Duke Blue Devils

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Duke Blue Devils
Logo
UniversityDuke University
ConferencesAtlantic Coast Conference
NCAADivision I
Athletic directorKevin White
LocationDurham, NC
Varsity teams25
Football stadiumWallace Wade Stadium
Basketball arenaCameron Indoor Stadium
Baseball stadiumJack Coombs Field
NicknameBlue Devils
Fight songFight! Blue Devils, Fight! Blue and White
Colors
     Duke Blue[1]       White
Homepagewww.GoDuke.com
 
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Duke Blue Devils
Logo
UniversityDuke University
ConferencesAtlantic Coast Conference
NCAADivision I
Athletic directorKevin White
LocationDurham, NC
Varsity teams25
Football stadiumWallace Wade Stadium
Basketball arenaCameron Indoor Stadium
Baseball stadiumJack Coombs Field
NicknameBlue Devils
Fight songFight! Blue Devils, Fight! Blue and White
Colors
     Duke Blue[1]       White
Homepagewww.GoDuke.com

Duke University's 26 varsity sports teams, known as the Blue Devils, compete in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The name comes from the French "les Diables Bleus" or "the Blue Devils,"[2] which was the nickname given during World War I to the Chasseurs Alpins, the French Alpine light infantry battalion.

History[edit]

The Blue Devils have won thirteen NCAA National Championships. The women's golf team has won five (1999, 2002, 2005, 2006 and 2007),[3] the men's basketball team has won four (1991, 1992, 2001, and 2010), men's lacrosse has won two (2010 and 2013), and the men's soccer (1986) and women's tennis (2009) teams have won one each. Duke's major historic rival, especially in basketball, has been the Tar Heels of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (see Duke-Carolina rivalry).

Duke has also captured 119 ACC Championships, 44 of which have come since 1999–2000 (through 2008–09).[4] Duke's teams hold the longest streak of consecutive ACC Championships in women's tennis (14), women's golf (13), men's basketball (5), women's basketball (5) and volleyball (4, tied). The men's basketball (18), women's golf (16), and women's tennis (16) lead individual programs, while men's tennis (12), volleyball (9), football (7), men's cross country (7), men's lacrosse (7), men's golf (6), men's soccer (5), women's basketball (5), baseball (3), women's cross country (2) and women's lacrosse (1)[4] have also captured titles. Duke boasts the most ACC Championships in women's golf, women's tennis, and men's basketball; the second most in men's tennis and volleyball; and third most in women's basketball, women's cross country and women's lacrosse.

In the past five years, Duke has finished in the top 20 every year in the NACDA Director's Cup, an overall measure of an institution's athletic success. Most recently, Duke has finished 10th (2010),[5] 17th (2009),[6] 19th (2008),[7] 11th (2007),[8] eighth (2006),[9] and fifth (2005).[10] Duke has the smallest undergraduate enrollment of any institution that has been in the top 35 the past two years.[9][10] Furthermore, Duke is the only school besides Stanford that has finished in the top 20 in the past three years that has fewer than 10,000 undergraduates.[9][10]

Duke teams that have been ranked in the top ten nationally in the 2000s include men's and women's basketball, men's and women's tennis, men's and women's soccer, men's and women's cross country, men's and women's lacrosse, women's field hockey, and men's and women's golf. Eight of these teams were ranked either first or second in the country during 2004–05.[11] According to a 2006 evaluation conducted by the NCAA, Duke's student-athletes have the highest graduation rate of any institution in the nation at 91%.[12] Excluding students who leave or transfer in good academic standing, the graduation rate of student-athletes is 97%.[13] In 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2011 Duke ranked first among Division I schools in the National Collegiate Scouting Association Power Rankings—a combination of the institution's Director's Cup standing, its athletic graduation rate, and its academic rank in U.S. News & World Report.[14][15][16][17] There have been allegations that, like most other schools examined such as University of North Carolina, Duke's graduation rate may be inflated or be a result of athletes gravitating to easier courses and majors, though many have taken issue with such claims.[18][19][20]

Teams[edit]

Duke University sponsors teams in twelve men's, twelve women's, and one coed NCAA sanctioned sports:[21]

Coed Intercollegiate Sports

Men’s basketball[edit]

Duke tips off against North Carolina on February 9, 2006

Duke University's men's basketball team is the fourth-winningest college basketball program of all-time. The team has had success over the past 25 years under coach Mike Krzyzewski (often simply called 'Coach K').

Duke has won four NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships—second most of any ACC team (the University of North Carolina has 5)and been in 15 Final Fours. Seventy-one players have been drafted in the NBA Draft. Additionally, Duke has had an Academic All-American on the team fourteen years. Duke has 19 Atlantic Coast Conference tournament championships (1960, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1978, 1986, 1988, 1992, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011), the most of any team in the ACC (the University of North Carolina has 17). Duke also has been the top seed in the ACC tournament 19 times (1954, 1958, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1986, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2006,2010).[22] Duke is second, behind only UCLA, in total weeks ranked as the number one team in the nation by the AP with 110 weeks.[23] The Blue Devils have the second longest streak in the AP Top 25 in history with 200 consecutive appearances from 1996 to 2007. This streak only trails UCLA's 221 consecutive polls from 1966–1980 as the longest of all-time.[24] The streak ended with the AP poll released on February 12, 2007.[25]

Women's basketball[edit]

During the 1990s and 2000s, the Duke women's basketball program has become a national powerhouse. Led by coach Gail Goestenkors from 1992–2007, Duke made ten NCAA Sweet Sixteen appearances, seven Elite Eight appearances, four Final Four appearances, and two appearances in the NCAA Championship game during her tenure.[26]

In the 2000–01 season, the Blue Devils posted a 30–4 record, won the ACC Tournament and ACC regular season championships, and earned a No. 1 seed in the NCAA Tournament. The 2001–02 season produced similar success. She led the Blue Devils to a 31–4 record and an NCAA Final Four appearance. Duke became the first ACC school to produce an undefeated 19–0 record in the ACC by winning the regular season and Tournament titles.

Goestenkors led the Blue Devils to an ACC-record 35–2 ledger in the 2002–03 season and their second straight NCAA Final Four appearance. For the second consecutive year, Duke posted a 19–0 record against ACC opponents.

In 2003–04, with Player of the year Alana Beard leading the way, the Blue Devils advanced to the NCAA Elite Eight, boasting a 30–4 record, and won a fourth-straight Atlantic Coast Conference regular season title and a fifth-straight ACC Tournament championship. Duke also broke the University of Connecticut's 76-game home winning streak with a 68–67 buzzer-beater victory in Hartford, Connecticut.[27]

The 2006–07 season ended with a 32–2 record and notched the school's first ever undefeated regular season (30–0). This also set an NCAA-record seventh straight 30-win season. Goestenkors is often known as the "winningest coach not to have won a championship," having finished runner-up two times in fifteen years.

On April 18, 2007, Joanne P. McCallie, or Coach P, was introduced as the new coach of Duke's women's basketball team after Goestenkors left for the University of Texas.[28][29][30] Through 2011, the Blue Devils have won seven ACC Championships, the third most in the ACC.

Football[edit]

Wallace Wade Stadium, home to Duke football and site of the 1942 Rose Bowl.

The most famous Duke football season came in 1938, when Wallace Wade was head coach and the "Iron Dukes" were born. Wade shocked the college football world by leaving Alabama for Duke in 1930, later rationalizing the move by saying that Duke shared his belief that a school should provide its athletes with a strong academic background. Wade's success at Alabama (three national championships) translated well to Duke's program, most notably in 1938, when his "Iron Dukes" went unscored upon the entire regular season. In fact, that Duke team is one of three in college football history to have gone undefeated, unscored upon, and untied in the regular season.[citation needed] Duke reached their first Rose Bowl appearance, where they lost 7–3 when USC scored a touchdown in the final minute of the game on a pass from a second string quarterback to a third string tight end. Wade's Blue Devils lost another Rose Bowl to Oregon State in 1942, this one held at Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina due to Pearl Harbor. Wade's achievements placed him in the Hall of Fame.

The football program also had a string of successful years in the late 1980s when the team was coached by Steve Spurrier. Spurrier led the Blue Devils to three consecutive winning seasons from 1987–1989, culminating with the Blue Devils sharing the ACC title in 1989 and playing in the All-American Bowl, where the Blue Devils lost to Texas Tech. The 1989 ACC title was the last title won by a school in the state of North Carolina until Wake Forest won their second ACC crown in 2006.

The team also rose to prominence in 1994, the first season under coach Fred Goldsmith. The team raced out to an 8–1 record, and was briefly ranked as high as #13 in the country before losing the last two games of the season 24–23 to North Carolina State and 41–40 to arch-rival North Carolina. The 1994 team played in the program's first New Years Day Bowl game since 1962, falling to Wisconsin 34–21 in the Hall of Fame Bowl, now known as the Outback Bowl.

The Blue Devils are currently coached by David Cutcliffe, who previously was head coach at Ole Miss and offensive coordinator at the University of Tennessee. They have won seven ACC Football Championships, which is the fourth most in the ACC trailing only Clemson, FSU, and Maryland. Ten ACC Football Players of the Year have come from Duke, the most in the ACC. Additionally, three 3 Pro Football Hall of Famers have come through Duke's program, second only to the Miami Hurricanes who have had 4 Hall of Famers, for the most in the ACC.

Duke is consistently ranked at or near the top of the list of Division I-A schools which graduate nearly all of their football players. Duke has topped the list 12 years, earning it the most Academic Achievement Awards of any university. Notre Dame has been honored six times, while Boston College and Northwestern have won the award four times each.[31]

Baseball[edit]

Nate Freiman ('09), now a first baseman for the Houston Astros organization, holds Duke's career home run record (43), and the school's second-highest all-time batting average (.356).[32][33][34][35]

Golf[edit]

Women's golf[edit]

While the men's basketball team gets the most press, the women's golf team has recently been the most successful team on campus. In the 2000–2005 seasons, Duke's head-to-head record was 796–45–3, a winning percentage of .945.[36] The team won national championships in 1999, 2002, 2005, 2006, and 2007 as well as 13 consecutive ACC championships from 1995–2008.[4] A number of successful professional golfers have gone through Duke's program. Jenny Chuasiriporn and Brittany Lang finished as runners-up in the U.S. Women's Open while still undergraduates in 1998 and 2005, respectively. Laetitia Beck, who won the Israeli championship at the age of 12 and was named ACC Rookie of the Year in 2011, currently plays for the team.[37]

Men's golf[edit]

The men's golf team has won 19 conference championships:

Their best finish in the NCAA Championship was second place in 1947.

Duke golfers who have had successful professional careers include Art Wall, Jr. (14 PGA Tour wins including the 1959 Masters Tournament), Mike Souchak (15 PGA Tour wins), Skip Alexander (three PGA Tour wins), Joe Ogilvie (one PGA Tour win, four Web.com Tour wins), and Kevin Streelman (one PGA Tour win).[38]

Men's lacrosse[edit]

The men's lacrosse program has risen in prominence to challenge the traditional lacrosse powers such as Johns Hopkins, Maryland, Princeton, and Syracuse, as well as more recent contenders like North Carolina and Virginia. The team won the national title in 2010 after defeating Notre Dame 6–5 in overtime and won their second national title in 2013 after defeating Syracuse 16–10. They also reached the championship game in 2005 and 2007.[39][40]

The men's lacrosse team gained national attention in the 2006 lacrosse incident, where members of the team were falsely accused of raping an exotic dancer at a team party. The ongoing investigation led to the cancellation of the 2006 season and the resignation of coach Mike Pressler. Contradictions in the accuser's many changing stories, unimpeachable alibi evidence provided by the players, and misconduct of then Durham District Attorney Mike Nifong led to all charges being dropped and the attorney general declaring the players innocent. Nifong was later removed and disbarred due to his misconduct in the case, and the team members who lost their season were granted another year of eligibility.

Men's soccer[edit]

The 1986 team won the NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Championship .

Women's soccer[edit]

The team went to the national championship in 2011.

ACC Athletes of the Year[edit]

The following Duke athletes have been honored as an ACC Athlete of the Year. The men’s award, the Anthony J. McKelvin Award, began when the ACC was formed in 1954. The women’s award, the Mary Garber Award, began in 1990.

Male Athlete of the Year
YearAthleteSport

1954Joel ShankleTrack & Field
1956Dave SimeTrack & Field/Basketball
1960Mike McGeeFootball
1963Art HeymanBasketball
1964Jeff MullinsBasketball
1988Danny FerryBasketball
1989Danny FerryBasketball
1990Clarkston HinesFootball
1991Christian LaettnerBasketball
1992Christian LaettnerBasketball
1999Elton BrandBasketball
2001Shane BattierBasketball
2006J.J. RedickBasketball
2009Nate FreimanBaseball
2010Ned CrottyLacrosse
Female Athlete of the Year
YearAthleteSport

1998Vanessa WebbTennis
2003Alana BeardBasketball
2004Alana BeardBasketball
2007Lindsey HardingBasketball
2009Amanda BlumenherstGolf

All-Americans[edit]

There have been numerous All-Americans in Duke University history. As of March 2006, 307 athletes have been honored 470 times as All-Americans.[41] In men's sports, this status has been achieved 297 times by 204 athletes. In women's sports, it has occurred 172 times by 103 athletes. The breakdown for men's sports is as follows (times, number of different athletes): baseball (13, 8); basketball (55, 31); cross country (3, 2); fencing (9, 5); football (60, 53); golf (12, 9); lacrosse (57, 37); soccer (42, 28); swimming and diving (3, 3); tennis (26, 15); track and field (17, 13); wrestling (3, 2). The breakdown for women's sports is as follows (times, number of different athletes): basketball (14, 8); cross country (8, 6); fencing (4, 2); field hockey (19, 12); golf (31, 16); lacrosse (23, 11); rowing (5, 3); soccer (10, 8); swimming and diving (1, 1); tennis (36, 22); track and field (15, 9); volleyball (7, 5).

Olympics[edit]

Duke Olympians [42]
AthleteSportLocationCountryMedal/Note
Joel ShankleTrack & Field1956 MelbourneUnited StatesBronze in 110 Hurdles
Dave SimeTrack & Field1960 RomeUnited StatesSilver in 100 Meters
Jeff MullinsM Basketball1964 TokyoUnited StatesTeam Won Gold
Bob WheelerTrack & Field1972 MunichUnited StatesSemifinals in 1500 run
Al Buehler*Track & Field1972 MunichUnited StatesTeam Manager
Tate ArmstrongM Basketball1976 MontrealUnited StatesTeam Won Gold
Cameron HallM Basketball1976 MontrealCanadaTeam Placed 4th
Nancy HogsheadSwimming1980 MoscowUnited StatesUnited States Boycotted Games
Nancy HogsheadSwimming1984 Los AngelesUnited States3 Gold Medals and 1 Silver Medal
Dan MeagherM Basketball1984 Los AngelesCanadaTeam Placed 4th
Tom KainSoccer1984 Los AngelesUnited StatesInjured, Did Not Compete
Bert GovigWrestling1984 Los AngelesUnited StatesInjured, Did Not Compete
Al Buehler*Track and Field1984 Los AngelesUnited StatesTeam Manager
Al Buehler*Track and Field1988 SeoulUnited StatesTeam Manager
Christian LaettnerM Basketball1992 BarcelonaUnited StatesTeam Won Gold
Mike Krzyzewski*M Basketball1992 BarcelonaUnited StatesAssistant Coach, Team Won Gold
John MooreRowing1992 BarcelonaUnited States8th in Men's Pair
Randy JonesBobsled1994 LillehammerUnited States13th in 2-Man
Grant HillM Basketball1996 AtlantaUnited StatesTeam Won Gold
Curt ClausenTrack & Field1996 AtlantaUnited States50th in 20k Race Walk
Leslie MarxFencing1996 AtlantaUnited StatesTop 16 in Épée
Horace HoldenCanoe/Kayak1996 AtlantaUnited States11th in 2-Man Whitewater Slalom
Will MartinYachting1996 AtlantaUnited States23rd in Single-Handed Dinghy
Carla Overbeck*W Soccer1996 AtlantaUnited StatesTeam Won Gold
Liz Tchou*Field Hockey1996 AtlantaUnited StatesTeam Placed 5th
Randy JonesBobsled1998 NaganoUnited States5th in 4-Man
Crawford PalmerM Basketball2000 SydneyFranceTeam Won Silver
Greg NewtonM Basketball2000 SydneyCanadaTeam Placed 7th
Curt ClausenTrack and Field2000 SydneyUnited States22nd in 50k Race Walk
Evan WhitfieldM Soccer2000 SydneyUnited StatesTeam Placed 4th
Vanessa WebbW Tennis2000 SydneyCanadaCompeted in Doubles
Carla OverbeckW Soccer2000 SydneyUnited StatesTeam Won Silver
Lynda Blutreich*Track & Field2000 SydneyUnited States11th in Javelin Qualifying
Randy JonesBobsled2002 Salt Lake CityUnited StatesSilver in 4-Man
Curt ClausenTrack & Field2004 AthensUnited States32nd in 50k Race Walk
Carlos BoozerM Basketball2004 AthensUnited StatesTeam Won Bronze
Jilian SchwartzTrack & Field2004 AthensUnited StatesCompeted in Pole Vault
Gail Goestenkors*W Basketball2004 AthensUnited StatesAssistant Coach, Team Won Gold
Randy JonesBobsled2006 TorinoUnited StatesHis Fourth Olympics
Carlos BoozerM Basketball2008 BeijingUnited StatesTeam Won Gold
Mike Krzyzewski*M Basketball2008 BeijingUnited StatesHead Coach, Team Won Gold
Shannon RowburyTrack & Field2008 BeijingUnited StatesQualified for 1,500-m final
Rebecca SmithW Soccer2008 BeijingNew Zealand
Rebecca WardFencing2008 BeijingUnited StatesBronze in Individual Sabre and Team Sabre
Luol DengM Basketball2012 LondonGreat Britain
Drew Johansen*Diving2012 LondonUnited StatesHead Coach
Abby JohnstonSynchronized Diving2012 LondonUnited StatesWon Silver in synchronized 3 metre springboard
Mike Krzyzewski*M Basketball2012 LondonUnited StatesHead Coach, Team Won Gold
Nick McCrorySynchronized and Individual Diving2012 LondonUnited StatesWon Bronze in synchronized 10 metre platform
Shannon RowburyTrack & Field2012 LondonUnited States
Jillian SchwartzTrack & Field2012 LondonIsrael
Rebecca SmithW Soccer2012 LondonNew Zealand
Hiroshi Hoketsu[43]Dressage2012 LondonJapanOldest Olympian at 2012 Games (71)

Note: * indicates Duke coach at time of participation in Olympics

Other news[edit]

In 2008, five Duke graduates qualified for the Olympic marathon trials, more than any other university.[44]

History of the mascot[edit]

"Les Diables Bleus" French military unit

As World War I ended, Duke's Board of Trustees, then called the "Trinity College Board of Trustees", lifted their quarter century ban of football on campus leading to an interest in naming the athletic teams.[45] The team was then known as the Trinity Eleven, the Blue and White, or the Methodists (as opposed to the Baptists of nearby rival Wake Forest University). Because of the ambiguity, the student newspaper, the Trinity Chronicle (now called The Chronicle) launched a campaign to create a new mascot. Nominations for a new team name included Catamounts, Grizzlies, Badgers, Dreadnaughts[disambiguation needed], and Captains. The Trinity Chronicle editor narrowed the many nominations down to those that utilized the school colors of dark blue and white. The narrowed list consisted of Blue Titans, Blue Eagles, Polar Bears, Blue Devils, Royal Blazes, and Blue Warriors. None of the nominations proved to be a clear favorite, but the name Blue Devils elicited criticism that could potentially engender opposition on campus. These fears were partly alleviated when it was revealed that the name was military and patriotic rather than anti-religious; the name actually refers to the Chasseurs Alpins, also known as "les diables bleus" ("The Blue Devils"), a French military unit which had impressed many Duke students and alumni returning home from the Western Front. The nickname of the Chaussers Alpins was derived from the blue jacket and blue-grey breeches worn as part of their WWI-era uniform. Even with this explanation, however, that year's football season passed with no official selection.

During the 1922–1923 academic year, campus student leaders and the editors of the two other student publications, The Archive and The Chanticleer, decided that the newspaper staff should decide the name on their own because the nomination process had proved inconclusive. Editor-in-chief William H. Lander and managing editor Mike Bradshaw began referring to the athletic teams as the Blue Devils. Though the name was not officially used that year, no opposition to the name arose. The Chronicle's staff continued to use the name and eventually “Blue Devils” became the official mascot and nickname of the Duke athletics program.

Fight songs[edit]

See: Blue and White (Duke fight song) and Fight! Blue Devils, Fight!

Rivalries[edit]

See: Carlyle Cup (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Duke Blue – Duke University Archives
  2. ^ King, William E. Why a Blue Devil? The Duke Dialogue. February 28, 1992.
  3. ^ THREE-PEAT: Women's Golf Wins Third Straight National Championship – GoDuke.com – Official Athletics Web site of Duke University
  4. ^ a b c Duke's ACC Championships. GoDuke.com Retrieved on July 24, 2009.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ Sports Academy Directors' Cup (2007). National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics, June 27, 2007. Retrieved on July 1, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c Sports Academy Directors' Cup (2006). National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics, June 29, 2006. Retrieved on January 12, 2007.
  10. ^ a b c Sports Academy Directors' Cup (2005). National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics, 2005. Retrieved on January 12, 2007.
  11. ^ Duke Athletics: Rankings. GoDuke.com. URL accessed June 6, 2006.
  12. ^ Duke 1st in new NCAA evaluation. The Chronicle. November 10, 2006.
  13. ^ Faculty discuss role of Duke student athletes. The Chronicle. November 10, 2006.
  14. ^ 2005 NCSA Collegiate Power Rankings. National Collegiate Scouting Association, 2005. Retrieved on August 7, 2007.
  15. ^ 2006 NCSA Collegiate Power Rankings. National Collegiate Scouting Association, 2006. Retrieved on August 7, 2007.
  16. ^ 2007 NCSA Collegiate Power Rankings. National Collegiate Scouting Association, 2007. Retrieved on August 23, 2007.
  17. ^ 2011 NCSA Collegiate Power Rankings. National Collegiate Scouting Association, 2011. Retrieved on February 12, 2012.
  18. ^ [4]. University of Central Florida, 2004. Retrieved on March 15, 2010
  19. ^ In Defense of Duke: Dispelling the Myths Behind the Hatred | Bleacher Report. The Bleacher Report. Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
  20. ^ Tackling Favoritism for Athletes – Inside Higher Ed. InsideHigherEd.com, 2006. Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
  21. ^ http://www.goduke.com/
  22. ^ ACC Champions. Accessed on June 29, 2006.
  23. ^ NCAA stats from NCAA.org
  24. ^ Florida runaway preseason No. 1. Associated Press. Accessed on November 6, 2006.
  25. ^ Duke Knocked Out Of Top 25 For First Time Since 1995–96. All Headline News. Accessed on March 4, 2007.
  26. ^ Women's Basketball – W Basketball – GoDuke.com – Official Athletics Web site of Duke University
  27. ^ Final Four Preview: Connecticut – NCAA.com
  28. ^ Joanne P. McCallie Takes Reins Of Duke's Women's Basketball Program :: After seven years and 149 wins at MSU, Coach P makes the move to the ACC
  29. ^ Sports – NBC 17
  30. ^ newsobserver.com | Getting to know her team
  31. ^ SMU Receives 2006 AFCA Academic Achievement Award. American Football Coaches Association. 2006.
  32. ^ [5]
  33. ^ [6]
  34. ^ []
  35. ^ [7]
  36. ^ Golf-first ranking. Golf Digest. Sept 2005.
  37. ^ [8]
  38. ^ "Duke Universit Men's Golf Media Guide 2012–2013". Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  39. ^ Sports Briefs: Duke lacrosse in Final Four Post-Gazette, May 21, 2007. Retrieved on June 21, 2007.
  40. ^ Wojciechowski, Joe. Duke, Hopkins endured low points to return to championship game. ESPN. Retrieved on June 21, 2007.
  41. ^ Duke University All American's. Goduke.com. URL accessed June 30, 2006.
  42. ^ All-Time Olympians. Goduke.com URL accessed June 30, 2006.
  43. ^ Hiroshi Hoketsu oldest '12 Olympian. Associated Press. URL accessed August 9, 2012.
  44. ^ Roth, John. Duke Today: MarathonU. Duke Today, April 17, 2008. Retrieved on May 24, 2008.
  45. ^ King, William E. Why a Blue Devil?. The Duke Dialogue. February 28, 1992.

External links[edit]