List of rulers of Lorraine

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The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions. The first rulers of the region were kings of the Franks whose kingdom was called Lotharingia. The Latin construction "Lotharingia" evolved over time into "Lorraine" in French, "Lotharingen" in Dutch and "Lothringen" in German. After the Carolingian kingdom was absorbed into its neighbouring realms in the late ninth century, dukes were appointed over the territory. In the mid-tenth century, the duchy was divided into Lower Lorraine and Upper Lorraine, the first evolving into the historical Low Countries, the second became known as the Duchy of Lorraine and existed well into the modern era.

Kings of Lotharingia[edit]

Charles the Bald claimed Lotharingia on Lothair's death and was crowned king in Metz, but his brother Louis the German opposed his claim and in 870 the Treaty of Mersen divided Lotharingia between the two brothers and subsequently their sons. In 880, the Treaty of Ribemont gave the whole of Lotharingia to Louis the Younger, son of Louis the German.

In 925, Lotharingia was subsumed into East Francia.

Dukes of Lorraine[edit]

In 959, Lorraine was divided into two districts: Upper and Lower, each being given to a margrave or vice-duke under Bruno. Upon Bruno's death in 965, that of Lower Lorraine, whose margrave had died, was left vacant until 977. In that year Charles was appointed duke of Lower Lorraine and Frederick I was elevated duke in Upper Lorraine. The two duchies remained separate, following separate pathways, except for the brief period between 1033 and 1044.

Dukes of Lower Lorraine[edit]

Note that the numbering of the dukes varies between sources.

Matfriding dynasty[edit]

Carolingian dynasty[edit]

House of Ardennes–Verdun[edit]

House of Luxembourg[edit]

House of Ardennes–Verdun[edit]

Salian dynasty[edit]

House of Boulogne (Ardennes–Bouillon)[edit]

House of Limburg Limburg New Arms.svg[edit]

House of Leuven Austria coat of arms simple.svg[edit]

House of Limburg Limburg New Arms.svg[edit]

House of Leuven Austria coat of arms simple.svg[edit]

Passes to the Duke of Brabant, who until 1795 kept the title "Duke of Lothier".

Dukes of Upper Lorraine[edit]

House of Ardennes-Bar[edit]

House of Ardennes-Verdun[edit]

House of Metz (Ardennes-Metz)[edit]

PortraitNameStart termEnd termNote
Lorraine Gérard dAlsace.jpg
Gerhard10486 March 1070 
Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine.png
Thierry II6 March 107023 January 1115 
Simon I, Duke of Lorraine.png
Simon I23 January 111513 April 1138 
Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine.png
Matthias I13 April 113813 May 1176 
Simon II, Duke of Lorraine.png
Simon II13 May 11761205 
Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine.png
Frederick I12057 April 1206 
Frederick II of Lorraine.png
Frederick II7 April 120610 October 1213 
Theobald I, Duke of Lorraine.png
Theobald I10 October 121317 February 1220 
Matthias II of Lorraine.png
Matthias II17 February 122024 June 1251 
Frederick III24 June 125131 December 1302 
Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine.png
Theobald II31 December 130213 May 1312 
Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine.png
Frederick IV13 May 131223 August 1328 
Effigie Raoul de Lorraine.jpg
Raoul23 August 132826 August 1346killed at the Battle of Crécy
Effigie Jean Ier de Lorraine.jpg
John I26 August 134627 September 1390 
Effigie Charles II de Lorraine.jpg
Charles II27 September 139025 January 1431 
Isabella25 January 143128 February 1453with her husband, René I

House of Anjou[edit]

25 January 1431 –
28 February 1453
16 January 1409
Château d'Angers
son of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon
(1) Isabella
ten children
(2) Jeanne de Laval
10 September 1454
no issue
10 July 1480
aged 71
John II
28 February 1453–
16 December 1470
Francesco laurana, medaglia di jean d'anjou, 1464.JPG
2 August 1424
son of René and Isabella
Marie de Bourbon
five children
16 December 1470
aged 46
Nicholas I
16 December 1470–
24 July 1473
Lorraine Arms 1430.svg
son of John II and Marie de Bourbon
never married24 July 1473
aged 24-25

House of Lorraine[edit]

Junior branch of the previous rulers of Ardennes–Metz, known as the House of Lorraine

PortraitNameStart termEnd termNote
Effigie René II de Lorraine.jpg
René II24 July 147310 December 1508grandson of René I and Isabella; also Duke of Bar
Hans Holbein d. J. 036.jpg
Antoine10 December 150814 June 1544 
Lorraine Arms 1538.svg
Francis I14 June 154412 June 1545 
Charles III12 June 154514 May 1608 
Henri II Lorraine.jpg
Henry II14 May 160831 July 1624 
Nicole de Lorraine, Duchess of Lorraine by Moncornet.jpg
Nicole31 July 162425 November 1625she was the daughter of Henry I; the estates of Lorraine eventually decided that she was not eligible to reign, and gave the crown to her uncle, Francis II; her husband and first cousin, Charles IV, would reign thereafter
Lorraine Arms 1538.svg
Francis II25 November 16251 December 1625he immediately abdicated in favor of his son, Charles IV; died 1632
Charles IV of Lorraine.jpg
Charles IV1 December 162519 January 1634abdicated in favor of his brother
Nicholas II19 January 16341 April 1634fled into exile and abdicated in favour of his older brother; the duchy remained under effective French control for the next 27 years
Charles IV of Lorraine.jpg
Charles IV1 April 163418 September 1675nominally restored as a result of his brother's abdication; Lorraine was occupied by France, and the Duke in exile, from 1634 to 1661 and again from 1670 until his death
Charles 05 Lorraine 1643 1690 young.jpg
Charles V Leopold18 September 167518 April 1690He was in exile and Lorraine was occupied by France throughout his nominal reign
Leopold18 April 169027 March 1729He was in exile and Lorraine was occupied by France until 30 October 1697, when it was returned to Léopold Joseph; it was again occupied by France from 1702 to 1714, although the duke remained in place
Franz I Stephan portrait.jpg
Francis III Stephen27 March 17299 July 1737traded Lorraine in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1745; died 1765, husband of Empress Maria Theresa

House of Leszczyński[edit]

PortraitNameStart termEnd termNote
Stanisław Leszczyński par Girardet.PNG
Stanisław I9 July 173723 February 1766Former king of Poland. After him, the Duchy is inherited by his son-in-law, king Louis XV of France and incorporated in his dominions

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Putnam, Ruth. Alsace and Lorraine: From Cæsar to Kaiser, 58 B.C.-1871 A.D. New York: 1915.