Downfall (film)

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Downfall

German theatrical release poster
Directed byOliver Hirschbiegel
Produced byBernd Eichinger
Screenplay byBernd Eichinger
Story byJoachim Fest (Historical account)
Based onMemoirs by
Traudl Junge
and Melissa Müller
StarringBruno Ganz
Alexandra Maria Lara
Corinna Harfouch
Ulrich Matthes
Juliane Köhler
Thomas Kretschmann
Music byStephan Zacharias
CinematographyRainer Klausmann
Editing byHans Funck
StudioNewmarket Capital Group
Distributed byConstantin Film (Germany)
01 Distribuzione (Italy)
Release date(s)
  • 16 September 2004 (2004-09-16) (Germany)
  • 17 September 2004 (2004-09-17) (Austria)
  • 29 April 2005 (2005-04-29) (Italy)
Running time155 minutes[1]
178 minutes (Extended cut)
CountryGermany
Italy
Austria
LanguageGerman
Russian
Budget€13.5 million[2]
Box office$92,180,910[2]
 
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Downfall

German theatrical release poster
Directed byOliver Hirschbiegel
Produced byBernd Eichinger
Screenplay byBernd Eichinger
Story byJoachim Fest (Historical account)
Based onMemoirs by
Traudl Junge
and Melissa Müller
StarringBruno Ganz
Alexandra Maria Lara
Corinna Harfouch
Ulrich Matthes
Juliane Köhler
Thomas Kretschmann
Music byStephan Zacharias
CinematographyRainer Klausmann
Editing byHans Funck
StudioNewmarket Capital Group
Distributed byConstantin Film (Germany)
01 Distribuzione (Italy)
Release date(s)
  • 16 September 2004 (2004-09-16) (Germany)
  • 17 September 2004 (2004-09-17) (Austria)
  • 29 April 2005 (2005-04-29) (Italy)
Running time155 minutes[1]
178 minutes (Extended cut)
CountryGermany
Italy
Austria
LanguageGerman
Russian
Budget€13.5 million[2]
Box office$92,180,910[2]

Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a 2004 drama film directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel, depicting the final ten days of Adolf Hitler's reign of Nazi Germany in 1945.

The film's screenplay was written by Bernd Eichinger, and based upon the books Inside Hitler's Bunker, by historian Joachim Fest; Until the Final Hour, the memoirs of Traudl Junge, one of Hitler's secretaries (co-written with Melissa Müller); Albert Speer's memoirs, Inside the Third Reich; Hitler's Last Days: An Eye–Witness Account, by Gerhardt Boldt; Das Notlazarett Unter Der Reichskanzlei: Ein Arzt Erlebt Hitlers Ende in Berlin by Doctor Ernst-Günther Schenck; and, Siegfried Knappe's memoirs, Soldat: Reflections of a German Soldier, 1936–1949.

The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

Contents

Plot

In November 1942, a group of German secretaries are escorted to Adolf Hitler's compound at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia. After dictating briefly to one of the secretaries, and despite numerous dictation and typing mistakes, Hitler selects Traudl Humps to be one of his personal secretaries.

Three years later, on Hitler's fifty-sixth birthday on April 20, 1945, in the midst of the Battle for Berlin. Secretary Traudl Humps (after marriage known as Traudl Junge) is awakened in the Führerbunker by the sound of Soviet artillery. Later, Generals Wilhelm Burgdorf and Karl Koller confirm to a surprised Hitler that the Red Army is just 12 kilometres from the city centre. At his birthday reception, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and his SS adjutant Hermann Fegelein plead with Hitler to leave the city. Instead, Hitler declares, "I will defeat them in Berlin, or face my downfall." Himmler leaves Berlin with the intention of negotiating surrender terms with the Western Allies behind Hitler's back.

In another part of the city, a group of Hitler Youth members continue to build up defenses for Berlin. Peter, a boy in the group, is urged by his father to desert and flee the city. Peter resists his father and later his unit is part of a group which is awarded the Iron Cross by Hitler. Hitler confides to Peter, "I wish my generals were as brave as you; Heil to You."

SS doctor Ernst-Gunther Schenck is ordered to evacuate Berlin as part of Operation Clausewitz. Schenck convinces an SS general to let him stay to treat the wounded and starving. Schenck is requested by Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke to bring all available medical supplies to the Reich Chancellery. Upon searching a deserted hospital, Schenck finds the basement filled with piled corpses and abandoned patients. After finding medical supplies, Schenck unsuccessfully tries to prevent the summary execution of two old men by members of a Greifkommando or Feldgendarmerie. Meanwhile, Hitler discusses his new scorched earth policy to his Minister of Armaments, Albert Speer. Speer pleads for mercy for the German people, but Hitler declares that they are weak and do not deserve to survive. Eva Braun ignores Fegelein's pleas to leave Berlin and holds a party for the bunker inhabitants up in the Reich Chancellery, but Soviet artillery shells end the party early.

The next day, General Helmuth Weidling is mistakenly thought to have ordered a retreat to the West and is ordered to the bunker to be executed. Weidling explains himself to Burgdorf and Hans Krebs, only to find himself appointed commander of the Berlin Defense Area. In the bunker's briefing room, Hitler is informed about Berlin's disintegrating defenses. Unmoved, he announces that Waffen SS General Felix Steiner's unit will arrive and drive the Red Army out of Berlin. He is then informed that Steiner was unable to mobilize enough men. The news sends Hitler into a rage in which he furiously berates Germany's troops and generals. Hitler finally acknowledges that the war is lost, but insists that he will remain in Berlin and commit suicide.[3]

General Mohnke becomes outraged when he sees conscripted civilian troops being badly deployed and thus pointlessly killed in the streets. Mohnke learns that they are Volkssturm fighters under the command of Joseph Goebbels. Mohnke has them removed from the line of fire and returns to the Reich Chancellery to confront Goebbels. During their exchange, Goebbels tells Mohnke that he has no pity for the civilians, as they chose their fate. Hitler, Braun, Traudl, and Gerda Christian discuss various means of suicide whilst Krebs, Burgdorf, and other military staff get drunk. Hitler gives Christian and Junge one cyanide capsule each. Eva Braun and Magda Goebbels type goodbye letters: Braun to her sister Gretl and Goebbels to her adult son, Harald Quandt. In the streets of Berlin the child soldiers are annihilated by Soviet fire.

Hitler, with Germany losing the war, loses his sense of reality. Field Marshal Keitel is ordered to find Admiral Karl Dönitz, whom Hitler believes is gathering troops in the north, and help him plan an offensive to recover the Romanian oil fields. Oberscharführer Rochus Misch, Hitler's radio operator, receives a telegram from Luftwaffe head Hermann Göring, asking for approval to assume command. Bormann reads the telegram to Hitler in which Göring asks permission to become head-of-state and asks for acknowledgment by 10:00 pm, at which time he will assume authority in the absence of a response. Walther Hewel tries to justify his actions but Bormann and Goebbels declare Göring's actions to be high treason; Hitler orders Göring's arrest and removal from office. Privately, Speer urges Hitler one last time to halt the scorched-earth orders, but Hitler refuses. Speer confesses to Hitler that he never implemented the plan, and directly countermanded Hitler's orders by secretly instructing the regional administrators to ignore the orders. Hitler is visibly shaken by the news but does not punish Speer who is allowed to leave the city.

Hitler summons General Robert Ritter von Greim and his mistress, ace pilot Hanna Reitsch, to the bunker. He appoints von Greim to be Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe which needs to be rebuilt. During dinner, Hitler receives a report that Himmler has just attempted to negotiate a separate peace settlement with the Western Allies. Betrayed by the man he trusted the most, Hitler explodes in another tearful outburst. He orders von Greim and Reitsch to leave Berlin, rendezvous with Dönitz who is preparing a massive pincer strike with Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, and ensure that Himmler is dealt with. Hitler then delusively assures von Greim that he can carry out this pincer strike with a thousand jet aircraft, which have been held in reserve (and which in fact, do not exist). Reichsphysician SS Ernst-Robert Grawitz, the head of the German Red Cross and responsible for Nazi human medical experiments, requests that he be allowed to leave Berlin for fear of reprisal against him and his family. Hitler denies his request, assuring him that he has nothing to be ashamed of and future generations will "thank him" for his medical research. Grawitz returns to his apartment and kills both his family and himself with grenades during dinner.

Hitler wishes to speak to Fegelein about Himmler's treachery but Fegelein cannot be found. Hitler is immediately suspicious of Fegelein, which proves right when he finds out that he has deserted the bunker and plans to flee the country. Hitler demands that Fegelein be found and questioned. An RSD squad arrests Fegelein at his apartment. Despite a tearful plea from Eva Braun to spare her brother-in-law's life, Hitler is unmoved and denounces him as a traitor. Shortly afterwards, Fegelein is executed by Peter Högl. Weidling reports there are no reserves left and air support has ceased. Mohnke reports that the Red Army is only 300 to 400 meters from the Reich Chancellery and that defending forces can hold out for a day or two at most. Hitler dismisses the update and reassures the officers that General Walther Wenck's 12th Army will save them. After Hitler leaves the conference room, Weidling asks the other generals if it is truly possible for Wenck to attack; they all agree it is impossible that Wenck will succeed, but they do not wish to surrender.

The following day, Hitler dictates his last will and testament to his secretary, Traudl Junge, before marrying Eva Braun. Hitler has ordered Joseph Goebbels to leave Berlin, but Goebbels intends to ignore the order and die with Hitler. When Hitler's adjutant Otto Günsche later brings a reply from Keitel that Wenck's army cannot continue its assault on Berlin, Hitler states that he will never surrender. He also forbids all officers to surrender on pain of summary execution. Hitler then gives Günsche the order to cremate his body and that of Eva Braun. Dr. Schenck, Dr. Werner Haase, and a nurse are summoned to the bunker and Haase explains to Hitler the best method for suicide as well as administering poison to Hitler's dog, Blondi, which Schenck witnesses. Braun affectionately gives Junge one of her best coats and makes her promise to flee the bunker. Hitler eats his final meal in silence with Constanze Manziarly and his secretaries. He bids farewell to the bunker staff, gives Magda his own Golden Party Badge #1, and then retires to his room with Braun. Now frantic at the thought of a world without Hitler and the possibility of killing off her own children, Magda pleads with Hitler to change his mind. Hitler states, "Tomorrow, millions of people will curse me, but fate has taken its course."

Hitler and Braun retreat to their private rooms, and commit suicide. Their lifeless bodies are carried up to ground level and through the bunker's emergency exit to the Reich Chancellery garden. There, the corpses are doused in petrol and set alight in a shell crater. From the bunker entrance, surrounding officers give one final Nazi salute. Thereafter, General Krebs leads a small delegation through the Russian lines and tries to negotiate peace terms with Soviet General Vasily Chuikov. Chuikov says that the Soviets will only accept unconditional surrender but Krebs does not have the authority to grant this so he returns to the bunker empty-handed.

Unwilling to accept a world without National Socialism, Magda Goebbels poisons her six children while her husband waits. Then Goebbels and Magda proceed up to the Chancellery garden where Goebbels shoots his wife before shooting himself. SS men waiting nearby with petrol cans in hand hasten to the remains to attempt a cremation. The people remaining in the bunker complex agree that they must try to break out of the Soviet encirclement. Krebs and Burgdorf commit suicide as the rest evacuate. Many of the bunker survivors attempt to escape, but are killed in the fighting. Weidling goes out and broadcasts to all the Berliners that the Führer is dead; he has called for a ceasefire with Lieutenant-General Vasily Chuikov.

Meanwhile, Schenck and Hewel stay with Mohnke and his remaining SS troops, who debate about what to do once the Soviet troops arrive. Schenck tries to talk sense into Hewel who promised Hitler he would kill himself. When news reaches the officers that Berlin has been surrendered, Hewel and several of the SS officers promptly shoot themselves to Schenck's dismay. Outside, child soldier Peter finds that his post has been obliterated by shellfire and his young colleagues are all dead. Aghast, he scrambles away. On a side street, the menacing Greifkommando or Feldgendarmerie men stalk across his path. Peter enters a nearby apartment and finds the squad has executed his parents.

In the chaos of the city's fall, Traudl Junge reaches an improvised staging area where defeated German soldiers mingle prior to surrender. Peter, in civilian clothes, has reached the same area. Swiftly approaching Red Army ranks are just blocks away though they advance jauntily—seemingly knowing resistance here has been broken. Traudl decides to try leaving and Mohnke gives her advice: keep going and don't look the Russians in the eye. She begins her walk as Soviets close in and crowd the way out. Peter emerges and takes her hand as if she were family and pulls her along through the masses.

Moving ahead with downcast eyes, Traudl blunders into a celebrating drunken Red Army soldier who turns his attention to her. They make eye contact and it seems as if she will be pressed into the circle of leering men. Then Peter tugs her arm and she is able to hasten away. At a ruined bridge, Peter finds an abandoned bicycle, to Traudl's delight. They briskly pedal away from Berlin together. The subsequent fates of the surviving characters are superimposed and the credits roll.

Cast

Reception

While treatment of the Third Reich was still a sensitive subject among many Germans even 60 years after World War II, the film broke one of the last remaining taboos by its depiction of Adolf Hitler in a central role by a German-speaking actor (as opposed to using actual film footage of Hitler). Ganz conducted four months of research to prepare for the role, studying a ten-minute recording of Hitler in private conversation with Finnish Field Marshal Mannerheim in order to properly mimic Hitler's conversational voice and distinct Austrian dialect.[4]

The film's impending release in 2004 provoked a debate in German film magazines and newspapers. The tabloid Bild asked "Are we allowed to show the monster as a human being?"

Concern about the film's depiction of Hitler led New Yorker film critic David Denby to note:[5]

As a piece of acting, Ganz's work is not just astounding, it's actually rather moving. But I have doubts about the way his virtuosity has been put to use. By emphasizing the painfulness of Hitler's defeat Ganz has [...] made the dictator into a plausible human being. Considered as biography, the achievement (if that's the right word) [...] is to insist that the monster was not invariably monstrous – that he was kind to his cook and his young female secretaries, loved his German shepherd, Blondi, and was surrounded by loyal subordinates. We get the point: Hitler was not a supernatural being; he was common clay raised to power by the desire of his followers. But is this observation a sufficient response to what Hitler actually did?

With respect to German uneasiness about "humanizing" Hitler, Denby said:[5]

A few journalists in [Germany] wondered aloud whether the "human" treatment of Hitler might not inadvertently aid the neo-Nazi movement. But in his many rants in [the film] Hitler says that the German people do not deserve to survive, that they have failed him by losing the war and must perish – not exactly the sentiments […] that would spark a recruitment drive. This Hitler may be human, but he's as utterly degraded a human being as has ever been shown on the screen, a man whose every impulse leads to annihilation.

After previewing the film, Hitler biographer Sir Ian Kershaw wrote in The Guardian:[6]

Knowing what I did of the bunker story, I found it hard to imagine that anyone (other than the usual neo-Nazi fringe) could possibly find Hitler a sympathetic figure during his bizarre last days. And to presume that it might be somehow dangerous to see him as a human being – well, what does that thought imply about the self-confidence of a stable, liberal democracy? Hitler was, after all, a human being, even if an especially obnoxious, detestable specimen. We well know that he could be kind and considerate to his secretaries, and with the next breath show cold ruthlessness, dispassionate brutality, in determining the deaths of millions. Of all the screen depictions of the Führer, even by famous actors, such as Alec Guinness or Anthony Hopkins, this is the only one which to me is compelling. Part of this is the voice. Ganz has Hitler's voice to near perfection. It is chillingly authentic.

Addressing other critics like Denby, Chicago Sun-Times film critic Roger Ebert wrote:[7]

Admiration I did not feel. Sympathy I felt in the sense that I would feel it for a rabid dog, while accepting that it must be destroyed. I do not feel the film provides "a sufficient response to what Hitler actually did", because I feel no film can, and no response would be sufficient. As we regard this broken and pathetic Hitler, we realize that he did not alone create the Third Reich, but was the focus for a spontaneous uprising by many of the German people, fueled by racism, xenophobia, grandiosity and fear. He was skilled in the ways he exploited that feeling, and surrounded himself by gifted strategists and propagandists, but he was not a great man, simply one armed by fate to unleash unimaginable evil. It is useful to reflect that racism, xenophobia, grandiosity and fear are still with us, and the defeat of one of their manifestations does not inoculate us against others.

Hirschbiegel confirmed that the film's makers sought to give Hitler a three-dimensional personality.[8]

We know from all accounts that he was a very charming man – a man who managed to seduce a whole people into barbarism.

The film was nominated for the 2005 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in the 77th Academy Awards. The film also won the 2005 BBC Four World Cinema competition.[9]

The film is set mostly in and around the Führerbunker. Hirschbiegel made an effort to accurately reconstruct the look and atmosphere of the bunker through eyewitness accounts, survivors' memoirs and other historical sources. According to his commentary on the DVD, Der Untergang was filmed in Berlin, Munich, and in a district of Saint Petersburg, Russia, which, with its many buildings designed by German architects, was said to resemble many parts of 1940s Berlin. The film was ranked number 48 in Empire magazines "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.[10]

As of October 2010, Rotten Tomatoes reports that 91% of critics have given the film a positive review, with an average score of 8 out of 10. The site's consensus is: "Downfall is an illuminating, thoughtful and detailed account of Hitler's last days".

Criticism

The author Giles MacDonogh criticized the film for sympathetic portrayals of Wilhelm Mohnke and Ernst-Günther Schenck. Mohnke was rumored, but never proven to have ordered the execution of a group of British P.O.W.s in the Wormhoudt massacre near Dunkirk in 1940, while Schenck's experiments with medicinal plants in 1938 allegedly led to the deaths of a number of concentration camp prisoners.[11] In answer to this criticism, the film's director, in the DVD commentary, stated he did his own research and did not find the allegations as to Schenck to be convincing. Furthermore, Mohnke strongly denied the accusations against him, telling historian Thomas Fischer, "I issued no orders not to take English prisoners or to execute prisoners."[12]

Wim Wenders called the filmmakers' collaboration with a history professor "a strategic move to compile cultural capital and move the film beyond the reach of reprehensibility, challenge, or contradiction by writers or critics unwilling to engage the material other than by pointing out historical inaccuracies." He felt that the film said: "Wir wissen, wovon wir reden" ("We know what we're talking about"). Further, Wenders argued that Der Untergang presented an uncritical viewpoint toward the barbarism of its subject matter, and accused the filmmakers of Verharmlosung (rendering harmlessness). Wenders supported this observation with close readings of the film's first scene, and of Hitler's final scene, suggesting that in each case a particular set of cinematographic and editorial choices left each scene emotionally charged, resulting in a glorifying effect.[13]

Parodies

The movie is well known for "Downfall Parodies". One scene in the film, in which Hitler launches into a furious tirade upon finally realizing that the war is truly lost, has become a staple of internet videos.[14] In these videos, the original audio of Ganz's voice is retained, but new subtitles are added so that he now seems to be reacting instead to some setback in present-day politics, sports, popular culture, or everyday life. Other scenes from various portions of the film have been parodied in the same manner, notably the scenes where Hitler orders Otto Günsche to find SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Fegelein, and where Hitler discusses a counterattack against advancing Soviet forces with his generals. By 2010, there were thousands of such parodies, including many in which a self-aware Hitler is incensed that people keep making Downfall parodies,[15] and videos that depict Hitler as having a fierce rivalry with Fegelein, with the latter plotting mischief against his superior through a number of cruel and often comical antics. Clips from other films, such as Inglourious Basterds, Dear Friend Hitler and even films or footage that have little or nothing to do with Downfall's subject matter, are also juxtaposed for humorous effect.

The parodies have also spawned a community of YouTube users, who call themselves "Untergangers", devoted to the practice of making Downfall-related videos. Some of them have cited their reasons on making the parodies.[16]

The film's director, Oliver Hirschbiegel, spoke positively about these parodies in a 2010 interview with New York magazine, saying that many of them were funny and they were a fitting extension of the film's purpose: "The point of the film was to kick these terrible people off the throne that made them demons, making them real and their actions into reality. I think it's only fair if now it's taken as part of our history, and used for whatever purposes people like."[17] Nevertheless, Constantin Films has taken an "ambivalent" view of the parodies, and has asked video sites to remove many of them.[18] On April 21, 2010, the producers initiated a removal of parody videos on YouTube.[19] There was then a resurgence of the videos on the site.[20]

In October 2010, YouTube stopped blocking Downfall-derived parodies,[21] and is now placing advertisements on some of them. Corynne McSherry, an attorney specializing in intellectual property and free speech issues[22] for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, stated, "All the [Downfall parody videos] that I've seen are very strong fair use cases and so they're not infringing, and they shouldn't be taken down."[23]

In January 2012, British Labour MP Tom Harris stepped down from his internet adviser role after media reaction to a Downfall parody which ridiculed Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond.[24]

The bunker rant scene was also parodied in the 2012 science-fiction film Iron Sky, even going so far as to making use of a line commonly used in most Downfall parodies.

See also

References

  1. ^ "DOWNFALL (15)". British Board of Film Classification. 2004-12-24. http://www.bbfc.co.uk/AFF205943/. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 
  2. ^ a b "DOWNFALL". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=downfall.htm. 
  3. ^ Adolf Hitler: "But, gentlemen, if you believe I'm going to leave Berlin, you are seriously mistaken. I'd rather blow my brains out,"
  4. ^ Diver, Krysia and Moss, Stephen (March 25, 2003). "Desperately seeking Adolf". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2005/mar/25/1. Retrieved February 6, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b Denby, David (February 14, 2005). "David Denby's comments on Der Untergang". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/critics/cinema/?050214crci_cinema. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  6. ^ Kershaw, Ian (September 17, 2004). "The human Hitler". The Guardian. London. http://film.guardian.co.uk/features/featurepages/0,4120,1306616,00.html. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  7. ^ Ebert, Roger (March 11, 2005). "Downfall". Chicago Sun-Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050310/REVIEWS/50222002/1023. 
  8. ^ Eckardt, Andy (September 16, 2004). "Film showing Hitler's soft side stirs controversy". NBC News. MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6019248/from/RL.1/. 
  9. ^ "Downfall wins BBC world film gong". BBC. January 26, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4652074.stm. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  10. ^ "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Empire. http://www.empireonline.com/features/100-greatest-world-cinema-films/default.asp?film=48. 
  11. ^ Eberle, Henrik, MacDonogh, Giles and Uhl, Matthias. The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin, New York: PublicAffairs, 2005, p 370. ISBN 1-58648-366-8
  12. ^ Fischer, Thomas. Soldiers of the Leibstandarte, J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. 2008, p 26.
  13. ^ Wenders, Wim (October 21, 2004). "Tja, dann wollen wir mal". Die Zeit. http://www.zeit.de/2004/44/Untergang_n?. Retrieved July 5, 2009. (German)
  14. ^ BBC: The rise, rise and rise of the Downfall Hitler parody
  15. ^ Boutin, Paul (February 25, 2010), "Video Mad Libs With the Right Software", The New York Times: B10, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/25/technology/personaltech/25basics.html?scp=1&sq=Downfall&st=cse, retrieved February 26, 2010 . The self-aware Hitler parody is at http://www.kontraband.com/videos/19360/Hitler-Hates-Downfall-Parodies/
  16. ^ "Parody, copyright law clash in online clips". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/07/22/BUQV1EHV9G.DTL&ao=all. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  17. ^ Rosenblum, Emma (January 15, 2010). "The Director of Downfall Speaks Out on All Those Angry YouTube Hitlers". New York. http://nymag.com/daily/entertainment/2010/01/the_director_of_downfall_on_al.html. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  18. ^ Finlo Rohrer (April 13, 2010). "The rise, rise and rise of the Downfall Hitler parody". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8617454.stm. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  19. ^ Finlo Rohrer (April 21, 2010). "Downfall filmmakers want YouTube to take down Hitler spoofs". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/apr/21/constantin-films-intellectual-property-spoofs. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  20. ^ Parody, copyright law clash in online clips - San Francisco Chronicle
  21. ^ "Constantin Film are not blocking parodies any more". http://s1.zetaboards.com/downfallparodies/topic/3868429/1/. Retrieved October 23, 2010. 
  22. ^ "EFF's Staff | Electronic Frontier Foundation". Eff.org. 2011-04-25. http://www.eff.org/about/staff. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  23. ^ "YouTube Pulls Hitler 'Downfall' Parodies". NPR. 2010-04-23. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126225405. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  24. ^ "MP Tom Harris quits media post over Hitler joke video". BBC News. January 16, 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-16576255. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 

Further reading

External links