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Dysphoria (from Greek: δύσφορος (dysphoros), from δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a state of feeling unwell or unhappy; a feeling of emotional and mental discomfort as a symptom of discontentment, restlessness, dissatisfaction, malaise, depression, anxiety or indifference.


Dysphoria (semantically opposite of euphoria) is a medically recognized mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of depression, discontent, and in some cases indifference to the world around them.[1]

Mood disorders can induce dysphoria, often with a heightened risk of suicide, especially in persons with bipolar disorder who are in a depressive phase.[1] As the term refers only to a condition of mood, dysphoria may be experienced in response to ordinary life events, such as great illness or grief and commonly a romantic loss/breakup. Dysphoria can also be chemically induced by some commonly used psychoactive drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics.[2]

Gender dysphoria[edit]

The particular term "gender dysphoria" refers to a separate diagnosis made by psychologists and physicians to describe persons who experience significant discontent ("dysphoria") with the sex they were assigned at birth and/or the gender roles associated with that sex. The current edition (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders uses the term "gender dysphoria" in preference to "gender identity disorder". DSM-5 introduces the term "gender incongruence" as a better identifying and less stigmatising term.[3]

"Dysphoria" in popular culture[edit]

"Dysphoria" is sometimes referenced in popular culture. The condition is featured in many of the PBR&B Artist Lee Art's songs. Against Me! released the album Transgender Dysphoria Blues in 2014, with lyrical content that touches on lead singer Laura Jane Grace's (née Thomas James Gabel) transgender experience. Another artist who speaks of it is Dellux.

Related conditions[edit]

The following conditions may include dysphoria as a symptom:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Abbess, John F. "Glossary of terms in the field of psychiatry and neurology". Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  2. ^ Neuroleptic (antipsychotic) dysphoria | biopsychiatry.com
  3. ^ Fraser, L; Karasic, D; Meyer, W; Wylie, K (2010). "Recommendations for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in Adults". International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.509202. 
  4. ^ Rosa RR, Bonnet MH (2000). "Reported chronic insomnia is independent of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography". Psychosom Med 62 (4): 474–82. PMID 10949091. 
  5. ^ Chapman CR, Gavrin J (June 1999). "Suffering: the contributions of persistent pain". Lancet 353 (9171): 2233–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01308-2. PMID 10393002.