Washington Dulles International Airport

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Washington Dulles International Airport
Logo of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.svg
Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk.jpg
WMO: 72403
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorMetropolitan Washington Airports Authority
ServesWashington metropolitan area
LocationDulles, Virginia, U.S.
Hub forUnited Airlines
Focus city forFrontier Airlines
Elevation AMSL313 ft / 95 m
Coordinates38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583Coordinates: 38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583
FAA airport Diagram
FAA airport Diagram
IAD is located in Virginia
Location in Virginia
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[1]
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This article is about the airport. For the Washington Metro station that will service the airport beginning in 2018, see Washington Dulles International Airport (WMATA station).
Washington Dulles International Airport
Logo of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.svg
Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk.jpg
WMO: 72403
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorMetropolitan Washington Airports Authority
ServesWashington metropolitan area
LocationDulles, Virginia, U.S.
Hub forUnited Airlines
Focus city forFrontier Airlines
Elevation AMSL313 ft / 95 m
Coordinates38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583Coordinates: 38°56′40″N 077°27′21″W / 38.94444°N 77.45583°W / 38.94444; -77.45583
FAA airport Diagram
FAA airport Diagram
IAD is located in Virginia
Location in Virginia
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[1]

Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IADICAO: KIADFAA LID: IAD) is a public airport in Dulles, Virginia, 26 miles (42 km) west of downtown Washington, D.C.[2] The airport serves the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area, centered on the District of Columbia. The airport is named after John Foster Dulles, the 52nd Secretary of State and served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Dulles main terminal is a well-known landmark designed by Eero Saarinen. Operated by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles Airport occupies 11,830 acres (47.9 km2)[3] straddling the border of Fairfax County and Loudoun County, Virginia,[1] within the unincorporated communities of Chantilly and Dulles.

Dulles is the busiest airport in the Washington metropolitan area, and second busiest airport in the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area (after BWI Airport) with over 22 million passengers a year.[4][5] With nearly all of the international passenger traffic in the Washington-Baltimore region, Dulles is the busiest international airport in the Mid-Atlantic outside of the New York metropolitan area.[6] On a typical day, more than 60,000 passengers pass through Washington Dulles to and from more than 125 destinations around the world.[4][7] Dulles is a major hub for United Airlines, serving as one of the airline's two primary transatlantic gateways, and is also a focus city for Frontier Airlines.



At the end of World War II, the growth in aviation in the Washington metropolitan area led Congress to pass the Washington Airport Act of 1950. Congress, through legislation, was recognizing that the planned future longer range and larger aircraft, as well as the increased number of projected landings/takeoffs, were far beyond the capacity of the existing airports in the Washington, DC area of the time. This reality supported providing federal backing for a second airport.[citation needed] After preliminary proposals failed, including one to establish an international airport at what is now Burke Lake Park, the current site was selected by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958. As a result of the selection, the unincorporated community of Willard, which once stood in the airport's current footprint, was demolished.[8]

Design and original construction[edit]

Dulles Airport in 1970

The civil engineering firm Ammann and Whitney was named lead contractor. The airport was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy on November 17, 1962. As originally opened, the airport had three runways (current day runways 1L/19R, 1C/19C, and 12/30). Its original name, Dulles International Airport, was changed in 1984 to Washington Dulles International Airport.[9] The main terminal was designed in 1958 by famed Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and it is highly regarded for its graceful beauty, suggestive of flight. In the 1990s, the main terminal at Dulles was reconfigured to allow more space between the front of the building and the ticket counters. Additions at both ends of the main terminal more than doubled the structure's length. The original terminal at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in Taoyuan, Taiwan was modeled after the Saarinen terminal at Dulles.

The design included a landscaped man-made lake to collect rainwater, a low-rise hotel, and a row of office buildings along the north side of the main parking lot. The design also included a two-level road in front of the terminal to separate arrival and departure traffic and a federally owned limited access highway connecting the terminal to the Capital Beltway (I-495) about 17 miles (27 km) to the east. (Eventually, the highway system grew to include a parallel toll road to handle commuter traffic and an extension to connect to I-66). The access road had a wide median strip to allow the construction of a passenger rail line, which will be in the form of an extension of the Washington Metro and is expected to be completed in 2018.

Notable operations and milestones[edit]

Planned development[edit]

Main Terminal Station of Aerotrain

By the 1980s, the original design, which had mobile lounges meet each plane, was no longer well-suited to Dulles' role as a hub airport. Instead, midfield concourses were added to allow passengers to walk between connecting flights without visiting the main terminal. Mobile lounges were still used for international flights and to transport passengers between the midfield concourses and the main terminal. An underground tunnel (consisting of a passenger walkway and moving sidewalks) which links the main terminal and Concourse B was opened in 2004.[19] The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) began a renovation program for the airport including a new security mezzanine with more room for lines.[20]

A new train system, dubbed AeroTrain and developed by Mitsubishi, began in 2010 to transport passengers between the concourses and the main terminal.[21] The system, which uses rubber tires and travels along a fixed underground guideway,[21] is similar to the people mover systems at Singapore Changi Airport,[21] Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and Denver International Airport. The train is intended to replace the mobile lounges, which many passengers found crowded and inconvenient. The initial phase includes the main terminal station, a permanent Concourse A station, a permanent Concourse B station, a permanent midfield concourse station (with access to the current temporary C concourse via a tunnel with moving walkways), and a maintenance facility.[21] Mobile lounges continue to service the D Concourse from both the main terminal and Concourse A. Even after AeroTrain is built out and the replacement Concourses C and D are built, the mobile lounges and plane mates will still continue to be used, to transport international arriving passengers to the International Arrivals Building, as well as transport passengers to aircraft parked on hardstands without direct access to jet bridges. Dulles has stated that the wait time for a train does not exceed four minutes, compared to the average 15-minute wait and travel time for mobile lounges.

Under the development plan, future phases would see the addition of several new midfield concourses and a new south terminal.[22] A fourth runway (parallel to the existing runways 1 and 19 L&R) opened in 2008,[23] and development plans include a fifth runway to parallel the existing runway 12–30.[24] If this runway is built, the current runway will be redesignated as 12L-30R while the new runway will be designated 12R-30L. An expansion of the B concourse, used by many low cost airlines as well as international arrivals, has been completed, and the building housing Concourses C and D will eventually be knocked down to make room for a more ergonomic building. Because Concourses C and D are temporary concourses, the only way to get to those concourses is via moving walkway from the Concourse C station which is built in the location of the future gates and Concourse D by mobile lounge from the main terminal.[25]


An assortment of United Airlines Boeing 767-300ER and Boeing 777-200ERs lined up at Concourse C in 2011.
An Austrian Airlines Boeing 767-300 landing on Runway 19C /1C
A South African Airways Airbus A340-300 parked at Concourse A
A Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300 parked at Concourse A
A United Airlines Boeing 777-200 lands on Runway 1R/19L

United Airlines has used Dulles as a hub since 1985. Along with Newark Liberty International Airport, it is one of United's two transatlantic gateways with many nonstop flights to Europe and the Middle East. United handled 65.2% of scheduled air carrier passengers at the airport in 2013.[26] JetBlue Airways handled 1.7% of scheduled air carrier passengers. American Airlines is the airport's third largest carrier in tickets sold and handled: 4%.[26] In addition, 25 foreign carriers have service in and out of Washington Dulles. On a typical day, Dulles averages 1,000 to 1,200 flight operations.[27] Dulles International served 22.6 million passengers in 2012, a 2.8% decrease over 2011. However, international passenger traffic has increased by 2.0% during the same time.[28] Additional international service is commencing service at Washington Dulles. With 43 weekly flights, Dulles is now the second largest United States gateway to the Middle East. Even before the United States economic recession started, international passengers have continued to grow, which prompted the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority to expand the international arrivals building to handle 2,400 passengers per hour.

Busiest international routes from Dulles (2013)[29]
1London (Heathrow), United Kingdom902,878British Airways, United, Virgin Atlantic
2Frankfurt, Germany595,546Lufthansa, United
3Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France446,332Air France, United
4Dubai, United Arab Emirates347,247Emirates, United
5Tokyo (Narita), Japan279,915All Nippon Airways, United
6Amsterdam, Netherlands267,681KLM, United
7San Salvador, El Salvador267,061Avianca, United
8Munich, Germany241,541Lufthansa, United
9Brussels, Belgium195,476Brussels Airlines, United
10Doha, Qatar187,874Qatar Airways, United
Busiest domestic routes from Dulles (August 2013 - July 2014)[30]
1Los Angeles, California588,000American, United, Virgin America
2San Francisco, California555,000United, Virgin America
3Denver, Colorado462,000Southwest, United
4Atlanta, Georgia315,000Delta, United
5Boston, Massachusetts259,000JetBlue, United
6Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois255,000United
7Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas225,000American, United
8Charlotte, North Carolina229,000United, US Airways
9Orlando, Florida202,000JetBlue, United
10Chicago (Midway), Illinois184,000Southwest
Largest Carriers at Dulles (April 2012–March 2013)[31]
1United Airlines9,051,707
2ExpressJet Airlines (Delta Connection, United Express)2,302,142
3Mesa Airlines (United Express, US Airways Express)1,151,729
4American Airlines752,216
5Southwest Airlines613,030
6Trans States Airlines (United Express)562,322
7JetBlue Airways544,071
8Delta Air Lines513,033
9Virgin America455,131
Traffic by calendar year[4]
YearPassengersChange from
previous year
Aircraft operationsCargo


A plane mate


The airport's terminal complex consists of a main terminal and two midfield terminal buildings: Concourses A/B and C/D. The entire terminal complex has 123 gates and 16 hardstand locations[33] from which passengers can board or disembark using the airport's plane mate vehicles.[3]

Conceived in early planning sessions in 1959, Dulles is one of the few remaining airports to use the mobile lounge (also known as "plane mates" or "people movers") for boarding and disembarkation from aircraft, and to transfer passengers between the midfield concourses and to and from the main terminal building. They have all been given names based on the postal abbreviations of 50 states, e.g.: VA, MD, AK.[34]

The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority has begun to gradually phase out the mobile lounge system for inter-terminal passenger movements in favor of the AeroTrain, an underground people mover which currently operates to Concourses A, B and C, and underground pedestrian walkway tunnels (now in service to concourse A/B). The mobile lounges are still used to transport passengers directly from the main terminal to Concourse D. Plane mates also remain in use to disembark international passengers and carry them to the International Arrivals Building, as well as to convey passengers to and from aircraft on hard stand (i.e., those parked remotely on the apron without access to jet bridges).[35][36]

Main terminal[edit]

The terminal ceiling is suspended in a catenary curve above the luggage check-in area.

The iconic main terminal (which houses ticketing, baggage claim, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Z gates, and other support facilities) was recognized by the American Institute of Architects in 1966 for its design concept; its roof is a suspended catenary providing a wide enclosed area unimpeded by any columns. It houses ticketing, baggage claim, and information facilities, as well as the International Arrivals Building for passenger processing.

The main terminal was extended in 1996 to 1,240 feet (380 m)—Saarinen's original design length—which was slightly more than double its originally constructed length of 600 feet (180 m).[33] In addition, an extension for international arrivals was added to the west of the main terminal in 1991. On September 22, 2009, an expansion of the international arrivals building opened which includes a 41,400 square feet (3,850 m2) arrival hall for customs and immigration processing. The new facility has the capacity to process 2,400 arriving passengers per hour.[37]

In September 2009, a 121,700 square feet (11,310 m2) central Transportation Security Administration checkpoint was added on a new security mezzanine level of the main terminal. This checkpoint replaced previous checkpoints located behind the ticketing areas.[38] A separate security checkpoint is available on the baggage claim level. Both security checkpoints connect to the new AeroTrain, which links the main terminal with the A, B, and C concourses.

There are two sets of gates in the main terminal: the first is the "H" Gates, which are waiting areas for airlines which lack permanent physical gates and therefore use plane mates to reach planes parked at 16 hard-stand locations. The other is a set of four gates designated as Concourse Z, which provides service for Frontier Airlines (as of August 19, 2014).

Midfield terminals[edit]

Main Terminal AeroTrain station

There are two midfield terminal buildings at Dulles: one contains the A and B midfield concourses, the other the C and D midfield concourses.

Concourses A and B[edit]

All non-United flights operate out of these two concourses. Concourse A (which has 47 gates) composes the eastern part of the closer midfield terminal building. It consists of a permanent ground level set of gates designed for small planes such as regional jets and several former B concourse gates.[39] The concourse is primarily used for international flights. Air France operates an airline lounge opposite gate A22, Ethiad Airways operates a First and Business Class lounge across from gate A15, Virgin Atlantic has a Clubhouse lounge across from gate A32. Concourse A's AeroTrain station is located halfway along the horizontal length of the building, between gates A6 and A14.

Concourse B (which has 28 gates) composes the western half of the building. It is the first of the permanent elevated midfield concourses. Originally constructed in 1998 and designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, the B concourse contained 20 gates. In 2003, 4 additional gates were added to concourse B, followed by a 15-gate expansion in 2008.[40] It is connected to the main terminal by an underground walkway in addition to the AeroTrain station located between gates B51 and B62. Concourse B is used by some international carriers, and is also utilized by all non-United domestic and Canada flights. The facility also includes a British Airways Galleries lounge and a Lufthansa Senator lounge.

Concourses C and D[edit]

The interior of Concourse C, where United's hub operation is based
A United Airlines Boeing 767-300ER being serviced at Concourse D

Concourses C and D are used for United Airlines flights, including all mainline flights and most United Express regional jet operations (save for a few that use Concourse A).

The building containing Concourses C and D was constructed in 1983 and designed by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum. The two concourses have 22 gates each, numbered C1-C28 and D1-D32, with odd-numbered gates on the north side of the building and even numbered gates on the south side. Concourse C composes the eastern half of the terminal and Concourse D composes the gates on the west half of the terminal.[41][42] The C/D concourses were given a face lift in 2006 which included light fixture upgrades, new paint finishes, new ceiling grids and tiles, heating and air conditioning replacement, and complete restroom renovations.[42]

Concourse C also has a dedicated Federal Inspection Station located at ground level. International United flights therefore can deplane passengers via jetbridge at Concourse C (as opposed to using plane mates to offload passengers), and subsequently passengers connecting onwards and passengers with Dulles as their final destination are separated. Passengers with Dulles as their final destination are directed onto a mobile lounge that transports them to the International Arrivals Building, while passengers connecting to another United flight clear U.S. Customs and Immigration at the FIS station on the ground level. Since this immigration facility is only for connecting passengers on United and other Star Alliance carriers, it has shorter lines and passengers don't have to reclear security at the massive security checkpoints in the main terminal.

There are three United Clubs in the facility: one next to Gate C7, one next to gate C17, and one next to gate D8. There is also a United International First Lounge near gate C2.

A new and permanent C/D concourse (also called "Tier 2") is planned as part of the D2 Dulles Development Project. The new building is to include a three-level structure with 44 airline gates and similar amenities to Concourse B.[42] The concourse plan includes a dedicated mezzanine corridor with moving sidewalks to serve international passengers. The design and construction of the new C/D concourse has not been scheduled.[42]

Airlines and destinations[edit]


AeroméxicoMexico City[44]A
Air ChinaBeijing–Capital[45]A
Air FranceParis–Charles de Gaulle[46]A
All Nippon AirwaysTokyo–Narita[47]B
American AirlinesDallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami[48]B
Austrian Airlines
operated by Tyrolean Airways
Avianca1Bogotá, La Paz, San Salvador[50]B
British AirwaysLondon–Heathrow[51]B
Brussels AirlinesSeasonal: Brussels[52]B
Copa AirlinesPanama City[53]A
Delta Air LinesAtlanta
Seasonal: Cancún, Minneapolis/St. Paul[54]
Delta ConnectionAtlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK[54]B
Elite AirwaysMelbourne (FL)[55]FBO
EmiratesDubai-International [56]A
Ethiopian Airlines2Addis Ababa[57]A
Etihad AirwaysAbu Dhabi[58]A
Frontier Airlines[59]Atlanta, Cancun (begins November 22, 2014), Charlotte, Chicago-O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Las Vegas, Miami (begins December 21, 2014),[60] Minneapolis–St. Paul, Orlando, St. Augustine, St. Louis, Tampa, West Palm Beach (begins November 21, 2014)
Seasonal: Memphis
IcelandairReykjavík–Keflavík [61]A
JetBlue AirwaysBoston, New York–JFK[62]B
Korean AirSeoul–Incheon[64]A
LufthansaFrankfurt, Munich[65]B
Porter AirlinesToronto–Billy Bishop[66]A
Qatar AirwaysDoha[67]B
SaudiaJeddah, Riyadh[68]A
Scandinavian AirlinesCopenhagen[69]B
Silver AirwaysClarksburg (WV), DuBois (PA), Johnstown (PA), Lewisburg (WV), Morgantown (WV), Parkersburg (WV), Shenandoah Valley (VA) [70]A
South African AirwaysDakar, Johannesburg-O.R. Tambo[71]B
Southwest AirlinesChicago–Midway, Denver, Las Vegas, San DiegoB
Sun Air InternationalHagerstown, Lancaster[72]B
Turkish AirlinesIstanbul–Atatürk[73]B
United AirlinesAmsterdam, Aruba, Bahrain, Beijing–Capital, Boston, Brussels, Cancún, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Dubai-International, Frankfurt, Geneva, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Hartford, Honolulu, Houston–Intercontinental, Kuwait, Las Vegas, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Munich, New Orleans, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix, Raleigh/Durham, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Singapore, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Tampa, Tokyo–Narita, Zürich
Seasonal: Austin, Dublin, Hayden/Steamboat Springs (begins December 14, 2014),[74] Jackson Hole (begins December 20, 2014),[74] Madrid, Manchester (UK), Montego Bay, Portland (OR), Punta Cana, Rome–Fiumicino, San José del Cabo (begins December 20, 2014),[75] Vancouver
C, D
United ExpressAlbany (NY), Atlanta, Austin, Beckley (WV), Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Charlottesville (VA), Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Detroit, Fayetteville (NC), Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Houston–Intercontinental, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Knoxville, Louisville, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal–Trudeau, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Ottawa, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (NY), St. Louis, San Antonio, Savannah, State College (PA), Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, Tulsa (ends January 6, 2015; resumes March 5, 2015)
Seasonal: Halifax, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, Québec City
A, C, D
US Airways ExpressCharlotte[76]B
Virgin AmericaLos Angeles, San Francisco[77]B
Virgin AtlanticLondon-Heathrow[78]A

^1 Avianca's flight to La Paz makes a stop in Bogotá.
^2 Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to Dulles stops at Rome-Fiumicino, but the flight from Dulles to Addis Ababa is nonstop.

Airline lounges[edit]

Nonstop domestic and nonstop or direct international service from Dulles
Air France operates daily Airbus A380 flights to Charles de Gaulle Airport from gate A20/A22, as seen in the photo. Along with United Airlines, the route carries 480,000 passengers a year.

Since many major domestic and international airlines have a large presence at Washington Dulles, there are several airline lounges in active operation there.


FedEx ExpressHarrisburg, Indianapolis, Memphis, Newark
FedEx Feeder
operated by Mountain Air Cargo
UPS AirlinesLouisville, Richmond

Ground transportation[edit]


Dulles is accessible via the Dulles Access Road/Dulles Greenway (State Route 267) and State Route 28. The Dulles Airport Access Highway (DAAH) is a toll-free, limited access, highway owned by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) to facilitate car access to Dulles from the Washington Capital Beltway and Interstate 66.[82] After it opened, non-airport traffic between Washington and Reston became so heavy that a parallel set of toll lanes were added on the same right-of-way to accommodate non-airport traffic (Dulles Toll Road). However, the airport-only lanes are both less congested as well as toll-free. As of November 1, 2008, MWAA assumed responsibility from the Virginia Department of Transportation both for operating the Dulles Toll Road and for the construction of a rapid transit rail line down its median. Route 28, which runs north–south along the eastern edge of the airport, has been upgraded to a limited access highway, with the interchanges financed through a property tax surcharge on nearby business properties. The Dulles Toll Road has been extended to the west to Leesburg as the Dulles Greenway.

Mass transportation[edit]

Fairfax Connector routes 981 and 983 serve Dulles, connecting to the Herndon–Monroe park & ride lot in Herndon, the Reston Town Center transit in Reston, the Wiehle – Reston East Metro station, and the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center Air and Space Museum.

As of 2014, the only Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority service to Dulles is the "Express" 5A Metrobus route. The 5A express bus makes two stops on its way from the airport to downtown Washington. Stops include the Herndon–Monroe park & ride lot in Herndon and the Rosslyn Metro station in Arlington. It terminates at the L'Enfant Plaza Metro station in Southwest DC. Both metro stations can be accessed by the Orange, Blue, and Silver lines, while the latter can also be accessed by the Yellow and Green lines.

An alternative (but slightly more expensive)[83] way of reaching Dulles is the Washington Flyer Coach bus service that operates roughly every twenty minutes between the airport and the Wiehle – Reston East Metro station. Washington Flyer service will be permanently discontinued when Phase II of the Silver Line opens in 2018.[84]

Passengers connecting to the Shenandoah Valley can use the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus, which connects to the Vienna and Rosslyn Metro stations. Taxis and SuperShuttle ride sharing vans are also available.


Construction is now underway to connect the airport to Washington via the Silver Line of the Washington Metro.[85] While initial plans called for completion of the station in 2016, officials now expect the construction to be completed in 2018.[86][87]

Incidents and accidents[edit]


Control Tower view of IAD in 1961.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for IAD (Form 5010 PDF)
  2. ^ "Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Facts About Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c "Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) Air Traffic Statistics". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Preliminary CY 2012 Enplanements". Federal Aviation Administration. 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013. [dead link]
  6. ^ "U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report". Office of the Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International Affairs, U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Air Service Maps – IAD". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  8. ^ Scheel, Eugene. "History of Dulles Airport". Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  9. ^ "History of Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  10. ^ Aviation Daily 23 Feb 1971 p. 291
  11. ^ "Space Shuttle Pavilion". IntrepidMuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-12-24. 
  12. ^ Reuters (January 25, 1990). "Tribute to Eisenhower". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2011. see also, 101st Congress, S.J.RES.239.
  13. ^ "Blackbird Records". SR-71 Online. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  14. ^ "United Airlines". Century-of-flight.net. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  15. ^ "United Express moves to Concourse A at Dulles International Airport". United.com. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  16. ^ Coombs, Joe (February 7, 2008). "Passenger numbers up at Dulles International, Reagan National airports". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved April 6, 2008. 
  17. ^ Lufthansa starts 747-8 flights to Dulles - Washington Business Journal. Bizjournals.com (2012-06-01). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  18. ^ Ethiopian Airlines Inaugurates 787 Dreamliner Airplane at Washington Dulles International Airport. ET African Journeys (2012-08-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  19. ^ "Passenger Walkway to Concourses A and B Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Dulles Development: Main Terminal Improvement Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Aerotrain – Dulles Train System Fact Sheet" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  22. ^ Weiss, Eric M. (August 19, 2008). "Dulles Updates Its People Movers". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  23. ^ "D2 Projects: Fourth Runway". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  24. ^ "D2 Projects: Future Fifth Runway". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  25. ^ Fox, Peggy (January 25, 2010). "Dulles Airport To Open AeroTrain". 9 News Now (WUSA). Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  26. ^ a b "Total Passenters by Airline: January 2010 – December 2010". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. January 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Total Operations by Airline-May 2010 – April 2011". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. May 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  28. ^ Washington's Airports Set Records for Passenger Growth. Mwaa.com (2013-02-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  29. ^ "U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report". 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Washington, DC: Dulles International (IAD)- Scheduled Services except Freight/Mail". Transtats.bts.gov. June 3, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Carrier Statistics IAD". 
  32. ^ Total cargo (Freight, Express, & Mail).
  33. ^ a b "Facts About Washington Dulles International Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  34. ^ Nick Komons (August 1989). Air Progress: 65. 
  35. ^ Aryanpur, Arianne (February 2, 2006). "At Dulles, The Tarmac Is Their Turf". The Washington Post. p. VA16. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  36. ^ Miroff, Nick (September 14, 2006). "Airport's Future Is on Rails". The Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  37. ^ Freeman, Sholnn (September 22, 2009). "Elbow Room Expands for International Arrivals". The Washington Post. p. B2. 
  38. ^ "New Passenger Security Screening Areas Open at Dulles International Airport Tomorrow" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority Office of Public Affairs. September 14, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Aerotrain has Opened". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  40. ^ "D2 Dulles Development: Concourse B Expansion". Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  41. ^ Kidder Smith, G. E. (2000). Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable Buildings from the 10th Century to the Present [Dulles Airport]. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. p. 449. ISBN 1-56898-254-2. Retrieved June 16, 2012. 
  42. ^ a b c d "D2 Projects – Concourse C/D". Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  43. ^ Routemap http://www.aeroflot.com/cms/en/flight/ways_map
  44. ^ Washington DC (Aeromexico USA | Aeromexico Destinations) http://aeromexico.com/us/destinations/united-states/washington-dc.html?origen=IAD
  45. ^ http://airchina.innosked.com/%28S%28qcwo1p55t3a1vz45pdyhcofc%29%29/default.aspx?lang_id=EN&region=US
  46. ^ Air France network (Network maps, flight destinations) https://www.airfrance.us/US/en/common/guidevoyageur/reseau/reseau_airfrance_airfrance.htm
  47. ^ http://ana.innosked.com/%28S%28nwwfe445uaxeygnusmcsut45%29%29/default.aspx?lang_id=EN&region=NHINTL&origin=WWS&CONNECTION_KIND=USA
  48. ^ Where We Fly (American Airlines Route Map) http://www.aa.com/i18n/aboutUs/whereWeFly/maps/world.jsp?anchorEvent=false&from=Nav
  49. ^ Austrian Airlines Map (Austrian Airlines Map) http://os.fltmaps.com/en?country=US
  50. ^ http://www.avianca.com/en-us/travel-information/before-your-flight/network-of-routes.aspx
  51. ^ http://onw.innosked.com/%28S%28bxnlp155wcrbvnexta0sfnvn%29%29/Default.aspx?show=MAP
  52. ^ Destinations (brusselsairlines.com) http://www.brusselsairlines.com/en-us/destinations/Default.aspx
  53. ^ Destinations Guide (Washington Dulles, United States) http://destinationsguide.copaair.com/en/IAD/
  54. ^ a b Delta Air Lines Map (Delta Air Lines Map) http://delta.innosked.com/(S(3oegnw45lqw33555ufiisdi4))/Default.aspx
  55. ^ FLIGHT SCHEDULE: (Non-Stop Ticket Sales) http://pwm.eliteairways.net/non-stop-online/
  56. ^ Emirates United States (Emirates United States) http://www.emirates.com/us/english/flash/route_map.aspx
  57. ^ Ethiopian | Destinations & Offers | International Network Route (Ethiopian | Destinations & Offers | International Network Route) http://www.ethiopianairlines.com/en/network/intl/default.aspx
  58. ^ Etihad Airways Route Map (Etihad Airways Route Map) http://flights.etihad.com/routemap
  59. ^ Frontier Airlines to Bring Low Fares and Friendly Service to Washington Dulles International Airport on 14 New Routes , PR Web, May 13, 2014, Retrieved 2014-05-13
  60. ^ http://finance.yahoo.com/news/frontier-airlines-announces-one-day-140330687.html;_ylt=AwrBEiSMjE5UYgoA_8_QtDMD
  61. ^ Timetable (Timetable) http://www.icelandair.us/information/travel-guide/timetable/
  62. ^ JetBlue (JetBlue) http://www.jetblue.com/wherewejet/
  63. ^ Destinations - KLM.com (Destinations - KLM.com) http://www.klm.com/travel/us_en/destinations/index.htm
  64. ^ https://www.koreanair.com/content/dam/koreanair/Global/Documents/Traveling%20With%20Us/Timetable_INT.PDF
  65. ^ http://lufthansa.innosked.com/(S(ipn0zsi0nhcn4jmlc3fvb0aj))/Default.aspx?lang_id=en&country=uk
  66. ^ VIPorter (Flights to Washington, D.C.) https://www.flyporter.com/Flights-To/Washington?culture=en-US
  67. ^ Route Map (Route Map) http://www.qatarairways.com/global/en/route-map.page
  68. ^ Network Map (s) http://www.saudiairlines.com/portal/site/saudiairlines/menuitem.1af1e8441983634503d37a107c6981ca/?vgnextoid=59d0d1059e8e0410VgnVCM100000d59618acRCRD
  69. ^ http://www.flysas.com/en/us/destinations/
  70. ^ Silver Airways Advisory http://www.silverairways.com/more-information/travel-information/advisories/advisory/atlanta-cleveland-and-washington-d.c.-dulles-customers
  71. ^ Route Mapper (Routemap – South African Airways Destination Guide) http://destinations.flysaa.com/en/routemap
  72. ^ Sun Air International: Go Green! (Sun Air International: Go Green!) http://www.pacificwings.com/sunair/sun/va-map.asp
  73. ^ http://www.turkishairlines.com/en-us/flights-tickets/washington-dc
  74. ^ a b "UNITED Adds New Winter Seasonal Domestic Service from Dec 2014". Airline Route. July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  75. ^ "UNITED Adds Seasonal Washington - San Jose/Los Cabos Service from late-Dec 2014". Airline Route. July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2014. 
  76. ^ Route map (US Airways) http://www.usairways.com/en-US/routemap.html
  77. ^ Virgin America Flight Destinations & Route Map (Virgin America) https://www.virginamerica.com/cms/airport-destinations
  78. ^ Where we fly (Destination map) http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/us/en/ideas-lowestfares/route-map.html
  79. ^ a b c d "Main Terminal" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority. July 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  80. ^ Etihad opens premium lounge at Dulles airport - Yahoo! News Maktoob. En-maktoob.news.yahoo.com (2013-04-06). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  81. ^ "United to Introduce Three New Countries to Global Network" (Press release). United AIrlines. November 5, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  82. ^ "Dulles Toll Road". mwaa.com. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  83. ^ Washington Flyer bus is $5 one-way while the 981/983 Fairfax Connector bus is $1.75 one-way.
  84. ^ "USA: Washington DC". To and From the Airport.com. 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  85. ^ "Dulles International Airport". wmaa.com. 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  86. ^ "Metro to Dulles opening date pushed back". WTOP-FM (wtop.com). March 16, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  87. ^ "Metro to Open in 2013". Washington Examiner (Washington Examiner). February 19, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  88. ^ a b c "Kite Rider Killed in Crash At Transpo 72 Air Show". The New York Times. May 30, 1972. 
  89. ^ "NTSB Aviation Query NYC72AN147 N66AN". 
  90. ^ "NTSB Aviation Query NYC72AN147 N7017". 
  91. ^ USAF Aircraft Accidents – Life Sciences Aspects, April–June 1972, Directorate of Aerospace Safety, Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Norton AFB, California, pages 59–60. 
  92. ^ Shaw, Adam (1977). Sound of Impact: The Legacy of TWA Flight 514. New York, NY: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-65840-5. 
  93. ^ "Safety Recommendation". National Transportation Safety Board. April 3, 1995. Retrieved June 3, 2011. [dead link]
  94. ^ a b "Safety Recommendations". National Transportation Safety Board. November 9, 1981. Retrieved June 3, 2011. 
  95. ^ "Flight Path Study – American Airlines Flight 77" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. February 19, 2002. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Washington Dulles International Airport at Wikimedia Commons