa web portal. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/1-18022010-AP/EN/1-18022010-AP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  35. ^ Regional gross domestic product (PPS per inhabitant), by NUTS 2 regions — Eurostat

The following links are used for the GDP growth and GDP totals (IMF):

External links