Drenthe

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Drenthe
Province of the Netherlands
Flag of Drenthe
Flag
Coat of arms of Drenthe
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Mijn Drenthe"
"My Drenthe"
Location of Drenthe in the Netherlands
Location of Drenthe in the Netherlands
Coordinates: 52°55′N 6°35′E / 52.917°N 6.583°E / 52.917; 6.583Coordinates: 52°55′N 6°35′E / 52.917°N 6.583°E / 52.917; 6.583
CountryNetherlands
CapitalAssen
Largest cityEmmen
Government
 • King's CommissionerJacques Tichelaar (PvdA)
Area (2010)[1]
 • Total2,683 km2 (1,036 sq mi)
 • Land2,639 km2 (1,019 sq mi)
 • Water44 km2 (17 sq mi)
Area rank7th nationally
Population (1 January 2014)[2]
 • Total488,957
 • Rank10th nationally
 • Density180/km2 (470/sq mi)
 • Density rank9th nationally
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 codeNL-DR
Websitewww.drenthe.nl
 
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Drenthe
Province of the Netherlands
Flag of Drenthe
Flag
Coat of arms of Drenthe
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Mijn Drenthe"
"My Drenthe"
Location of Drenthe in the Netherlands
Location of Drenthe in the Netherlands
Coordinates: 52°55′N 6°35′E / 52.917°N 6.583°E / 52.917; 6.583Coordinates: 52°55′N 6°35′E / 52.917°N 6.583°E / 52.917; 6.583
CountryNetherlands
CapitalAssen
Largest cityEmmen
Government
 • King's CommissionerJacques Tichelaar (PvdA)
Area (2010)[1]
 • Total2,683 km2 (1,036 sq mi)
 • Land2,639 km2 (1,019 sq mi)
 • Water44 km2 (17 sq mi)
Area rank7th nationally
Population (1 January 2014)[2]
 • Total488,957
 • Rank10th nationally
 • Density180/km2 (470/sq mi)
 • Density rank9th nationally
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 codeNL-DR
Websitewww.drenthe.nl

Drenthe (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdrɛntə] ( )) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the north-east of the country. The capital city is Assen. It is bordered by Overijssel to the south, Friesland to the west, Groningen to the north, and Germany (districts of Emsland and Bentheim) to the east. In 2014, it had a population of 488,957 and a total area of 2,683 km2 (1,036 sq mi).

Drenthe, unlike many other parts of the Netherlands, has been a sparsely populated rural area since medieval times. Except for some industry in Assen and Emmen, the lands in Drenthe are mainly used for farming.

History[edit]

The name Drenthe is said to stem from *thrija-hantja meaning "three lands".

Drenthe has been populated by people since prehistory. Artifacts from the Wolstonian Stage (150.000 years ago) are among the oldest found in the Netherlands. In fact, it was one of the most densely populated areas of the Netherlands until the Bronze Age. Most tangible evidence of this are the dolmens (hunebedden) built around 3500 BC, 53 of the 54 dolmens in the Netherlands can be found in Drenthe, concentrated in the northeast of the province.

Drenthe was first mentioned in a document from the year 820, it was called Pago Treanth (district Drenthe). In archives from "Het Utrechts Archief", from 1024 to 1025, the "county Drenthe" is mentioned, when Emperor Henry II gave it to Bishop Adalbold II of Utrecht.

After long being subject to the Utrecht diocese, Bishop Henry of Wittelsbach in 1528 ceded Drenthe to Emperor Charles V of Habsburg, who incorporated it into the Habsburg Netherlands. When the Republic of the Seven United Provinces was declared in 1581, Drenthe became part of it, although it did not gain provincial status until January 1, 1796 due to its poverty.[citation needed]

Shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, the Dutch government built a camp near the town of Hooghalen to accommodate German (Jewish) refugees. Ironically, during the Second World War, the German occupiers used the camp (which they named KZ Westerbork) as a "Durchgangslager" (transit camp). Many Dutch Jews, Sinti, Roma, resistance combatants and political adversaries were imprisoned before being transferred to concentration and extermination camps in Germany and Poland. Anne Frank was deported on the last train leaving the Westerbork transit camp, on 3 September 1944.

Geography[edit]

Map of Drenthe (2013)

Drenthe is situated in the northeast of the Netherlands; with to the north the province Groningen, to the west the province Friesland, to the south the province Overijssel, and to the east the German districts Emsland and Bentheim in the state Lower Saxony.

The province has a total area of 2,683 km2 (1,036 sq mi), with 2,639 km2 (1,019 sq mi) of land and 44 km2 (17 sq mi) of water.[1] It is the 9th largest province of the Netherlands.

Drenthe has several heathlands and no significant rivers or lakes. The national parks Drents-Friese Wold and Dwingelderveld (IUCN category II) and the national landscape Drentsche Aa (IUCN category V) are all (partially) located in the province.

The major urban centers of the province are the capital Assen in the north and Emmen, Meppel, Hoogeveen, and Coevorden in the south.

Subdivisions[edit]

The province is divided into three COROP regions: North Drenthe (07), Southeast Drenthe (08), and Southwest Drenthe (09).[3]

The Netherlands has been subject to a large amount of municipal mergers during the last decades. Drenthe is no exception, the largest concurrent merger happen in 1998 when 32 municipalities were amalgamated into 10 larger municipalities.[4] As of 2014 Drenthe consists of 12 municipalities; Emmen is the largest municipality in terms of both population and area, Westerveld is the least populous and Meppel covers the smallest area.

MunicipalityPopulation[5]Population density[6]Area[6]Map
Aa en Hunze25,33393 /km2 (241 /sq mi)278.88 km2 (107.68 sq mi)Location of Aa en Hunze
Assen67,209820 /km2 (2,124 /sq mi)83.45 km2 (32.22 sq mi)Location of Assen
Borger-Odoorn25,63394 /km2 (243 /sq mi)277.89 km2 (107.29 sq mi)Location of Borger-Odoorn
Coevorden35,771121 /km2 (313 /sq mi)299.69 km2 (115.71 sq mi)Location of Coevorden
Emmen108,003324 /km2 (839 /sq mi)346.25 km2 (133.69 sq mi)Location of Emmen
Hoogeveen54,680430 /km2 (1,114 /sq mi)129.25 km2 (49.9 sq mi)Location of Hoogeveen
Meppel32,875585 /km2 (1,515 /sq mi)57.03 km2 (22.02 sq mi)Location of Meppel
Midden-Drenthe33,36898 /km2 (254 /sq mi)345.87 km2 (133.54 sq mi)Location of Midden-Drenthe
Noordenveld31,110154 /km2 (399 /sq mi)205.32 km2 (79.27 sq mi)Location of Noordenveld
Tynaarlo32,506225 /km2 (583 /sq mi)147.7 km2 (57.03 sq mi)Location of Tynaarlo
Westerveld18,90269 /km2 (179 /sq mi)282.74 km2 (109.17 sq mi)Location of Westerveld
Wolden, DeDe Wolden23,592106 /km2 (275 /sq mi)226.35 km2 (87.39 sq mi)Location of De Wolden

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Eelde (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)4.7
(40.5)
5.4
(41.7)
9.0
(48.2)
13.4
(56.1)
17.4
(63.3)
19.9
(67.8)
22.2
(72)
22.1
(71.8)
18.6
(65.5)
13.9
(57)
8.7
(47.7)
5.2
(41.4)
13.4
(56.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.4
(36.3)
2.4
(36.3)
5.2
(41.4)
8.4
(47.1)
12.3
(54.1)
14.9
(58.8)
17.1
(62.8)
16.9
(62.4)
13.8
(56.8)
10.0
(50)
6.0
(42.8)
2.9
(37.2)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F)−0.4
(31.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.4
(34.5)
3.4
(38.1)
6.9
(44.4)
9.5
(49.1)
11.9
(53.4)
11.6
(52.9)
9.3
(48.7)
6.2
(43.2)
2.9
(37.2)
0.1
(32.2)
5.2
(41.4)
Precipitation mm (inches)74.2
(2.921)
51.4
(2.024)
64.3
(2.531)
42.1
(1.657)
58.0
(2.283)
71.2
(2.803)
79.4
(3.126)
70.9
(2.791)
78.3
(3.083)
74.0
(2.913)
75.0
(2.953)
73.4
(2.89)
812.1
(31.972)
Avg. rainy days201620171819202019202220230
Avg. snowy days87520N/AN/AN/AN/A03633
 % humidity90888579798182838689919286
Mean monthly sunshine hours54.278.7117.2171.6210.0187.0199.1183.9137.0107.256.547.51,550
Percent possible sunshine21293241433739403633222035
Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[7]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
1899148,544—    
1930222,432+49.7%
1960311,196+39.9%
1970366,590+17.8%
1980418,479+14.2%
1990441,028+5.4%
2000469,806+6.5%
2010490,981+4.5%
Source: CBS[8][9][10]

On 1 January 2014, Drenthe had a total population of 488,957 and a population density of 182.2 /km2 (472 /sq mi).[2][1] It is the 10th most populous province and 9th most densily populated province of the Netherlands. Emmen is the most populous town in the province.

Language[edit]

Over half the population of Drenthe speaks the Drents language. Each town or village has its own version. All versions are part of the Low Saxon language group. Dutch Low Saxon has been officially recognised by the Dutch government as a regional language and is protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture is an important employer, although industrial areas are found near the cities. The quietness of the province is also attracting a growing number of tourists.

Drenthe is known as the "Cycling Province" of the Netherlands and is an exceptional place for a cycling holiday, having hundreds of kilometres of cycle paths through forest, heath and along canals and many towns and villages offering refreshment along the way.

Politics[edit]

The States-Provincial (Provinciale Staten) has 41 seats, and is headed by the King's Commissioner, currently Jacques Tichelaar. While the provincial council is elected by the people of Drenthe, the Commissioner is appointed by the King and the cabinet of the Netherlands. With 12 seats, the social democratic PvdA is the largest party in the council. The daily affairs of the province are taken care of by the Gedeputeerde Staten, which are also headed by the Commissioner; its members (gedeputeerden) can be compared with ministers.

Provincial election results
2011
PartyVotes%Seats
Labour Party59,05326.5112
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy42,25518.979
Christian Democratic Appeal32,51814.606
Party for Freedom21,9209.844
Socialist Party21,6279.714
Democrats 6613,8506.222
ChristianUnion11,8575.322
GreenLeft11,7345.272
All other parties7,9203.560
Total valid votes222,73410041
Invalid/blank votes5590.25
Total223,293
Registered voters/turnout380,66158.66
Source: Kiesraad[11]

Transportation[edit]

The motorways A28, A32, and A37 and the provincial roads N33 and N34 are the major roads in Drenthe.

Groningen Airport Eelde is a minor international airport located in Eelde in the province of Drenthe. Hoogeveen Airport is a general aviation airport located in Hoogeveen.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]