Economic sanctions

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Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another country (or group of countries). Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers and restrictions on financial transactions. Economic sanctions are not necessarily imposed because of economic circumstances — they may also be imposed for a variety of political and social issues.[citation needed] Economic sanctions can be used for achieving domestic political gain.[1][2]

Trade sanctions[edit]

Trade sanctions are trade penalties imposed by a country or group of countries on another country or group of countries. Typically the sanctions take the form of import tariffs (duties), licensing or other administrative regulations. They tend to arise in the context of an unresolved trade or policy dispute.There is disagreement about the fairness of some policy affecting international trade (imports or exports)[not specific enough to verify].

Subsidization or the unfair protection of exports of one or more products, or unfairly protecting some sector from competition (from imported goods or services).

Politics of sanctions[edit]

Economic sanctions are used as a tool of foreign policy by many governments. Economic sanctions are usually imposed by a larger country upon a smaller country for one of the two reasons – either the latter is a threat to the security of the former nation or that country treats its citizens unfairly. They can be used as a coercive measure for achieving particular policy goals related to trade or for humanitarian violations. Economic sanctions are used as an alternative weapon instead of going to war to achieve desired outcomes.

Effectiveness of economic sanctions[edit]

Regime change is the most frequent foreign policy objective of economic sanctions.[3] There is controversy over the effectiveness of economic sanctions in their ability to achieve the stated purpose. Haufbauer et al. claimed that in their studies 34 percent of the cases were successful [4] When Robert A. Pape reexamined their study, he claimed that only five of their forty so-called "successes" stood out, dropping their success rate to 4%.[5]

It also affects the economy of the imposing country to some degree. If import restrictions were made, the consumers in the imposing country would have fewer choices of goods. If export restrictions were made or sanction prohibited businesses in the imposing country from doing business with the target country, the imposing country could lose markets and investment opportunities to competing countries.[6]

Examples of economic sanctions[edit]

The United States sanctioned Brazil over patent law in the late 1980s.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://people.tamu.edu/~taeheewhang/index_files/Journal%20articles_files/Whang_identified__symbolic.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/isqu/2011/00000055/00000003/art00011
  3. ^ Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, 3rd Edition, Hufbauer et al. page 67
  4. ^ Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, 3rd Edition, Hufbauer et al. page 159
  5. ^ Why economic sanctions still do not work, Robert A. Pape , page 66
  6. ^ Griswold, Daniel. "Going Alone on Economic Sanctions Hurts U.S. More than Foes." November 27, 2000. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10888 (accessed April 28, 2011).
  7. ^ Howse, Robert L. and Genser, Jared M. (2008) "Are EU Trade Sanctions on Burma Compatible with WTO Law?" Michigan Journal of International Law 29(2): pp. 165–196
  8. ^ Stanglin, Doug. "Brazil slaps trade sanctions on U.S. to retaliate for subsidies to cotton farmers." March 9, 2010. Retrieved on March 14, 2010.
  9. ^ http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/202/42450.html
  10. ^ (Vietnamese) Hoa Kỳ tăng thêm biện pháp trừng phạt Bắc Hàn

External links[edit]