Eau Claire, Wisconsin

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Eau Claire, Wisconsin
City
Barstow St.
Barstow St.
Motto: "Voici l'eau claire!"
("Here [is] clear water!")
Location within the state of Wisconsin.
Location within the state of Wisconsin.
Location within Eau Claire County (pink-shaded portion is within Chippewa County).
Location within Eau Claire County (pink-shaded portion is within Chippewa County).
Coordinates: 44°49′N 91°30′W / 44.817°N 91.500°W / 44.817; -91.500Coordinates: 44°49′N 91°30′W / 44.817°N 91.500°W / 44.817; -91.500
CountryUnited States
StateWisconsin
CountiesEau Claire, Chippewa
Government
 • TypeCouncil-manager
 • City managerRussell Van Gompel[1]
 • Council Pres.Kerry Kincaid (NP)
 • WI AssemblyDana Wachs (D)
Kathy Bernier (R)
Warren Petryk (R)
 • State SenateKathleen Vinehout (D)
Terry Moulton (R)
 • U.S. HouseRon Kind (D)
Area[2]
 • City34.14 sq mi (88.42 km2)
 • Land32.04 sq mi (82.98 km2)
 • Water2.10 sq mi (5.44 km2)  6.15%
Elevation787 ft (240 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City65,883
 • Estimate (2012[4])66,966
 • Density2,056.3/sq mi (793.9/km2)
 • Metro161,151
Time zoneCST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s)715 & 534
FIPS code55-22300[5]
GNIS feature ID1564402[6]
Websitehttp://www.eauclairewi.gov
Page text.[7]
 
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Eau Claire, Wisconsin
City
Barstow St.
Barstow St.
Motto: "Voici l'eau claire!"
("Here [is] clear water!")
Location within the state of Wisconsin.
Location within the state of Wisconsin.
Location within Eau Claire County (pink-shaded portion is within Chippewa County).
Location within Eau Claire County (pink-shaded portion is within Chippewa County).
Coordinates: 44°49′N 91°30′W / 44.817°N 91.500°W / 44.817; -91.500Coordinates: 44°49′N 91°30′W / 44.817°N 91.500°W / 44.817; -91.500
CountryUnited States
StateWisconsin
CountiesEau Claire, Chippewa
Government
 • TypeCouncil-manager
 • City managerRussell Van Gompel[1]
 • Council Pres.Kerry Kincaid (NP)
 • WI AssemblyDana Wachs (D)
Kathy Bernier (R)
Warren Petryk (R)
 • State SenateKathleen Vinehout (D)
Terry Moulton (R)
 • U.S. HouseRon Kind (D)
Area[2]
 • City34.14 sq mi (88.42 km2)
 • Land32.04 sq mi (82.98 km2)
 • Water2.10 sq mi (5.44 km2)  6.15%
Elevation787 ft (240 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City65,883
 • Estimate (2012[4])66,966
 • Density2,056.3/sq mi (793.9/km2)
 • Metro161,151
Time zoneCST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s)715 & 534
FIPS code55-22300[5]
GNIS feature ID1564402[6]
Websitehttp://www.eauclairewi.gov
Page text.[7]

Eau Claire (/ˈklɛər/) is a city located in the west-central part of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 65,883 as of the 2010 U.S. Census,[8] making it the 9th largest city in the state. It is the county seat of Eau Claire County,[9] although a small portion of the city lies in neighboring Chippewa County. Eau Claire is the principal city of the Eau Claire, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is a part of the Eau-Claire-Menomonie Combined Statistical Area.

Name origin[edit]

"Eau Claire" is the singular form of the original French name, "Eaux Claires", meaning "Clear Waters", for the Eau Claire River. According to local legend, the river was so named because early French explorers journeying down the rain-muddied Chippewa River, happened upon the Eau Claire River, excitedly exclaiming "Voici l'eau claire!" ("Here [is] clear water!"), the city motto, which appears on the city seal. The name is pronounced as if it were spelled "O'Clare".

Eau Claire is the Horseradish Capital of the World[10] and the Kubb Capital of North America, as, among other things kubb related, it annually hosts the U.S. National Kubb Championship.

Geography[edit]

Water St.

Eau Claire is located at 44°49′N 91°30′W / 44.817°N 91.500°W / 44.817; -91.500, (44.8146, −91.4927)[11] approximately 90 miles (145 km) east of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. The city is located on the northern fringes of the Driftless Zone.

The city was founded near the confluence of the Eau Claire and Chippewa rivers as three separate settlements. The main section of downtown is on the site of the original village, where Stephen McCann, in partnership with J. C. Thomas, put up three buildings in 1845. Although these structures were erected to establish a claim to the land they stood on, the McCann family moved into one of them and became the first permanent settlers.[12] West Eau Claire, founded in 1856, was across the river near the present-day county courthouse, and incorporated in 1872. Between a mile and a half and two miles downstream, the Daniel Shaw & Co. lumber company founded Shawtown, which was annexed by the 1930s.[citation needed] By the 1950s, the entire city had spread far enough to the east to adjoin Altoona.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.14 square miles (88.42 km2), of which 32.04 square miles (82.98 km2) is land and 2.10 square miles (5.44 km2) is water.[2]

The terrain of the city is characterized by the river valleys, with steep slopes leading from the center to the eastern and southern sections of the city. The lands into which the urban area is currently expanding are increasingly hilly.

There are two lakes in the city, Dells Pond, and Half Moon Lake. Dells Pond is a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam, and was formerly used as a holding pool for logs. Half Moon Lake is an oxbow lake created as part of the former course of the Chippewa River.

Climate data for Eau Claire, Wisconsin (Eau Claire Regional), 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)54
(12)
59
(15)
84
(29)
91
(33)
95
(35)
100
(38)
111
(44)
104
(40)
97
(36)
89
(32)
74
(23)
64
(18)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C)23.4
(−4.8)
28.9
(−1.7)
41.1
(5.1)
57.7
(14.3)
69.8
(21)
78.6
(25.9)
82.9
(28.3)
80.3
(26.8)
71.4
(21.9)
57.9
(14.4)
41.4
(5.2)
27.1
(−2.7)
55.04
(12.81)
Average low °F (°C)5.4
(−14.8)
9.9
(−12.3)
21.6
(−5.8)
34.2
(1.2)
45.4
(7.4)
55.3
(12.9)
60.2
(15.7)
58.3
(14.6)
48.9
(9.4)
36.8
(2.7)
24.5
(−4.2)
10.6
(−11.9)
34.26
(1.24)
Record low °F (°C)−45
(−43)
−35
(−37)
−35
(−37)
5
(−15)
20
(−7)
33
(1)
42
(6)
37
(3)
23
(−5)
11
(−12)
−18
(−28)
−32
(−36)
−45
(−43)
Precipitation inches (mm).94
(23.9)
.91
(23.1)
1.86
(47.2)
2.73
(69.3)
3.47
(88.1)
4.17
(105.9)
3.83
(97.3)
4.45
(113)
3.69
(93.7)
2.35
(59.7)
1.86
(47.2)
1.17
(29.7)
31.43
(798.1)
Snowfall inches (cm)10.3
(26.2)
8.2
(20.8)
8.4
(21.3)
2.2
(5.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.6
(1.5)
4.6
(11.7)
9.9
(25.1)
44.2
(112.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9.78.19.311.112.212.111.410.211.310.19.210.1124.8
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)8.46.94.92.000000.64.07.734.6
Source: NOAA (extremes 1949–present),[13]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18702,293
188010,119341.3%
189017,41572.1%
190017,5170.6%
191018,3104.5%
192020,90614.2%
193026,28725.7%
194030,74517.0%
195036,05817.3%
196037,9875.3%
197044,61917.5%
198051,50915.4%
199056,85610.4%
200061,7048.5%
201065,8836.8%
Est. 201367,5452.5%
U.S. Decennial Census

As of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $36,399, and the median income for a family was $49,320. Males had a median income of $32,503 versus $23,418 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,230. About 5.5% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

As of the most recent census, the Eau Claire County portion had a population of 63,902 inhabitants, while the Chippewa County portion was 1,981 inhabitants.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 65,883 people, 26,803 households, and 14,293 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,056.3 inhabitants per square mile (793.9 /km2). There were 28,134 housing units at an average density of 878.1 per square mile (339.0 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.4% White, 1.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 4.6% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population.

There were 26,803 households of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.7% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89.

The median age in the city was 29.8 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 22.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.2% were from 25 to 44; 21.7% were from 45 to 64; and 11.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female.

As of 2010, there were 1,981 persons within city limits in Chippewa County and 63,902 in Eau Claire County for a total of 65,883.[14]

Metropolitan area[edit]

Together with surrounding communities, the Eau Claire metropolitan area is home to 114,483 people, according to the 2000 census. The city forms the core of the United States Census Bureau's Eau Claire Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Eau Claire and Chippewa Counties (composite 2000 population: 148,337). Together with the Menomonie Micropolitan Statistical Area (which includes all of Dunn County) to the west, the Eau Claire metropolitan area, forms the Census Bureau's Eau Claire-Menomonie Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a consolidated 2000 population of 188,195. 2004 population estimates place the two-county Eau Claire-Chippewa Falls metropolitan population at 155,680, and the expanded Eau Claire-Menomonie CMSA population at 197,417.[15]

Hmong population[edit]

As of 2008, the Hmong Americans are the largest ethnic minority in Eau Claire. Jenna Christian, Pa Sia Low Moua, and Ingolf Vogeler, the authors of "The Cultural Landscape of the Hmong in Eau Claire, Wisconsin," wrote that the Hmong are also the city's "most visible ethnic group".[16]

In 2008 there were 1,566 Hmong people in Eau Claire County,[16] While the Hmong population is numerically smaller in Eau Claire County compared to Milwaukee, the Hmong have a higher percentage of the population in Eau Claire County, and Christian, Moua, and Vogeler wrote that "the Hmong stand out more singularly as an ethic minority than they do in metropolitan areas like Milwaukee, which is already more racially and culturally diverse."[17] The majority of the county's Hmong live in the city of Eau Claire. In select Eau Claire neighborhoods, up to 30% of the residents are Hmong.[16]

As of 2008, the 80% of the vendors at the local farmers' market are Hmong.[16]

Government[edit]

In November 1909 a movement to change the city government from the aldermanic to the commission form was launched by the West Side Boosters, the forerunners of the Water Street, Eau Claire Business Men. The campaign that preceded the February 15 election was a heated one. Local rallies and mass meetings were held. The 20 members of the common council were about equally split about the change. The final vote was 1867 for change and 995 against.

Since switching from a mayoral system in 1948, Eau Claire has had a city manager-city council form of government. The city council is a non-partisan 11-member governing council consisting of five members elected from aldermanic districts in odd-numbered years, five members elected at-large in even-numbered years, and an elected city council president, elected at-large in odd-numbered years.[18]

The council's legislative meetings are held on the second and fourth Tuesday of each month. Public hearings are held on the Monday evenings before legislative sessions. All meetings are held in the City Council Chambers at City Hall in downtown Eau Claire.[19] Meetings are televised live on public-access television channel 97 and digital cable channel 994 and simulcast on radio station WRFP 101.9 FM.[20]

Eau Claire is represented by Ron Kind (D) in the United States House of Representatives, and by Ron Johnson (R) and Tammy Baldwin (D) in the United States Senate. Terry Moulton (R) and Kathleen Vinehout (D) represent Eau Claire in the Wisconsin State Senate, and Kathy Bernier (R), Dana Wachs (D), and Warren Petryk (R) in the Wisconsin State Assembly.

Economy[edit]

The Eau Claire paper mill, circa 1890-1940. Both the dam and the mill remain functional.

The lumber industry drove Eau Claire's growth in the late 19th century. At one time, there were 22 sawmills operating in the city.[citation needed]

Since the loss of several thousand manufacturing jobs in the early 1990s (due to the closure of the local Uniroyal tire plant), the city's economy was reshaped by the opening of a number of plants engaged in the construction of computer hardware, such as Hutchinson Technology's largest plant, and is home to IDEXX Computer Systems, a division of IDEXX Laboratories.[citation needed]

Eau Claire is home to several national and regional companies including Menards, Cascades Tissue Group, National Presto Industries, Inc., Midwest Manufacturing, Erbert & Gerbert's, Silver Spring Foods, and Open-Silicon.

Today retail, health care and education are the primary employment sectors in Eau Claire.[citation needed]

In 2012 Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked Eau Claire seven of the Ten Best Cities for Cheapskates.[21]

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Eau Claire is served by the Chippewa Valley Regional Airport.

Mass transit[edit]

Bus[edit]

Eau Claire is served by both the Greyhound bus line (Milwaukee to Minneapolis, via I-94), and Jefferson Lines Bus service (Green Bay to Minneapolis, via Hwy 29 to I-94).

Major highways[edit]

Rail[edit]

Eau Claire is located on freight rail lines owned by the Union Pacific Railroad,[22] formerly owned by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railway (Omaha Road), and later part of the Chicago and North Western Railway. C&NW operated passenger trains from Chicago through Eau Claire to the Twin Cities area until 1963 when the Twin Cities 400 ended service.[23] Passenger rail service to Eau Claire is seen as critical by the Minnesota Department of Transportation and Wisconsin Department of Transportation, and they plan to return trains to the city by 2030.[24]

Education[edit]

Eau Claire schools are part of the Eau Claire Area School District.The city has two public high schools: Memorial High School and North High School; and two public charter high schools: McKinley Charter School and Technology Charter School. Eau Claire also has two private high schools: Catholic Regis High School and Immanuel Lutheran High School.

Eau Claire is home to two public colleges (University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire and the Chippewa Valley Technical College) and two private colleges (Immanuel Lutheran College and a campus of Globe University/Minnesota School of Business).

There are 13 elementary schools, and 3 middle schools in the Eau Claire Area School District.[25] Including Chippewa Valley Montessori Charter School, which was founded in 2002, and follows the teaching of Maria Montessori.[26]

Religion[edit]

Temple Sholom synagogue in Eau Claire

Eau Claire is home to these religious denominations:[citation needed]

Media and entertainment[edit]

Print media[edit]

The Eau Claire Leader-Telegram has a daily circulation of 26,901 during the week and a circulation rate of 38,824 for the Sunday paper.[citation needed] Volume One, an alt-weekly magazine published 26 times per year with a circulation rate of 15,000 and an estimated readership of 45,000.[citation needed] .

Television[edit]

Nielson Market Research lists Eau Claire/La Crosse as the 127th largest television market area.[28] The major broadcast stations serving the area are:

Radio[edit]

FM

AM

Local music scene[edit]

The Sarge Boyd Bandshell in Owen Park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Built in 1938 to showcase the Eau Claire Municipal Band, it remains the city's premier outdoor performance venue.

The Chippewa Valley, especially Eau Claire, has groups and performers in the indie rock, metal/hardcore, hip hop, jam, and jazz genres. Bands such as Bon Iver, Laarks, The Daredevil Christopher Wright, Adelyn Rose, and Softly Dear have achieved varying levels of national success. Pop-punk has created a following in the Eau Claire area, and hip-hop artists also claim Eau Claire as their homeland.

Amble Down, an Eau Claire based record label has released many local albums by bands such as The Daredevil Christopher Wright, Michael Perry and the Long Beds, Meridene, The Gentle Guest, The Cloud Hymn, We Are The Willows and Cranes & Crows.

Eau Claire is also home to one of the best jazz programs in the nation. Its top university jazz ensemble has been awarded the prestigious "DownBeat Magazine Award" for best college jazz ensemble in the nation six times, the most recent being in 2010. The community also hosts the Eau Claire Jazz Festival, which has been in existence since 1968.

Popular destinations for live music in the Chippewa Valley include: The State Theatre, The Grand Little Theater, The House of Rock, Infinitea Teahouse, Phoenix Park, The Acoustic Cafe, The Mousetrap, The Cabin on the UWEC Campus, Hoffy's Skate America, and the Sarge Boyd Bandshell in Owen Park where the Eau Claire Municipal Band presents free family-oriented programming throughout the summer.

The Eau Claire Male Chorus was formed in 1946 and has performed two concerts each year since it started. They perform a Christmas Concert in December and a special themed concert each Spring in April or May. In 2011 they started a dinner concert. Every 5 years they host an Inter-Regional Big Sing concert for the Association of Male Choruses of America with a combined mass chorus of about 400 men. In addition they travel to other areas to perform in concerts, sing at local nursing homes and churches.

In 2006, during a concert in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Bob Seger revealed that he had written the song "Turn the Page" in a hotel room in Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

Country Jam USA was formed in Eau Claire in 1987. In 1990 the first Country Jam was held in Eau Claire and often attracts visitors in the summer months.

Performing arts[edit]

Eau Claire has a modest but active theatre community. Although no professional theatre groups make their home in the region, amateur and community theatres have a significant presence; the most visible of these are the Chippewa Valley Theatre Guild (CVTG) and the Eau Claire Children's Theatre (ECCT). In addition, the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire has a robust theatre program, and traveling professional shows frequently make stops in the city. The Kjer Theatre and the State Theatre are the primary indoor performing arts venues, although both CVTG and ECCT have recently established their own independent venues, in 2006 and 2010 respectively.

Recreation[edit]

The lit tennis courts in Owen Park are popular with university students.

There are several large parks in the city: Owen Park, along the Chippewa River, home to a large bandshell where open air concerts are held throughout the summer; Putnam Park, which follows the course of Putnam Creek and Little Niagara Creek east from the UWEC campus; Carson Park, situated in the middle of an oxbow lake; and Phoenix Park on the site of the old Phoenix Steel plant at the confluence of the Eau Claire and Chippewa River. Phoenix Park is the host of a weekly farmers market and open air concerts during summer months. Riverview Park is also a common summer swimming destination, as well as one of the local boat landings. This park includes picnicking areas and grills, as well as public restrooms.

The City of Eau Claire also operates Fairfax public pool, and Hobbs Municipal Ice Center, an indoor ice center.

Eau Claire is at the head of the Chippewa River State Trail, a biking and recreation trail that follows the lower course of the Chippewa River.

Sports[edit]

Baseball[edit]

Eau Claire has three amateur baseball teams. The Eau Claire Express are a team that plays in the Northwoods League, an NCAA-sanctioned summer baseball league. Their home games are played at Carson Park. The Eau Claire Cavaliers, also plays home games at Carson Park.[29] The Eau Claire Bears play in the Chippewa River Baseball League. Also, three of Eau Claire's High Schools have baseball teams.[30] Eau Claire North H.S. won the 2011 state championship. Eau Claire also has a large youth baseball program including a summer parks and recreation league, Little League (Nationals, American,Lowes Creek and Seymour). A Babe Ruth League (13-18 year olds) which won State Tournaments at ages 13, 14 and 15 in 2012. Those Teams all went on to win 3rd place at their Regional Tournaments.

Curling[edit]

Eau Claire Curling Club has been around for over 50 years. [3]

Football[edit]

The Chippewa Valley Predators and the Eau Claire Crush, adult amateur football teams in the Northern Elite Football League, play their home games at Carson Park.

Kubb[edit]

Eau Claire hosts the U.S. National Kubb Championship. Started in 2007, the tournament is the largest kubb tournament outside of Europe and one of only three two-day kubb tournaments in the world, along with the Kubb World Championship in Gotland, Sweden and the Swedish national championships.[citation needed] Kubb is an old Nordic game, which involves tossing wooden batons at wooden blocks. With several strategic elements, its nickname is "Viking Chess". Kubb is played in physical education classes, summer recreational programs, and a host of city/community events. There are dozens of kubb teams and numerous kubb clubs in the Eau Claire area. Eau Claire is also home to Kubbnation Magazine and Wisconsin Kubb.

Roller Derby[edit]

Established in 2009, The Chippewa Valley Roller Girls (CVRG) represent Eau Claire and the surrounding Chippewa Valley region. CVRG is a WFTDA League member - currently an Apprentice league. CVRG is Eau Claire's original all-female flat track roller derby league. CVRG is managed and operated entirely by the skaters themselves, via an elected board of directors and numerous skater-led committees.

Soccer[edit]

The Eau Claire Aris FC are Eau Claire's team in the NPSL. Eau Claire United[31] is a competitive youth soccer team competing in the MYSA.

Recognition[edit]

America's Promise named the city as one of the 100 Best Communities for Young People in 2007.[32] Eau Claire was among the first Tree Cities in Wisconsin, having been recognized as such since 1980.[33]

Notable people[edit]

See Also

General[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Media[edit]

Sports[edit]

Fictional[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Eau Claire is sistered with the following towns:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "City Manager". City of Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  5. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ [1], additional text.
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  10. ^ Claims to Fame - Food, Epodunk, accessed April 16, 2007
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  12. ^ Bailey, William F. (1914). Chapter 40 - Hotels of Eau Claire. "History of Eau Claire County Wisconsin, 1914, Past and Present". The Hart House (Chicago, Illinois: C. F. Cooper & Co). pp. 540–552. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  13. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  14. ^ Wisconsin State Legislature. 2010 Wisconsin Census Population Counts.
  15. ^ 2004 Wisconsin Bluebook data
  16. ^ a b c d Christian, Moua, and Vogeler, p. 1 (internal document page number)
  17. ^ Christian, Moua, and Vogeler, p. 3 (internal document page number)
  18. ^ "Eau Claire City Government". Ecpubliclibrary.info. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  19. ^ "City Council". Ci.eau-claire.wi.us. September 3, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Eau Claire City Council". Eauclairewicoc.weblinkconnect.com. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  21. ^ http://www.kiplinger.com/slideshow/10-best-cities-for-cheapskates/5.html
  22. ^ "Wisconsin Railroads 2009". Wisconsin Department of Transportation. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  23. ^ Scribbins, Jim (2008) [1982]. The 400 Story. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816654499. OCLC 191760067. 
  24. ^ Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Kimley Horn and Associates, Inc., and TKDA, Inc. (February 2009). "Minnesota Comprehensive Statewide Freight and Passenger Rail Plan (Final Report)". Minnesota Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  25. ^ http://www.ecasd.k12.wi.us/schools/index.cfm
  26. ^ http://www.ecasd.k12.wi.us/schools/charter/montessori/
  27. ^ Unitarian Universalist Congregation (Eau Claire, Wisconsin)
  28. ^ Nielsen Media Research
  29. ^ Eau Claire Cavaliers
  30. ^ "2011 State Spring Baseball Tournament". Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  31. ^ a b ecusoccer.org
  32. ^ Americas Promise Alliance
  33. ^ Your State Poster Contest Coordinator
  34. ^ Aronson, Julie and Wieseman, Marjorie (2006). "Cornelia Ellis Hildebrandt", Perfect Likeness: European And American Portrait Miniatures from the Cincinnati Art Museum, p. 207. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300115806
  35. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1986-1987,' Biographical Sketch of Joseph Looby, pg. 67
  36. ^ Ann Landers
  37. ^ http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/athletes/ba/lemoine-batson-1.html
  38. ^ http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/athletes/pe/mike-peplinski-1.html
  39. ^ Pro-Football-Reference.com - Pro Football Statistics and History
  40. ^ The Internet Hockey Database -- Hockey Statistics, Data, Logos, and Trading Cards
  41. ^ Find Articles at BNET
  42. ^ Baseball-Reference.com - Major League Baseball Statistics and History
  43. ^ NBA & ABA Basketball Statistics & History | Basketball-Reference.com
  44. ^ NBA & ABA Basketball Statistics & History | Basketball-Reference.com
  45. ^ Pro-Football-Reference.com - Pro Football Statistics and History
  46. ^ Sports-Reference.com - Sports Statistics and History
  47. ^ Baseball-Reference.com - Major League Baseball Statistics and History
  48. ^ "71 Jerry Wunsch". FoxSports.com. Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  49. ^ http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/athletes/zu/reed-zuehlke-1.html
  50. ^ Sister Cities: Eau Claire. Lismore City Council
  51. ^ Eau Claire Adds 2nd Sister City: WEAU.com

External links[edit]

General[edit]

History[edit]