From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Jump to: navigation, search
For psychoactive drugs that may induce dysphoria, see dysphoriant.
Not to be confused with Diaphoresis.

Dysphoria (from Greek: δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression, anxiety, or agitation. Common reactions to dysphoria include emotional distress or indifference. Compare euphoria.

In psychiatry[edit]

Intense states of distress and unease increase the risk of suicide, as well as being unpleasant in themselves. Relieving dysphoria is therefore a priority of psychiatric treatment. One may treat underlying causes such as depression or bipolar disorder as well as the dysphoric symptoms themselves.

Gender dysphoria[edit]

Main article: Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria is discomfort, unhappiness, or distress due to one's socially expected gender and the social roles associated with that gender. The current edition (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders uses the term "gender dysphoria" in preference to "gender identity disorder". DSM-5 introduces the term "gender incongruence" as a better identifying and less stigmatising term.[1]

Related conditions[edit]

The following conditions may include dysphoria as a symptom:

In popular culture[edit]

Dysphoria is featured in many songs by PBR&B Artist Lee Art. Against Me! released the album Transgender Dysphoria Blues in which the lead singer Laura Jane Grace's shares her experiences of gender dysphoria.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fraser, L; Karasic, D; Meyer, W; Wylie, K (2010). "Recommendations for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in Adults". International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.509202. 
  2. ^ Abbess, John F. "Glossary of terms in the field of psychiatry and neurology". Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  3. ^ Rosa RR, Bonnet MH (2000). "Reported chronic insomnia is independent of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography". Psychosom Med 62 (4): 474–82. PMID 10949091. 
  4. ^ Chapman CR, Gavrin J (June 1999). "Suffering: the contributions of persistent pain". Lancet 353 (9171): 2233–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01308-2. PMID 10393002. 
  5. ^ Thompson, Stephen. "First Listen: Against Me!, 'Transgender Dysphoria Blues'" NPR. NPR, 12 Jan. 2014. Web. 27 May 2014