Dust

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A dust storm blankets Texas homes, in 1935.

Dust consists of particles in the atmosphere that come from various sources such as soil dust lifted by weather (an Aeolian process), volcanic eruptions, and pollution. Dust in homes, offices, and other human environments contains small amounts of plant pollen, human and animal hairs, textile fibers, paper fibers, minerals from outdoor soil, human skin cells, burnt meteorite particles and many other materials which may be found in the local environment.[1]

Contents

Domestic dust and humans

Three years of use without cleaning has caused this laptop heat sink to become clogged with dust, (dirt) rendering the computer unusable due to possibility of overheating.

Dust may worsen hay fever. Circulating outdoor air through a house by keeping doors and windows open, or at least slightly ajar, may reduce the risk of hay fever-causing dust. In colder climates, occupants seal even the smallest air gaps, and eliminate outside fresh air circulating inside the house. So it is essential to manage dust and airflow.

House dust mites are ubiquitous everywhere humans live indoors. Positive tests for dust mite allergies are extremely common among people with asthma. Dust mites are microscopic arachnids whose primary food is dead human skin cells. They do not actually live on people, though. It is probably not possible to entirely eradicate them. They and their feces and other allergens they produce are major constituents of house dust, but because they are so heavy they are not long suspended in the air. They generally are on the floor and other surfaces, until disturbed (by walking, for example). Sources suggest it could take somewhere between 20 minutes and 2 hours for them to settle back down out of the air. Dust mites are a nesting species that prefer a dark, warm and humid climate, and they therefore flourish in mattresses, bedding, upholstered furniture, and carpets. Their feces include enzymes that are released upon contact with a moist surface, as happens when a person breathes it in, and these enzymes actually kill cells within the human body.[2] Sources suggest that house dust mites did not become a problem until humans began to use textiles, such as western style blankets and clothing.[3]

Alternatively, the hygiene hypothesis posits that the modern obsession with cleanliness is as much a problem as house dust mites. The hygiene hypothesis argues that our lack of prior pathogenic exposure may in fact encourage the development of ailments including hay fever and asthma.[4][5]

Atmospheric dust

Imported dust in North American skies.
Large dust storm over Libya.

Dust comes from arid and dry regions where high velocity winds are able to remove mostly silt-sized material, deflating susceptible surfaces. This includes areas where grazing, ploughing, vehicle use and other human activities have further destabilized the land, though not all source areas have been largely affected by anthropogenic impacts.[6] One-third of the global land area is covered by dust-producing surfaces, made up of hyper-arid regions like the Sahara that covers 0.9 billion hectares, and drylands, which occupy 5.2 billion hectares.[7]

Dust in the atmosphere is produced by saltation and sandblasting of sand-sized grains, and it is transported through the troposphere. This airborne dust is considered an aerosol and once in the atmosphere, it can produce strong local radiative forcing. Saharan dust in particular can be transported and deposited as far as the Caribbean and Amazonia, and may affect air temperatures, cause ocean cooling, and alter rainfall amounts.[6]

Coal dust is responsible for the lung disease known as pneumoconiosis, including black lung disease, that occurs among coal miners. The danger of coal dust resulted in environmental legislation regulating work place air quality in some jurisdictions. In addition, if enough coal dust is dispersed within the air in a given area, it can create an explosion hazard under certain circumstances.

Dust in the Middle East

Dust in the Middle East has been a historic phenomenon. Recently, due to climate change and the escalating process of desertification, the problem is dramatically exacerbated. As a multi-factor phenomenon, there is not yet a clear consensus on the sources or potential remedies of the problem.

In Iran, the dust is already affecting more than 5 million people directly, and has emerged as a serious government issue in recent years. In the province of Khuzestan it has led to severe reduction of air quality. The amount of pollutants in the air has surpassed more than 50 times the normal level several times in a year. Recently, initiatives such as Projec-Dust are established to directly study the Middle Eastern dust.

Road dust

Dust kicked up by vehicles traveling on roads[8] may make up 33% of air pollution[9] Road dust consists of deposition of vehicle exhausts and industrial exhausts, tire and brake wear, dust from paved roads or potholes, and dust from construction sites.[10] Road dust represents a significant source contributing to the generation and release of particulate matter into the atmosphere.[11] Control of road dust is a significant challenge in urban areas, and also in other spheres with high levels of vehicular traffic upon unsealed roads such as mines and garbage dumps. Road dust may be suppressed by mechanical methods like sweeping vehicles,[12] with vegetable oils,[13] or with water sprayers. Improvements in automotive engineering have reduced the amount of PM10s produced by road traffic, the proportion representing re-suspension of existing particulates has, as a result, increased.

Dust control

Control of atmospheric dust

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandates facilities that generate dust minimize or mitigate the production of dust in their operation. The most frequent dust control violations occur at new residential housing developments in urban areas. United States Federal law requires that construction sites obtain permits to conduct earth moving, and include plans to control dust emissions. Control measures include such simple practices as spraying construction and demolition sites with water, and preventing the tracking of dust onto adjacent roads. US federal laws require dust control on sources such as vacant lots, unpaved parking lots, and unpaved roads. Dust in such places may be suppressed by mechanical methods,[citation needed] including paving or laying down gravel, or stabilizing the surface with water, vegetable oils[13] or other dust suppressants, or by using water misters to suppress dust that is already airborne.[citation needed]

Control of domestic dust

Dust control is the suppression of solid particles with diameters less than 500 micrometers. Dust in the airstream poses a serious health threat to children,[14] older people, and those with respiratory illnesses. House dust can become airborne easily. Care should be exercised when removing dust to avoid causing the dust to become airborne. Some dust removing devices trap some dust. One way to repel dust is with an electrical charge.[citation needed] Certified HEPA (tested to MIL STD 282) can effectively trap 99.97% of dust at 0.3 micrometres. Not all HEPA (type/media) filters can effectively stop dust, while vacuums with HEPA (type/media) filters, water, or cyclones may filter more effectively than without, they may still exhaust millions of particles per cubic foot of air circulated. Laser Particle Counters are an effective way to measure filter effectiveness, medical grade can test for particles as small as 0.3 micrometres. In order to test for dust in the air, there are several options available. Preweighted filter and matched weight filters made from polyvinyl chloride or mixed cellulose ester are suitable for respirable dust (less than 10 micrometres in diameter).[15]

Control of dust resistance on surfaces

A dust resistant surface is a state of prevention against dust contamination or damage, by a design or treatment of materials and items in manufacturing or through a repair process. A reduced tacticity of a synthetic layer or covering can protect surfaces and release small molecules that could have remained attached. A panel, container or enclosure with seams may feature types of strengthened rigidity or sealant to vulnerable edges and joins.

Dust in other contexts

Dust in outer space

Cosmic dust is widely present in space, where gas and dust clouds are primary precursors for planetary systems. The zodiacal light, as seen in a dark night sky, is produced by sunlight reflected from particles of dust in orbit around the Sun. The tails of comets are produced by emissions of dust and ionized gas from the body of the comet. Dust also covers solid planetary bodies, and vast dust storms occur on Mars that cover almost the entire planet. Interstellar dust is found between the stars, and high concentrations produce diffuse nebulae and reflection nebulae.

Dust is widely present in the galaxy. Ambient radiation heats dust and re-emits radiation into the microwave band, which may distort the cosmic microwave background power spectrum. Dust in this regime has a complicated emission spectrum, and includes both thermal dust emission and spinning dust emission.[16]

Dust samples returned from outer space may provide information about conditions in the early solar system. Several spacecraft have sought to gather samples of dust and other materials. Among these craft was Stardust, which flew past Comet Wild 2 in 2004, and returned a capsule of the comet's remains to Earth in January 2006. In 2010 the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft returned samples of dust from the surface of an asteroid.

Examples of atmospheric dust

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kathleen Hess-Kosa, (2002), Indoor Air Quality: sampling methodologies, page 216. CRC Press.
  2. ^ Abadi, Sara (August 2009). "The Great American Hygiene Survey Results Revealed". AOL Health. http://www.aolhealth.com/healthy-living/good-hygiene. Retrieved August 2009. 
  3. ^ Matthew J. Colloff, Dust Mites
  4. ^ http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=416594
  5. ^ http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1031002421.html
  6. ^ a b Middleton, N. J., Goudie, A. S., 2001, Saharan dust: sources and trajectories: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, v. 26, p. 165-181. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-5661.00013/abstract)
  7. ^ Jickells, T. D., et al., 2005, Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate: Science, v. 308, p. 67-71. (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5718/67.full)
  8. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/11/991130062843.htm
  9. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/2007/10/27/stories/2007102759600100.htm
  10. ^ http://www.cleanair.hamilton.ca/events/street-sweeping-study.asp
  11. ^ http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri/consultations/2006/Road_Dust_e.cfm
  12. ^ http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=936477
  13. ^ a b http://www.usroads.com/journals/rmej/9806/rm980604.htm
  14. ^ "Dust mites in the humid atmosphere of Bangalore trigger around 60% of asthma" [1]
  15. ^ Sampling Dust
  16. ^ D. P. Finkbeiner, M. Davis and D. J. Schlegel (1999). "Extrapolation of Galactic Dust Emission at 100 Microns to CMBR Frequencies Using FIRAS". Astrophys. J. 524: 867. arXiv:astro-ph/9905128. Bibcode 1999ApJ...524..867F. doi:10.1086/307852. 

References

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