Eartha Kitt

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Eartha Kitt
Eartha Kitt 2007.jpg
Kitt performing in concert in 2007
Background information
Birth nameEartha Mae Keith[1]
Also known asMiss Kitt, Mother Eartha,[2] Kitty
Born(1927-01-17)January 17, 1927
North, South Carolina, U.S.
DiedDecember 25, 2008(2008-12-25) (aged 81)
Weston, Connecticut, U.S.
GenresVocal jazz, cabaret, dance, torch
Occupation(s)Stand-up comedienne, actress, singer, cabaret singer, dancer, activist, voice artist, comedienne
Years active1943–2008
LabelsRCA Victor (1953–59), Kapp (1959–60), MGM (1962), EMI (1963–65), GNP Crescendo (1965), Decca (1965), Spark (1970), Can't Stop Inc. (1984), Ariola (1989–90), ITM (1991–92), DRG (1994), Strike Force (2008)
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Eartha Kitt
Eartha Kitt 2007.jpg
Kitt performing in concert in 2007
Background information
Birth nameEartha Mae Keith[1]
Also known asMiss Kitt, Mother Eartha,[2] Kitty
Born(1927-01-17)January 17, 1927
North, South Carolina, U.S.
DiedDecember 25, 2008(2008-12-25) (aged 81)
Weston, Connecticut, U.S.
GenresVocal jazz, cabaret, dance, torch
Occupation(s)Stand-up comedienne, actress, singer, cabaret singer, dancer, activist, voice artist, comedienne
Years active1943–2008
LabelsRCA Victor (1953–59), Kapp (1959–60), MGM (1962), EMI (1963–65), GNP Crescendo (1965), Decca (1965), Spark (1970), Can't Stop Inc. (1984), Ariola (1989–90), ITM (1991–92), DRG (1994), Strike Force (2008)

Eartha Mae Kitt (January 17, 1927 – December 25, 2008) was an American actress, singer, cabaret star, dancer, stand-up comedienne, activist and voice artist, known for her highly distinctive singing style and her 1953 recordings of "C'est Si Bon" and the enduring Christmas novelty smash "Santa Baby", which were both US Top 10 hits. Orson Welles once called her the "most exciting woman in the world".[3]

Kitt began her career in 1943 with the Katherine Dunham Company and appeared in the 1945 original Broadway production of the musical Carib Song. In the early 1950s, she had six US Top 30 hits, including "Uska Dara" and "I Want to be Evil". Her other notable recordings include the UK Top 10 hit "Under the Bridges of Paris" (1954), "Just an Old Fashioned Girl" (1963) and "Where Is My Man" (1983). She took over the role of Catwoman in 1967 for the third and final season of the Batman television series, replacing Julie Newmar. In 1968, her career in America suffered after she made anti-war statements at a White House luncheon. Ten years later, she made a successful return to Broadway in the 1978 original production of the musical Timbuktu!, for which she received the first of her two Tony Award nominations. Her second was for the 2000 original production of the musical The Wild Party.

She voiced Yzma in both the 2000 animated film The Emperor's New Groove and the 2006-2008 TV series The Emperor's New School, winning two Emmy Awards, the second shortly before her death. Kitt won a third Emmy posthumously in 2010 for The Wonder Pets.

Early life[edit]

Kitt was born Eartha Mae Keith on a cotton plantation in North, a small town in Orangeburg County near Columbia, South Carolina, on January 17, 1927.[1] Kitt's mother was of Cherokee and African-American descent. Though it remains unconfirmed, it has been widely reported that her father was of German descent.[4][5]

Kitt was raised by Anna Mae Riley, an African-American woman whom she believed to be her mother. When she was 8, Anna Mae went to live with a black man, but he refused to accept Kitt because of her relatively pale complexion,[4] so the girl lived with another family until Riley's death. She was then sent to live in New York City with Mamie Kitt, who she learned was her biological mother.[citation needed] She had no knowledge of her father, except that his surname was Kitt and that he was supposedly a son of the owner of the farm where she had been born.[4] Newspaper obituaries state that her white father was "a poor cotton farmer".[6]

In an August 2013 biography, British journalist John Williams claimed that Kitt's father was a white man, a local doctor named Daniel Sturkie. However, Kitt's daughter Kitt Shapiro has questioned the authenticity of this claim.[7]


Kitt on October 19, 1952

Kitt began her career as a member of the Katherine Dunham Company in 1943 and remained a member of the troupe until 1948. A talented singer with a distinctive voice, she recorded the hits "Let's Do It;" "Champagne Taste;" "C'est si bon;" (which Stan Freberg famously burlesqued) "Just an Old Fashioned Girl;" "Monotonous;" "Je cherche un homme;" "Love for Sale;" "I'd Rather Be Burned as a Witch;" "Katibim;" (a Turkish melody) "Mink, Schmink;" "Under the Bridges of Paris;" and her most recognizable hit "Santa Baby," which was released in 1953. Kitt's unique style was enhanced as she became fluent in the French language during her years performing in Europe. Her English-speaking performances always seemed to be enriched by a soft French feel. She spoke 4 languages and sang in 7, which she effortlessly demonstrated in many of the live recordings of her cabaret performances.

Career peaks[edit]

Kitt sleeping on a bus in 1962

In 1950, Orson Welles gave Kitt her first starring role as Helen of Troy in his staging of Dr. Faustus. A few years later, she was cast in the revue New Faces of 1952, introducing "Monotonous" and "Bal, Petit Bal," two songs with which she is still identified. In 1954, 20th Century Fox filmed a version of the revue entitled New Faces, in which she performed "Monotonous," "Uska Dara," and "C'est Si Bon."[8] Though it is often alleged that Welles and Kitt had an affair during her 1957 run in Shinbone Alley, Kitt categorically denied this in a June 2001 interview with George Wayne of Vanity Fair. "I never had sex with Orson Welles," Kitt told Vanity Fair: "It was a working situation and nothing else."[9] Her other films in the 1950s included Mark of the Hawk (1957), St. Louis Blues (1958) and Anna Lucasta (1959).

Throughout the rest of the 1950s and early 1960s, she recorded; worked in film, television, and nightclubs; and returned to the Broadway stage, in Mrs. Patterson (during the 1954–55 season), Shinbone Alley (in 1957), and the short-lived Jolly's Progress (in 1959).[10] In 1964, Kitt helped open the Circle Star Theater in San Carlos, California.

Kitt as Catwoman in Batman

In the late 1960s, Batman featured Kitt as Catwoman after Julie Newmar had left the role.[11]

Anti-war controversy[edit]

In 1968, during Lyndon B. Johnson's administration, Kitt encountered a substantial professional setback after she made anti-war statements during a White House luncheon.[12][13] Kitt was invited to the White House luncheon and was asked by Lady Bird Johnson about the Vietnam War. She replied: "You send the best of this country off to be shot and maimed. No wonder the kids rebel and take pot."

During a question and answer session, Kitt stated:

"The children of America are not rebelling for no reason. They are not hippies for no reason at all. We don’t have what we have on Sunset Blvd. for no reason. They are rebelling against something. There are so many things burning the people of this country, particularly mothers. They feel they are going to raise sons—and I know what it's like, and you have children of your own, Mrs. Johnson—we raise children and send them to war."

Her remarks reportedly caused Mrs. Johnson to burst into tears and led to a derailment in Kitt's career.[14] The public reaction to Kitt's statements was extreme, both pro and con. Publicly ostracized in the US, she devoted her energies to performances in Europe and Asia. It is said that Kitt's career in the US was ended following her comments about the Vietnam War, after which she was branded "a sadistic nymphomaniac" by the CIA.[7]


Kitt returned to New York in a triumphant turn in the Broadway spectacle Timbuktu! (a version of the perennial Kismet, set in Africa) in 1978. In the musical, one song gives a "recipe" for mahoun, a preparation of cannabis, in which her sultry purring rendition of the refrain "constantly stirring with a long wooden spoon" was distinctive. She was nominated for a Tony Award for her performance, but lost to Liza Minnelli.

Later years[edit]

In 1978, Kitt did the voice-over in a TV commercial for the album Aja by the rock group Steely Dan. She wrote three autobiographies—Thursday's Child (1956), Alone with Me (1976) and I'm Still Here: Confessions of a Sex Kitten (1989).

In 1984, she returned to the music charts with a disco song titled "Where Is My Man," the first certified gold record of her career. "Where Is My Man" reached the Top 40 on the UK Singles Chart, where it peaked at No. 36;[15] The song also made the Top 10 on the US Billboard dance chart, where it reached No. 7.[16] The single was followed by the album I Love Men on the Record Shack label. Kitt found new audiences in nightclubs across the UK and the US, including a whole new generation of gay male fans, and she responded by frequently giving benefit performances in support of HIV/AIDS organizations. Kitt appeared with Jimmy James and George Burns at a fundraiser in 1990 produced by Scott Sherman, Agent from The Atlantic Entertainment Group. It was arranged that James would impersonate Kitt and then Kitt would walk out to take the microphone. This was met with a standing ovation.[17] Her 1989 follow-up hit "Cha-Cha Heels" (featuring Bronski Beat), which was originally intended to be recorded by Divine, received a positive response from UK dance clubs and reached No. 32 in the charts in that country.

In 1991, Kitt returned to the screen in Ernest Scared Stupid as Old Lady Hackmore. In 1992, Kitt had a supporting role as Lady Eloise in Boomerang. In the late 1990s, she appeared as the Wicked Witch of the West in the North American national touring company of The Wizard of Oz. In 1995, Kitt appeared as herself in an episode of The Nanny, where she performed a song in French and flirted with Maxwell Sheffield (Charles Shaughnessy). In November 1996, she appeared on an episode of Celebrity Jeopardy!. In 2000, Kitt again returned to Broadway in the short-lived run of Michael John LaChiusa's The Wild Party. Beginning in late 2000, Kitt starred as the Fairy Godmother in the U.S. national tour of Cinderella. In 2003, she replaced Chita Rivera in Nine. Kitt reprised her role as the Fairy Godmother at a special engagement of Cinderella, which took place at Lincoln Center during the holiday season of 2004.

One of her more unusual roles was as Kaa in a 1994 BBC Radio adaptation of The Jungle Book. Kitt also lent her distinctive voice to Yzma in The Emperor's New Groove (for which she won her first Annie Award) and reprised her role in Kronk's New Groove and The Emperor's New School (for which she won two Emmy Awards and two more Annie Awards {both in 2007–08} for Voice Acting in an Animated Television Production). Kitt had voiced Vexus in My Life as a Teenage Robot.

In her later years, Kitt made annual appearances in the New York Manhattan cabaret scene at venues such as the Ballroom and the Café Carlyle.[18]

She was also a guest star in "Once Upon a Time in Springfield" of The Simpsons, where she was depicted as one of Krusty's past marriages.

From October to early December 2006, Kitt co-starred in the Off-Broadway musical Mimi le Duck. She also appeared in the 2007 independent film And Then Came Love opposite Vanessa Williams.

Kitt was the spokesperson for MAC Cosmetics' Smoke Signals collection in August 2007. She re-recorded "Smoke Gets In Your Eyes" for the occasion, was showcased on the MAC website, and the song was played at all MAC locations carrying the collection for the month.

Personal life[edit]

Kitt at the Jumeirah Carlton Tower in London in 1973

After romances with the cosmetics magnate Charles Revson and banking heir John Barry Ryan III, she married John William McDonald, an associate of a real estate investment company, on June 6, 1960.[19] They had one child, a daughter named Kitt McDonald, born on November 26, 1961. They divorced in 1965.

A long-time Connecticut resident, Eartha Kitt lived in a converted barn on a sprawling farm in the Merryall section of New Milford for many years and was active in local charities and causes throughout Litchfield County. She later moved to Pound Ridge, New York, and then to the southern Fairfield County town of Weston in 2002, to be near her daughter Kitt and family. Her daughter, Kitt McDonald, married Charles Lawrence Shapiro in 1987[20] and had two children, Jason and Rachel Shapiro.


Kitt was active in numerous social causes in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1966, she established the Kittsville Youth Foundation, a chartered and non-profit organization for underprivileged youth in the Watts area of Los Angeles.[21] She was also involved with a group of youth in the area of Anacostia in Washington, D.C., who called themselves, "Rebels with a Cause." Kitt supported the group's efforts to clean up streets and establish recreation areas in an effort to keep them out of trouble by testifying with them before the House General Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. In her testimony, in May 1967, Kitt stated that the Rebels' "achievements and accomplishments should certainly make the adult 'do-gooders' realize that these young men and women have performed in 1 short year - with limited finances - that which was not achieved by the same people who might object to turning over some of the duties of planning, rehabilitation, and prevention of juvenile delinquents and juvenile delinquency to those who understand it and are living it". She added that "the Rebels could act as a model for all urban areas throughout the United States with similar problems".[22] "Rebels with a Cause" subsequently received the needed funding.[23]

Kitt was also a member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, thus her criticism of the Vietnam War and its connection to poverty and racial unrest in 1968 can be seen as part of a larger commitment to peace activism.[24]

Like many politically active public figures of her time, Kitt was under surveillance by the CIA beginning in 1956. After the New York Times discovered the CIA file on Kitt in 1975, she granted the paper permission to print portions of the report, stating: "I have nothing to be afraid of and I have nothing to hide."[25]

Kitt later became a vocal advocate for LGBT rights and publicly supported same-sex marriage, which she considered a civil right. She had been quoted as saying: "I support it [gay marriage] because we're asking for the same thing. If I have a partner and something happens to me, I want that partner to enjoy the benefits of what we have reaped together. It's a civil-rights thing, isn't it?"[26] Kitt famously appeared at many LGBT fundraisers, including a mega event in Baltimore, Maryland, with George Burns and Jimmy James.[17] Scott Sherman, an agent at Atlantic Entertainment Group, stated: "Eartha Kitt is fantastic... appears at so many LGBT events in support of civil rights."

In a 1992 interview with Dr. Anthony Clare, Kitt spoke about her gay following, saying:

We're all rejected people, we know what it is to be refused, we know what it is to be oppressed, depressed, and then, accused, and I am very much cognizant of that feeling. Nothing in the world is more painful than rejection. I am a rejected, oppressed person, and so I understand them, as best as I can, even though I am a heterosexual.[27]


Kitt died from colon cancer on Christmas Day, December 25, 2008, at her home in Weston, Connecticut.[28][29]

Her daughter, Kitt Shapiro, recently explained her last days with her mother:[30]

"I was with her when she died. She left this world literally screaming at the top of her lungs. I was with her constantly, she lived not even 3 miles from my house, we were together practically everyday. She was home for the last few weeks when the doctor told us there was nothing they could do anymore. Up until the last two days, she was still moving around. The doctor told us she will leave very quickly and her body will just start to shutdown. But when she left, she left the world with a bang, she left it how she lived it. She screamed her way out of here, literally. I truly believe her survival instincts were so part of her DNA that she was not going to go quietly or willingly. It was just the two of us hanging out [during the last days] she was very funny. We didn’t have to [talk] because I always knew how she felt about me, I was the love of her life, so the last part of her life we didn't have to have these heart to heart talks".

She started to see people (that weren't there) she thought I could see them too, but of course I couldn't. I would make fun of her like I’m going to go in the other room and you stay here and talk to your friends."

Awards and nominations[edit]

Kitt won awards for her film, television, and stage work. In 1960, the Hollywood Walk of Fame honored her with a star, which can be found on 6656 Hollywood Boulevard.[31]



1948CasbahUncreditedFilm debut
1954New FacesHerselfFirst credited film role, launched main-stream career
1957The Mark of the HawkRenee
1958St. Louis BluesGogo Germaine
1959Anna LucastaAnna Lucasta
1961Saint of Devil's IslandAnnette
1965Uncle Tom's CabinSinger (uncredited)
1971Up the Chastity BeltScheherazade
1975Friday FosterMadame Rena
1979Butterflies in HeatLola
1985The Serpent WarriorsSnake Priestess
1987Master of Dragonard HillNaomi
The Pink ChiquitasBetty / The Meteor (voice)
1989Erik the VikingFreya
1990Living DollMrs. Swartz
1991Ernest Scared StupidOld Lady Hackmore
1992BoomerangLady Eloise
1993Fatal InstinctFirst Trial Judge
1996Harriet the SpyAgatha K. Plummer
1997Ill Gotten GainsThe Wood (Voice)
1998I Woke Up Early The Day I DiedCult Leader
Jungle Book: Mowgli's StoryBagheera (voice)
2000The Emperor's New GrooveYzma (voice)Annie Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement For Voice Acting by a Female Performer in an Animated Feature Production
Nominated - Black Reel Award for Best Supporting Actress
2003HolesMadame Zeroni
2005Preaching to the ChoirMs. Nettie
Kronk's New GrooveYzma (voice)
2007And Then Came LoveMonaLast motion picture appearance


1965I Spy"The Loser"Angel
1967Mission: Impossible"The Traitor"Tina Maria
1967-1968Batman"The Joke's on Catwoman"
"The Funny Feline Felonies"
"Catwoman's Dressed to Kill"
1972Lieutenant Schuster's Wife (TV movie)Lady
1974The Protectors"A Pocketful of Posies"Carrie Blaine
1978Police Woman"Tigress"Amelia
To Kill a Cop (TV movie)Paula
1983A Night on the Town (TV movie)
1985Miami Vice"Whatever Works"Priestess Chata
1989After Dark"Rock Bottom?"Extended appearance on discussion programme, together with Simon Napier-Bell and Pat Kane among others
1993Jack's Place"The Seventh Meal"Isabel Lang
Matrix"Moths to a Flame"Sister Rowena
1995The Magic School Bus"Going Batty"Mrs. Franklin
New York Undercover"Student Affairs"Mrs. Stubbs
Living Single"He Works Hard for the Money"Jacqueline Richards
1998The Wild Thornberrys"Flood Warning"Lioness #1
1999The Famous Jett Jackson"Field of Dweebs"Albertine Whethers
2000Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child"The Snow Queen"The Snow Queen
Welcome to New York"The Car"
"Jim Gets a Car"
2001The Feast of All Saints (TV movie)Lola Dede
Santa, Baby! (TV movie)Emerald (voice)
2005Escape from Cluster Prime (TV movie)Vexus (voice)
My Life as a Teenage Robot"Escape from Cluster Prime"
"Hostile Makeover/Grid Iron Glory"
Queen Vexus (voice)
2006-2008The Emperor's New SchoolYzma (voice)
2007American Dad"Dope and Faith"Fortune Teler (voice)
2009The Wonder Pets"Save the Cool Cat and the Hip Hippo/Tuck and Buck"Cool Cat (voice)
2010The Simpsons"Once Upon a Time in Springfield"Herself (voice)Aired posthumously


1982All by Myself: The Eartha Kitt Story (Documentary)Herself
1995Unzipped (Documentary)Herself
2002The Making and Meaning of We Are Family (Documentary)Herself
The Sweatbox (Documentary)Herself

Stage work[edit]

1945Blue HolidayBroadwayPerformer
Carib SongBroadwayCompanyOriginal Broadway production
1946Bal NegreBroadway, and EuropePerformerConcert
1950Time RunsParisPerformer
1951Dr. FaustusParisPerformer
1952New Faces of 1952BroadwayPolynesian girl
Featured dancer
Featured singer
1954Mrs. PattersonBroadwayTheodora (Teddy) HicksOriginal Broadway production
1957Shinbone AlleyBroadwayMehitabelOriginal Broadway production
1959Jolly's ProgressBroadwayJolly Rivers
1965The Owl and the PussycatU.S. National TourPerformer
1967PegRegional (US)
1970The High BidLondonPerformer
1974Bread and Beans and ThingsAquarius Theater[32]Performer
1976A Musical JubileeU.S. National TourPerformer
1980Cowboy and the LegendRegional (US)Performer
1982New Faces of 1952 (Revival)Off-Off-BroadwayPolynesian girl
Featured dancer
Featured singer
1985Blues in the NightU.S. National TourPerformer
1987Follies (London Revival)LondonCarlotta CampionReplacement for Dolores Gray
1989AladdinPalace Theatre, ManchesterPerformer
1989Eartha Kitt in ConcertLondonPerformer
1995Sam's SongUnitarian Church of All SoulsPerformerBenefit concert
1996Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and GrillChicagoPerformer
1998The Wizard of Oz (Return Engagement) [off-Broadway]U.S. National TourPerformer
2000The Wild PartyBroadwayDeloresOriginal Broadway production
CinderellaMadison Square Garden, and U.S. National TourFairy Godmother
2003NineBroadwayLiliane La FleurReplacement for Chita Rivera
2004Cinderella (New York City Opera Revival)David H. Koch TheaterFairy Godmother
2006Mimi le DuckOff-Off-BroadwayMadame Vallet
2007All About UsWestport Country PlayhousePerformer

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Eartha Kitt - Biography". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Mother Eartha". Philadelphia City Paper. January 17–24, 2002. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  3. ^ Messer, Kate X. (July 21, 2006). "Just An Old Fashioned Cat". The Austin Chronicle. 
  4. ^ a b c Bone, James (April 11, 2008). "Legendary seductress Eartha Kitt — The Original Pussycat Doll". The Times (London).  (subscription required)
  5. ^ "Eartha Kitt, Chanteuse, Cherokee, and a seducer of audiences, Walked On at 81". Indian Country News. February 26, 2009. 
  6. ^ Weil, Martin (December 26, 2008). "Bewitching Entertainer Eartha Kitt, 81". The Washington Post. p. B05. 
  7. ^ a b Adam Luck, "Eartha Kitt's life was scarred by failure to learn the identity of her white father, says daughter", The Observer, October 19, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
  8. ^ Hall, Phil (January 4, 2001). "New Faces". Film Threat. 
  9. ^ Wayne, George (June 2001). "Back to Eartha". Vanity Fair. p. 160. 
  10. ^ "Eartha Kitt". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Eartha Kitt Obituary". New York Times. 25 December 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  12. ^ Amorosi, A.D. (February 27, 1997). "Eartha Kitt". Philadelphia City Paper. 
  13. ^ James, Frank (December 26, 2008). "Eartha Kitt versus the LBJs". The Swamp. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. 
  14. ^ Hoerburger, Rob (December 25, 2008). "Eartha Kitt, a Seducer of Audiences, Dies at 81". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ "Where Is My Man". Chart Stats. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. 
  16. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Hot Dance/Disco 1974–2003. Record Research Inc.
  17. ^ a b Scott Duncan, "George Burns, Eartha Kitt are delightful at 'Lifesongs 1990'", The Baltimore Sun, September 17, 1990.
  18. ^ "Eartha Kitt Obituary". New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Eartha Kitt to Be Married". The New York Times. May 12, 1960. p. 40.  (subscription required)
  20. ^ "Kitt McDonald is Wed to Charles L. Shapiro". The New York Times. June 14, 1987. 
  21. ^ Johnson, Robert E. (June 14, 1973). "Eartha Kitt Observes Seventh Year With Black Ghetto School". Jet 44: 56.
  22. ^ Hearings, 90th Cong., 1st Sess. 558 (1967). pp. 559-60.
  23. ^ Kitt, Eartha (1976). Alone With Me. H. Regnery Co. p. 239. ISBN 9780809283514.
  24. ^ Blackwell, Joyce (2004). No Peace Without Freedom: Race and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 9780809325641.
  25. ^ Hersh, Seymour (January 3, 1975). "C.I.A. in '68 Gave Secret Service Report Containing Gossip About Eartha Kitt After White House Incident". The New York Times, p. 28, col. 1.
  26. ^ "Eartha Kitt, actress and gay rights ally, dies at age 81". PageOneQ. December 28, 2008. 
  27. ^ "Eartha Kitt sings Swedish and talks about her gay-fans". YouTube. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Singer-actress Eartha Kitt dies at 81". MSNBC. December 26, 2008. 
  29. ^ Wilson, Christopher (December 26, 2008). "Seductive singer Eartha Kitt dies at 81". Reuters. 
  30. ^ Kitt Shapiro daughter Eartha Kitt offers Business Advice. October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  31. ^ "Eartha Kitt tickets competition". The Telegraph. January 24, 2008. 
  32. ^ Los Angeles Herald-Examiner and Los Angeles Times. June 8, 1974.

External links[edit]

Video / audio footage[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Preceded by
Lee Meriwether
Succeeded by
Michelle Pfeiffer