Dungan people

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Dungan
Dungan-Girls.JPG
Dungan girls in Shor-Tyube, Kazakhstan.
Total population
110,000
Regions with significant populations
 Kyrgyzstan (2009 census)58,409[1]
 Kazakhstan (1999 census)36,900[2]
 Russia (2002 census)801[3]
 Uzbekistan1,900
 Ukraine133[4]
 Tajikistan6,000[5]
 Mongolia5,300
Languages
Dungan
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Hui
 
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Dungan
Dungan-Girls.JPG
Dungan girls in Shor-Tyube, Kazakhstan.
Total population
110,000
Regions with significant populations
 Kyrgyzstan (2009 census)58,409[1]
 Kazakhstan (1999 census)36,900[2]
 Russia (2002 census)801[3]
 Uzbekistan1,900
 Ukraine133[4]
 Tajikistan6,000[5]
 Mongolia5,300
Languages
Dungan
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Hui

Dungan (Russian: Дунгане Dungane, Dungan: Хуэйзў Huejzw) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a Muslim people of Chinese origin.[6] Turkic-speaking peoples in Xinjiang Province in China also refer to members of this ethnic group as Dungans. In both China and the former Soviet republics where they reside, however, members of this ethnic group call themselves Hui.

In the censuses of the now independent states of the former Soviet Union, the Dungans, who are enumerated separately from Chinese, can be found in Kazakhstan (36,900 according to the 1999 census), Kyrgyzstan (58,409 according to the 2009 census), and Russia (801 according to the 2002 census).[1][2][3]

History[edit]

Migration from China[edit]

The gate of the Dungan Mosque in Karakol, Kyrgyzstan. The upper text on the sign is a partially Uyghurized rendering of the mosque's Kyrgyz name into the Uyghur Arabic alphabet: Isiq-köl oblasttiq Qaraqol sharindaghi Ibrahim Haji atindaghi borborduq mäsjid. The lower text is Kyrgyz in the Cyrillic script: Ysyk-Köl oblasttyk Karakol shaaryndagy Ibrakhim Ajy atyndagy borborduk mechit—Central Mosque in the name of Ibrahim Hajji in the city of Karakol, oblast of Ysyk-Köl.

In the Ferghana Valley, the first Dungans to appear in Central Asia originated from Kuldja and Kashgar, and were slaves captured by raiders, they mostly served in private wealthy households. After the abolition of slavery by the Russian conquest of Central Asia, female Dungan slaves still stayed where they were originally held captive, Russian ethnographer Validimir Petrovich Nalivkin and his wife said that "women slaves almost all remained in place, because they either were married to workers and servants of their former owners, or they were too young to begin an independent life."[7] Dungan women slaves were of mean status, and not regarded highly in Bukhara.[8]

Turkic Muslim slave raiders from Khoqand did not distinguish between Hui Muslim and Han Chinese, enslaving Hui Muslims in violation of Islam.[9][10] The Turkic Muslim Khoja Jahangir Khoja lead and invasion of Kashgar from the Kokand Khanate, and Jahangir's forces captured several hundred Dungan Chinese Muslims (tungan or hui) who were taken to Kokand. Tajiks bought two Chinese slaves from Shaanxi, they enslaved for a year before being returned by the Tajik Beg Ku-bu-te to China.[11] All Dungans captured, both merchants and the 300 soldiers Janhangir captured in Kashgar had their queues cut off when brought to Kokand and Central Asia as prisoners.[12][13] It was reported that many of the captives became slaves, accounts of these slaves in Central Asia increased.[14][15] The queues were removed from Dungan Chinese Muslim prisoners and then sold or given to various owners, some of them escaped to Russian territory where they were repatriated back to China and the accounts of their captures were recorded in Chinese records.[16][17] The Russians record an incident where they rescued these Chinese Muslim merchants who escaped, after they were sold by Jahangir's Army in Central Asia, and sent them back to China.[18]

The Dungan in the former Soviet republics are Hui who fled China in the aftermath of the Hui Minorities' War in the 19th century. According to Rimsky-Korsakoff (1992), three separate groups of the Hui people fled to the Russian Empire across the Tian Shan Mountains during the exceptionally severe winter of 1877/78:

  1. The first group, of some 1000 people, originally from Turpan in Xinjiang, led by Ma Daren (马大人, 'the Great Man Ma'), also known as Ma Da-lao-ye (马大老爷, 'The Great Master Ma'), reached Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan.
  2. The second group, originally from Didaozhou (狄道州) in Gansu, led by ahong Ma Yusu (马郁素夫),[19] also known as Ah Yelaoren (阿爷老人, 'the Old Man Ah Ye'), were settled in the spring of 1878 in the village of Yrdyk (Russian: Ирдык or Ырдык) some 15 km from Karakol in Eastern Kyrgyzstan. They numbered 1130 on arrival.
  3. The third group, originally from Shaanxi, led by Bai Yanhu (白彦虎; also spelt Bo Yanhu; often called by his followers "虎大人", 'The Great Man Hu', 1829(?)-1882), one of the leaders of the rebellion, were settled in the village of Karakunuz (now Masanchi), in modern Zhambyl Province of Kazakhstan. It is located 8 km north from the city Tokmak in north-western Kyrgyzstan. This group numbered 3314 on arrival. Bai Yanhu's name in other romanizations was Bo-yan-hu or Pai Yen-hu, other names included Boyan-akhun (Akhund or Imam Boyan) and Muhammad Ayyub.[20]

The next wave of immigration followed in the early 1880s. In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881), which required the withdrawal of the Russian troops from the Upper Ili Basin (the Kulja area), the Dungan (Hui) and Taranchi (Uyghur) people of the region were allowed to opt for moving to the Russian side of the border. Many chose that option; according to Russian statistics, 4,682 Hui moved to the Russian Empire under the treaty. They migrated in many small groups between 1881 and 1883, settling in the village of Sokuluk some 30 km west of Bishkek, as well as in a number of locations between the Chinese border and Sokuluk, in south-eastern Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.

Name[edit]

Dungan people
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese東干族
Simplified Chinese东干族
Dunganese name
DunganХуэйзў
Xiao'erjingحُوِ ذَو
RomanizationHuejzw
Hanzi回族
Russian name
RussianДунгане

In the Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and the post-Soviet states, the Dungans continue to refer to themselves as the Hui people (Chinese: 回族, Huízú; in Cyrillic Soviet Dungan spelling, xуэйзў).

The name Dungan is of obscure origin. One popular theory derives this word from Turkic döñän ("one who turns"), which can be compared to Chinese (huí), which has a similar meaning. Another theory derives it from the Chinese 东甘 (Dong Gan), 'Eastern Gansu', the region to which many of the Dungan can trace their ancestry; however the character gan (干) used in the name of the ethnic group is different from that used in the name of the province (甘).

The term "Dungan" ("Tonggan", "Donggan") has been used by Central Asian Turkic-and Tajik-speaking people to refer to Chinese-speaking Muslims for several centuries. Joseph Fletcher cites Turkic and Persian manuscripts related to the preaching of the 17th century Kashgarian Sufi master Muhammad Yūsuf (or, possibly, his son Afaq Khoja) inside the Ming Empire (in today's Gansu and/or Qinghai), where the Kashgarian preacher is told to have converted 'ulamā-yi Tunganiyyān (i.e., "Dungan ulema") into Sufism.[21]

Presumably, it was from the Turkic languages that the term was borrowed into Russian (дунгане, dungane (pl.); дунганин, dunganin (sing.)) and Chinese (simplified Chinese: 东干族; traditional Chinese: 東干族; pinyin: Dōnggānzú), as well as to Western European languages.

Caption: "Shooting exercises of taifurchi [gunners]. Dungans and Kashgar Chinese". A French engraving from the Yaqub Beg's state period

In English and German, the ethnonym "Dungan", in various spelling forms, was attested as early as the 1830s, sometimes typically referring to the Hui people of Xinjiang. For example, James Prinsep in 1835 mentions Muslim "Túngánis" in "Chinese Tartary".[22][23] In 1839, Karl Ernst von Baer in his German-language account of Russian Empire and adjacent Asian lands has a one-page account of Chinese-speaking Muslim "Dungani" or "Tungani", who had visited Orenburg in 1827 with a caravan from China; he also mentions "Tugean" as a spelling variant used by other authors.[24] R.M. Martin in 1847 mentions "Tungani" merchants in Yarkand.[25]

The word (mostly in the form "Dungani" or "Tungani", sometimes "Dungens" or "Dungans") acquired some currency in English and other western languages when a number of books in the 1860-1870s discussed the Dungan Rebellion in Northwestern China. At the time, one could see European and American authors apply the term Tungani to the Hui people both in Xinjiang,[26] and in Shaanxi and Gansu (which at the time included today's Ningxia and Qinghai as well). Authors aware of the general picture of the spread of Islam in China, viewed these "Tungani" as just one of the groups of China's Muslims.[27]

Marshall Broomhall, who has a chapter on "the Tungan Rebellion" in his 1910 book, introduces "the name Tungan or Dungan, by which the Muslims of these parts [i.e., NE China] are designated, in contradistinction as the Chinese Buddhists who are spoken of as Kithay"; the reference to "Khitay" shows that he was viewing the two terms as used by Turkic speakers.[28] Broomhall's book also contains the translation by the report on Chinese Muslims by the Ottoman writer named Abd-ul-Aziz. Abd-ul-Aziz divides the "Tungan people" into two branches: "the Tunagans of China proper" (including, apparently all Hui people in "China proper", as he also talks e.g. about the Tungans having 17 mosques in Beijing), and "The Tungans of Chinese and Russian Turkestan", who still look and speak Chinese, but have often also learned the "Turkish" language.[29]

Later authors continued to use the term Dungan (in various transcriptions) for, specifically, the Hui people of Xinjiang. For example, Owen Lattimore, writing c. 1940, maintains the terminological distinction between these two related groups: "T'ungkan" (i.e. Wade-Giles for "Dungan"), described by him as the descendants of the Gansu Hui people resettled in Xinjiang in 17-18th centuries, vs. e.g. "Gansu Moslems" or generic "Chinese Moslems".[30] The term (usually as "Tungans") continues to be used by many modern historians writing about the 19th century Dungan Rebellion (e.g. by Denis C. Twitchett in the Cambridge History of China,[31] by James A. Millward in his economic history of the region,[32] or by Kim Ho-dong in his monograph[33]).

Dungan villages in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan[edit]

The Dungans themselves referred to Karakunuz (Russian: Каракунуз, sometimes Караконыз or Караконуз) as Ingpan (Chinese: 营盘, Yingpan; Russian: Иньпан), which means 'a camp, an encampment'. In 1965, Karakunuz was renamed Masanchi (sometimes spelt as "Masanchin"), after Magaza Masanchi or Masanchin (Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын; Chinese: 马三奇), a Dungan participant in the Communist Revolution and a Soviet Kazakhstan statesman.

The following table summarizes location of Dungan villages in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, alternative names used for them, and their Dungan population as reported by Ma Tong (2003). The Cyrillic Dungan spelling of place names is as in the textbook by Sushanlo, Imazov (1988); the spelling of the name in Chinese character is as in Ma Tong (2003).

Dungan villages in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
Village name (and alternatives)Location (in present-day terms)FoundationCurrent Dungan population (from Ma Tang (2003))
Kazakhstan - total 48,000 (Ma Tang (2003)) or 36,900 (Kazakhstan Census of 1999)
Masanchi (Russian: Масанчи; Kazakh: Масаншы) or Masanchin (Russian: Масанчин; Cyrillic Dungan: Масанчын; 马三成), prior to 1965 Karakunuz (Каракунуз, Караконыз). Traditional Dungan name is Ingpan (Cyrillic Dungan: Йинпан; Russian: Иньпан; Chinese: 营盘, Yingpan)(42°55′40″N 75°18′00″E / 42.92778°N 75.30000°E / 42.92778; 75.30000 (Masanchi)) Korday District, Zhambyl Province of Kazakhstan (8 km north of Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan)Spring 1878. 3314 people from Shaanxi, led by Bai Yanhu (白彦虎).7,000, current mayor: Ishar Ussupovich Lou
Sortobe (Kazakh: Sortobe; Russian: Шортюбе, Shortyube; Dungan: Щёртюбе; Chinese: 新渠, Xinqu)(42°52′00″N 75°15′15″E / 42.86667°N 75.25417°E / 42.86667; 75.25417 (Sortobe)) Korday District, Zhambyl Province. On the northern bank of the Chui River opposite and a few km downstream from Tokmok; south of Masanchi (Karakunuz)(Karakunuz group)9,000
Zhalpak-tobe, (Kazakh: Жалпак-тобе; Chinese: 加尔帕克秋白, Jiarpakeqiubai)Zhambyl District, Zhambyl Province; near Grodekovo, south of Taraz3,000
Kyrgyzstan - total 50,000 (Ma Tang (2003)
Yrdyk Russian: Ырдык or Ирдык; Dungan: Эрдэх; Chinese: 二道沟, Erdaogou)(42°27′30″N 78°18′0″E / 42.45833°N 78.30000°E / 42.45833; 78.30000 (Yrdyk)) Jeti Oguz district of Issyk Kul Province; 15 km south-west from Karakol.Spring 1878. 1130 people, originally from Didaozhou (狄道州) in Gansu, led by Ma Yusu (马郁素), a.k.a. Ah Yelaoren (阿爷老人).2,800
Sokuluk (Russian: Сокулук; Dungan: Сохўлў; Chinese: 梢葫芦, Saohulu); may also include adjacent Aleksandrovka (Александровка)Sokuluk District of Chuy Province; 30 km west of BishkekSome of those 4,628 Hui people who arrived in 1881-1883 from the Ili Basin (Xinjiang) .12,000
Milyanfan (Russian: Милянфан; Dungan: Милёнчуан; Chinese: 米粮川, Miliangchuan)Ysyk-Ata District of Chuy Province. Southern bank of the Chuy River, some 60 km west of Tokmok and about as much north-east of Bishkek.(Karakunuz group (?))10,000
Ivanovka village (Russian: Ивановка; Chinese: 伊万诺夫卡)Ysyk-Ata District of Chuy Province. Southern bank of the Chuy River, some 30 km west of Tokmok.(Karakunuz group (?))1,500
Dungan community of Osh (Russian: Ош, Chinese: 奥什 or 敖什, Aoshe)Osh CitySpring 1878, 1000 people, originally from Turpan in Xinjiang, led by Ma Daren, also known as Ma Da-lao-ye (马大老爷)800

The position of the Kazakhstan villages within the administrative division of Zhambyl Province, and the total population of each village can be found at the provincial statistics office web site.[34]

Besides the traditionally Dungan villages, many Dungan people live in the nearby cities, such as Bishkek, Tokmok, Karakol.

Soviet rule[edit]

Vanakhun's museum

During World War II, some Dungans served in the Red Army, Vanakhun Mansuza (Cyrillic Dungan : мансуза ванахун; traditional Chinese: 曼苏茲(or子)·王阿洪; simplified Chinese: 曼蘇茲·王阿洪; pinyin: Mànsūzī·Wángāhóng) was a Dungan war "hero" who led a "mortar battery".[35]

Present day[edit]

In Milyanfan village, Chuy Province of Kyrgyzstan

As Ding (2005) notes, "[t]he Dungan people derive from China's Hui people, and now live mainly in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Their population is about 110,000. This people have now developed a separate ethnicity outside China, yet they have close relations with the Hui people in culture, ethnic characteristics and ethnic identity."

Language[edit]

Main article: Dungan language

The Dungan language, which the Dungan people call the "Hui language" (Хуэйзў йүян or Huejzw jyian), is similar to the Zhongyuan dialect of Mandarin Chinese, which is widely spoken in the south of Gansu and the west of Guanzhong in Shaanxi in China.

Like other Chinese languages, Dungan is tonal. There are two main dialects, one with four tones, and the other, considered standard, with three tones in the final position in words and four tones in the non-final position.

Some Dungan vocabulary may sound old-fashioned to Chinese people. For example, they refer to a President as an "Emperor" (Хуангди”,huan'g-di) and call government offices yamen (ямын,ya-min), a term for mandarins' offices in ancient China. Their language also contains many loanwords from Arabic, Persian, and Turkic. Since the 1940s, the language has been written in Cyrillic script, demonstrating that Chinese can be written with an alphabet (compare the pinyin system).

Unlike other minority nationalities in Central Asia, such as the local Koreans, most Dungan people are trilingual. More than two-thirds of the Dungan also speak Russian, and a small proportion can speak Kyrgyz or other languages belonging to the titular nationalities of the countries where they live.[36]

Culture[edit]

Many restaurants in Bishkek advertise "Dungan cuisine" (Дунганская кухня)
Dungan mosque in Karakol, Kyrgyzstan.

Nineteenth century explorer Henry Lansdell noted that the Dungan people abstained from spirits and opium, neither smoked nor took snuff and

"are of middle height, and inclined to be stout. They have high and prominent foreheads, thick and arched eyebrows, eyes rather sunken, fairly prominent cheek-bones, face oval, mouth of average size, lips thick, teeth normal, chin round, ears small and compressed, hair black and smooth, beard scanty and rough, skin smooth, neck strong, and extremities of average proportions. The characteristics of the Dungans are kindness, industry, and hospitality.

They engage in husbandry, horticulture, and trade. In domestic life parental authority is very strong. After the birth of a child the mother does not get up for fifteen days, and, without any particular feast, the child receives its name in the presence of a mullah the day succeeding that of its birth. Circumcision takes place on the eighth, ninth, or tenth day. When a girl is married she receives a dower. In sickness they have recourse to medicine and doctors, but never to exorcisms.

After a death the mullah and the aged assemble to recite prayers ; the corpse is wrapped in white linen and then buried, but never burned. On returning from the interment the mullah and the elders partake of bread and meat. To saints they erect monuments like little mosques, for others simple hillocks. The widow may re-marry after 90 days,and on the third anniversary of the death a feast takes place."[37]

The Dungan are primarily farmers, growing rice and vegetables such as sugar beets. Many also raise dairy cattle. In addition, some are involved in opium production. The Dungan tend to be endogamous.

The Dungan are well known for their hospitality and hold many ceremonies and banquets to preserve their culture. They have elaborate and colorful observances of birthdays, weddings, and funerals. In addition, schools have museums to preserve other parts of their culture, such as embroidery, traditional clothing, silver jewelry, paper cuts of animals and flowers and tools.

The Dungan still practice elements of Chinese culture, in cuisine and attire, up to 1948 they also practiced foot binding.[38] The conservative Shaanxi Dungan cling more tightly to Chinese customs than the Gansu Dungan.[39]

The Dungans have retained Chinese traditions which have disappeared in modern China. Traditional marriage practices are still widespread with matchmakers, the marriages conducted by the Dungan are similar to Chinese marriages in the 19th century, hairstyles worn by women and attire date back to the Qing dynasty.[40]

Shaanxi female attire is still Chinese, though the rest of the Dungans dress in western attire. Chopsticks are used by Dungans.[41] The cuisine of the Dungan resembles northwestern Chinese cuisine.[42][43]

Around the late 19th century the Bride Price was between 240 to 400 rubles for Dungan women. Dungans take other women such as Kirghiz and Tatars as brides willingly, or kidnap Kirghiz girls.[44]

Shaanxi Dungans are even conservative when marrying with other Dungans, they want only other Shaanxi Dungans marrying their daughters, while their sons are allowed to marry Gansu Dungan, Kirghiz, and Kazakh women.

Identity[edit]

During the Qing dynasty, the term Zhongyuanren was synonymous with being mainstream Chinese, especially referring to Han Chinese and Hui Muslims in Xinjiang or Central Asia.

Because of religious reasons, while Hui people do not consider themselves Han and are not Han Chinese, the Hui consider themselves wider Chinese and also refer to themselves as Zhongyuanren.[45] The Dungan people, descendants of Hui who fled to Central Asia, called themselves Zhongyuanren in addition to the standard labels Lao Huihui and Huizi.[46] Zhongyuanren was used generally by Turkic Muslims to refer to Han and Hui Chinese people. When Central Asian invaders from Kokand invaded Kashgar, in a letter the Kokandi commander criticizes the Kashgari Turkic Muslim Ishaq for allegedly not behaving like a Turkic-origin Muslim and wanting to be a Zhongyuanren (mainstream Chinese).[47][48]

Religion[edit]

The large majority of Dungan are Hanafi Muslim, with a Hanbali minority[citation needed]. Many Dungan villages contain a mosque run by village elders.[not specific enough to verify]

Islam came to the Dungan in the manner it came to Hui people, who were their ancestors.[further explanation needed] See the article on Hui people for more information.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Population and Housing Census 2009. Book 2. Part 1. (in tables). Population of Kyrgyzstan. (Перепись населения и жилищного фонда Кыргызской Республики 2009. Книга 2. Часть 1. (в таблицах). Население Кыргызстана). Bishkek: National Committee on Statistics. 2010 
  2. ^ a b Aleksandr Nikolaevich Alekseenko (Александр Николаевич Алексеенко), "Republic in the Mirror of the Population Census" («Республика в зеркале переписей населения») Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia. 2001, No. 12. pp. 58-62.
  3. ^ a b Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года
  4. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  5. ^ Ki 2002
  6. ^ David Trilling (April 20, 2010). "Kyrgyzstan Eats: A Dungan Feast in Naryn". EURASIANET.org. 
  7. ^ Marianne Kamp (2008). The New Woman in Uzbekistan: Islam, Modernity, and Unveiling Under Communism (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-295-98819-3. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  8. ^ Shail Mayaram (2009). Shail Mayaram, ed. The other global city (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis US. p. 209. ISBN 0-415-99194-3. Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  9. ^ W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). Islam and the abolition of slavery. Oxford University Press US. p. 45. ISBN 0-19-522151-6. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  10. ^ W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). Islam and the abolition of slavery. Oxford University Press US. p. 15. ISBN 0-19-522151-6. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  11. ^ Millward 1998, p. 298.
  12. ^ Millward 1998, p. 205.
  13. ^ Millward 1998, p. 305.
  14. ^ Laura Newby (2005). The Empire and the Khanate: a political history of Qing relations with Khoqand c. 1760-1860. BRILL. p. 97. ISBN 90-04-14550-8. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  15. ^ John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Late Chʻing, 1800-1911, pt. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 371. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  16. ^ Millward 1998, p. 168.
  17. ^ Harrison, Henrietta (2013). The Missionary's Curse and Other Tales from a Chinese Catholic Village. Volume 26 of Asia: Local Studies / Global Themes. University of California Press. p. 59. ISBN 0520954726. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  18. ^ Millward 1998, p. 285.
  19. ^ As per Ma Tong (2003)
  20. ^ M. Th. Houtsma (1993). E.J. Brill's first encyclopedia of Islam, 1913-1936. BRILL. p. 720. ISBN 90-04-09790-2. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  21. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Hong Kong University Press. p. 59. ISBN 962-209-468-6. . Lipman's source is: Joseph Fletcher, "The Naqshbandiya in Northwest China", in Beatrcie Manz, ed. (1995). Studies on Chinese and Islamic Inner Asia. London: Variorum. 
  22. ^ James Prinsep, "Memoir on Chinese Tartary and Khoten". The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 48, December 1835. P. 655.On Google Books
  23. ^ Prinsep's article is also available in "The Chinese Repository", 1843, p. 234 On Google Books. A modern (2003) reprint is available, ISBN 1-4021-5631-6.
  24. ^ Karl Ernst von Baer, Grigoriĭ Petrovich Gelʹmersen. "Beiträge zur Kenntniss des russischen Reiches und der angränzenden Länder Asiens". Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1839. p. 91. On Google Books (German)
  25. ^ Robert Montgomery Martin, "China; political, commercial, and social; an official report". 1847. p.19. On Google Books
  26. ^ For example, Thomas Edward Gordon writes about the "Tunganis" with taifu wall pieces (small cannons) guarding the walls of Yaqub Beg's capital Kashgar (in today's Western Xinjiang) in his book The roof of the world: being a narrative of a journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the Russian frontier and the Oxus sources on Pamir. A Times journalist in "Russia and China in Central Asia" (reprinted by The Brisbane Courier, Wednesday 8 January 1879) distinguishes "the Tungan Country" (today, eastern Xinjiang) and "Eastern Turkestan" (corresponding to Yaqub Beg's state in today's western Xinjiang). He talks about "the Tungani who had erected in the various cities of Hamil, Barkul, Guchen, Urumtsi, and Manas a confederacy of no mean power".
  27. ^ See e.g. an anonymous article, "Mohammedanism in China", in The Living age, Volume 145, Issue 1876. May 29, 1880. Pp. 515-525. Reprinted from the Edinburgh Review. While using "Mohammedans" as the generic description of Chinese Muslim's throughout the article (including e.g., the Panthays then recently rebelling in Yunnan), the author describes "[a]n insurrection, beginning in Singan-fu, and spreading to Kan-suh in 1862, in which the Tungani (a mysterious race of Muslims dwelling in that region, supposed to be the remnant of the armies of Kublai Khan) were the chief actors" (p. 524).
  28. ^ Broomhall, Marshall (1910). Islam in China: a neglected problem. China Inland Mission. p. 147. OCLC 347514. . A 1966 reprint by Paragon Book Reprint is available. Relatedly, the Russian word for China is also Kitai (Китай), and for Chinese is kitaitsy (китайцы), a label that is not applied to the Dungans (дунгане) in an ethnic sense; that is, Dungans and kitaitsi (Chinese) were regarded as different ethnic groups or nationalities.
  29. ^ Broomhall 1910, p. 260
  30. ^ Owen Lattimore. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. Page 183 in the 1951 edition.
  31. ^ Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 11. Cambridge University Press. pp. 215–242. ISBN 0-521-22029-7 . Twitchett's definition (p. 215) is in line with the authors of 1870s-1880s, rather than with that of more recent Lattimore: for Twitchett, "Tungans" include the Huis of Shaanxi and Gansu as well, not just of Xinjiang
  32. ^ Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the pass: economy, ethnicity, and empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford University Press. pp. 35 etc. ISBN 0-8047-2933-6 
  33. ^ Kim, Ho-dong (2004). Holy war in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4884-5 
  34. ^ Population data for Zhambyl Province towns and villages (1999-2002)
  35. ^ Svetlana Rimsky-Korsakoff Dyer (1991). I︠A︡syr Shivaza: the life and works of a Soviet Dungan poet (illustrated ed.). P. Lang. p. 205. ISBN 3-631-43963-6. Retrieved 2011-06-11. 
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