Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori

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Detail of the inscription over the rear entrance to Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. The inscription reads: "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori".

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori is a line from the Roman lyrical poet Horace's Odes (III.2.13). The line can be roughly translated into English as: "It is sweet and right to die for your country."

Context[edit]

The poem from which the line comes exhorts Roman citizens to develop martial prowess such that the enemies of Rome, in particular the Parthians, will be too terrified to resist them. In John Conington's translation, the relevant passage reads:

To suffer hardness with good cheer,
In sternest school of warfare bred,
Our youth should learn; let steed and spear
Make him one day the Parthian's dread;
Cold skies, keen perils, brace his life.
Methinks I see from rampired town
Some battling tyrant's matron wife,
Some maiden, look in terror down,—
“Ah, my dear lord, untrain'd in war!
O tempt not the infuriate mood
Of that fell lion I see! from far
He plunges through a tide of blood!”
What joy, for fatherland to die!
Death's darts e'en flying feet o'ertake,
Nor spare a recreant chivalry,
A back that cowers, or loins that quake.[1]

A humorous elaboration of the original line was used as a toast in the 19th century: "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, sed dulcius pro patria vivere, et dulcissimum pro patria bibere. Ergo, bibamus pro salute patriae." A reasonable English translation would be: "It is sweet and fitting to die for the homeland, but sweeter still to live for the homeland, and sweetest yet to drink for the homeland. So, let us drink to the health of the homeland."

Uses in art and literature[edit]

Use as a motto and inscription[edit]

United Kingdom

In 1913, Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori was inscribed on the wall of the chapel of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.[5]

'Dulce et' is also inscribed on the Parish Roll of Honour for Devoran in Cornwall, hanging in the Village Hall.

United States

The phrase can be found at the front entrance to the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater at the Arlington National Cemetery.

The phrase DULCE ET DECORUM EST PATRIA MORI is carved in the monument commemorating the Battle of Wyoming (Pennsylvania) known as the Wyoming Massacre, 3 July 1778, erected 3 July 1878.

The phrase is located on the second monument of the Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery in Point Lookout, MD, and at the Confederate Cemetery in the Manassas National Battlefield Park.

Cuba

The phrase was also prominently inscribed in a large bronze tablet commemorating Cuban patriot Calixto Garcia Iniguez, Major General of the Spanish–American War. The tablet was erected by the Masons where he died at the Raleigh Hotel in Washington, D.C. Today, this tablet resides at the private residence of one of Gen. García's direct descendants.

Dominican Republic

The phrase is also inscribed in bronze letters above the arch of the Puerta del Conde in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

New Zealand

It is also found on the memorial archway at the entrance of Otago Boys' High School, in Dunedin, New Zealand.

India

Found on the inscription on the French Monument in Shillong, India for the soldiers of the 26thKhasi Labour Corps who sacrificed their lives for the King and Country during World War I (1917–1918).

Pakistan

The 'dulce et....' is also written on a plaque on the left wall of main entrance of the Patiala Block, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan. It is to commemorate the sacrifice given by the students and graduates of the institution who gave their lives in First World War fighting for the British Empire.

Canada

It appears on a bronze plaque bearing the names of Canadian soldiers lost from the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada during World War I and World War II at Central Memorial High School's[6] front entrance

Sweden

It can be found inscribed on the outer wall of an old war fort within the Friseboda nature reserve in Sweden.

Organizations[edit]

"Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" is the motto of the following organizations:

The shorter phrase "Pro Patria" ("for the homeland") may or may be not related to the Horace quote:

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Odes and Carmen Saeculare of Horace, John Conington. trans. London. George Bell and Sons. 1882
  2. ^ "Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen". Poemhunter.com. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  3. ^ "Copy of archival record". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  4. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVTEqG9enEY
  5. ^ Francis Law, A man at arms: memoirs of two world wars (1983) Page 44
  6. ^ "Calgary Board of Education - Central Memorial High School". Schools.cbe.ab.ca. 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ [2][dead link]

External links[edit]