East River

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East River
Tidal strait
East River and UN.jpg
East River and the United Nations Headquarters in Manhattan, as seen from Roosevelt Island.
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
MunicipalityNew York City
Tributaries
 - leftNewtown Creek, Flushing River
 - rightWestchester Creek, Bronx River,
Bronx Kill, Harlem River
SourceLong Island Sound
 - coordinates40°48′14″N 73°49′30″W / 40.8039900°N 73.8251343°W / 40.8039900; -73.8251343
MouthUpper New York Bay
 - coordinates40°41′47″N 74°01′00″W / 40.696355°N 74.016609°W / 40.696355; -74.016609
Length16 mi (26 km)
The East River is shown in red on this satellite photo of New York City.
Wikimedia Commons: East River
 
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This article is about the East River in New York City. For other uses, see East River (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 40°41′47″N 74°01′00″W / 40.696355°N 74.016609°W / 40.696355; -74.016609
East River
Tidal strait
East River and UN.jpg
East River and the United Nations Headquarters in Manhattan, as seen from Roosevelt Island.
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
MunicipalityNew York City
Tributaries
 - leftNewtown Creek, Flushing River
 - rightWestchester Creek, Bronx River,
Bronx Kill, Harlem River
SourceLong Island Sound
 - coordinates40°48′14″N 73°49′30″W / 40.8039900°N 73.8251343°W / 40.8039900; -73.8251343
MouthUpper New York Bay
 - coordinates40°41′47″N 74°01′00″W / 40.696355°N 74.016609°W / 40.696355; -74.016609
Length16 mi (26 km)
The East River is shown in red on this satellite photo of New York City.
Wikimedia Commons: East River

The East River is not a river but a tidal strait, in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island – including the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn – from the Bronx on the North American mainland, and the island of Manhattan. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once also known as the Sound River.[1] The tidal strait changes its flow direction frequently.

Formation[edit]

A map from 1781

The strait was formed approximately 11,000 years ago at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation.[2] The distinct change in the shape of the strait between the lower and upper portions is evidence of this glacial activity. The upper portion (from Long Island Sound to Hell Gate), running largely perpendicular to the glacial motion, is wide, meandering, and has deep narrow bays on both banks, scoured out by the glacier's movement. The lower portion (from Hell Gate to New York Bay) runs north-south, parallel to the glacial motion. It is much narrower, with straight banks. The bays that exist (or existed before being filled in by human activity), are largely wide and shallow.

The channel[edit]

Historically, the lower portion of the strait (separating Manhattan from Brooklyn) was one of the busiest and most important channels in the world, particularly during the first three centuries of New York City's history. The Brooklyn Bridge, opened in 1883, was the first bridge to span the strait, replacing frequent ferry service. Some passenger ferry service remains between Queens and Manhattan.

Due to heavy pollution, the East River is dangerous to people who fall in or attempt to swim in it, although as of mid-2007 the water was cleaner than it had been in decades. Anyone in the channel would find there are few places from which to climb out. According to the marine sciences section of the city Department of Environmental Protection, the channel is swift, with water moving as fast as four knots (just as it does in the Hudson River on the other side of Manhattan). That speed can push casual swimmers out to sea. A few people drown in the waters around New York City each year.[3] The strength of the current foiled an effort in 2007 to tap it for tidal power.[4] However, in February 2012 the federal government announced an agreement with Verdant Power to install 30 tidal turbines in the channel, projected to begin operations in 2015 and produce 1.05 MW of power.[5]

Tributaries[edit]

The Bronx River drains into the East River in the northern section of the strait.

North of Randalls Island, it is joined by the Bronx Kill. Along the east of Wards Island, at approximately the strait's midpoint, it narrows into a channel called Hell Gate, which is spanned by both the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge (formerly the Triborough), and the Hell Gate Bridge. On the south side of Wards Island, it is joined by the Harlem River.

Newtown Creek on Long Island drains into the East River, forming part of the boundary between Queens and Brooklyn. The East River contains a number of islands, including:

Historical film of the East River, leading up to a final shot of the Brooklyn Bridge (1903)
Exposition display showing cross-section of East River railroad tunnel to Pennsylvania Station
William Glackens 1902 painting of East River Park in the Brooklyn Museum

Crossings[edit]

CrossingCarriesLocationCoordinatesYear
opened
Manhattan — Manhattan (Roosevelt Island)
Roosevelt Island Tramwaypedestrians and bicycles1976
Manhattan — Brooklyn
Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel I-4781950
Joralemon Street TunnelNYCS 4 NYCS 51908
Montague Street TunnelNYCS R1920
Clark Street TunnelNYCS 2 NYCS 31919
Cranberry Street TunnelNYCS A NYCS C1932
Brooklyn Bridge1883
Manhattan BridgeNYCS B NYCS D NYCS N NYCS Q NYCS R1909
Rutgers Street TunnelNYCS F1936
Williamsburg BridgeNYCS J NYCS M NYCS Z1903
14th Street TunnelNYCS L1924
Manhattan — Queens
East River TunnelsAmtrak Northeast Corridor
MTA NYC logo.svg Long Island Rail Road
1910
Queens Midtown Tunnel I-4951940
Steinway TunnelNYCS 7 NYCS 7d1915
53rd Street TunnelNYCS E NYCS M1933
Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge (59th Street Bridge) NY 251909
60th Street TunnelNYCS N NYCS Q NYCS R1920
63rd Street TunnelNYCS F1989
Roosevelt Island Bridge1955
RFK-Triborough Bridge (East River Suspension Span) I-2781936
Hell Gate BridgeAmtrak Northeast Corridor
CSX Transportation Fremont Secondary
MTA NYC logo.svg Metro-North Railroad
Providence & Worcester Railroad
1916
The Bronx — Queens
Rikers Island Bridge1966
Bronx Whitestone Bridge I-6781939
Throgs Neck Bridge I-2951961

In popular culture[edit]

Views of the river[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Montrésor, John (1766). A plan of the city of New-York & its environs. London.
  2. ^ "The East River Flows From Prehistoric Times To Today". The Queens Gazette. July 20, 2005. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  3. ^ "Welcome, Students. Now Watch It.". The New York Times. August 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-30. 
  4. ^ Hogarty, Dave (August 13, 2007). "East River Turbines Face Upstream Battle". Gothamist. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  5. ^ "Turbines Off NYC East River Will Create Enough Energy to Power 9,500 Homes". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  6. ^ 第86回 秋元 康 氏

External links[edit]