There were 5,562 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.3% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.21 and the average family size was 3.54.
In the town, 21.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.5 years. For every 100 females there were 110.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $59,454 (with a margin of error of +/- $3,227) and the median family income was $61,187 (+/- $2,750). Males had a median income of $34,722 (+/- $4,750) versus $28,098 (+/- $4,993) for females. The per capita income for the town was $21,581 (+/- $990). About 3.6% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.
11.27% of Dover residents identified themselves as being of Colombian American ancestry in the 2000 Census, the second highest percentage of the population of any municipality in the United States (behind neighboring Victory Gardens, New Jersey which had 15.27% of residents so identified) with 1,000 residents identifying their ancestry.
There were 5,436 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.9% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.55.
In the town the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 36.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 106.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $53,423, and the median income for a family was $57,141. Males had a median income of $31,320 versus $27,413 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,056. About 8.2% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Native Americans had lived in the area of Dover before Europeans came to the area, and historical records show that a small Native American village existed at the site of Hurd Park. Joseph Latham was deeded the land that includes present-day Dover in 1713, from portions of land that had been purchased from Native Americans by the Proprietors of West Jersey. On May 31, 1722, Latham and his wife Jane deeded 527 acres (2.13 km2) over to John Jackson of Flushing, New York. Jackson settled on the eastern portion of his land along Granny’s Brook at the site of what would later become the Ross Ribbon Factory on Park Heights Avenue.
Iron ore at the time was so plentiful that it could be collected off the ground at the nearby Dickerson Mine in Mine Hill. At Jackson's Forge, ore would be processed into bars that would then be transported to Paterson and other industrial areas towards the east. The passage of the Iron Act by the British Parliament led to financial difficulties, leading Jackson into bankruptcy in 1753, with all of his property and belongings sold off at a Sheriff's sale. Quaker Hartshorne Fitz Randolph purchased Jackson's property and annexed to his own existing property, which would later become part of Randolph Township.
Dover was incorporated as a town on April 1, 1869, within Randolph Township and became fully independent in 1896. On May 7, 1896, Dover was reincorporated as a city and regained its status as a town on March 21, 1899, after the referendum that approved the change was invalidated by a court ruling. The town charter was amended in 1875. In its past, Dover has had extensive iron and mill works, machine shops, stove, furnace, and range works, boiler and bridge works, rolling mills, drill works, knitting and silk mills, and a large hosiery factory (MacGregors). During this period, Dover was a port on the Morris Canal while it was operational; the boat basin was located at what is today the JFK Commons Park.
Dover Town operates using the Town form of government and is governed by a Mayor and Board of Aldermen. The Mayor is elected at large. The Board of Aldermen consists of eight members, with two Aldermen elected to two-year terms from each of the four wards on a staggered basis, with one Aldermanic seat coming up for election each year in each ward.
As of 2013[update], the Mayor of Dover Town is James P. Dodd (D, term of office ends on December 31, 2013). Members of the Board of Aldermen are:
1st Ward: Christine Noriega (D, 2013) and Michael Picciallo (D, 2014)
2nd Ward: Cindy Romaine (D, 2013) and Paul Downs (D, 2014)
3rd Ward: James Visioli (D, 2013) and Carolyn Blackman (D, 2014)
4th Ward: Robert Rutan (D, 2013) and Michelle Yzarnotegui (D, 2014)
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 6,613 registered voters in Dover, of which 2,603 (39.4%) were registered as Democrats, 1,125 (17.0%) were registered as Republicans and 2,881 (43.6%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 4 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 67.1% of the vote here (3,172 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 31.7% (1,500 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (31 votes), among the 4,727 ballots cast by the town's 7,019 registered voters, for a turnout of 67.3%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 57.2% of the vote here (2,658 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 41.2% (1,914 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (34 votes), among the 4,643 ballots cast by the town's 7,356 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 63.1.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 55.6% of the vote here (1,408 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 36.3% (919 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 5.6% (142 votes) and other candidates with 0.8% (21 votes), among the 2,532 ballots cast by the town's 6,750 registered voters, yielding a 37.5% turnout.
Sacred Heart School was a Catholic school serving students in pre-school through eighth grade that operated under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paterson. A successful fundraising effort in 2006 had kept the school open despite plans to close the school, but in 2009 the Paterson Diocese announced that declining enrollment and financial difficulties would lead to the school's closure at the conclusion of the 2008-09 school year.
Lakeland Bus Lines provides regular service to Sparta, Newton, Mount Olive, Rockaway, Boonton, Parsippany, Wayne, New York City, and intermediate points from their terminal on the Rockaway Township border. Service is also provided from Wednesday to Sunday between Dover and Atlantic City 
The Morris County Department of Transportation also operates bus service along Route 46 to Netcong & Mount Olive.
Dover is served by numerous local taxi services. Taxis can be found waiting outside of the supermarkets, bars, bus stations, and train station.
The community of Dover is centered around a developed downtown area filled with many eateries. A vast percentage of these are owned and run by Hispanics of various countries, and feature their ethnic food. Dover is a haven for diverse eating experiences, from sushi, pizza, and coffee shops, to popular Irish and Italian food places. The majority of these venues are located in and around the business district of Blackwell Street.
On every Sunday from April to December, there is a flea market downtown.
Dover has been described as a walking town, as most parts of town are within about a 1/2 mile of the downtown area and most streets have sidewalks.
Hamilton Field is one of Dover's recreation centers, featuring a football field with bleachers, soccer fields, and a historic cinder track that is used by walkers and joggers.
JFK Memorial Commons Park consists of a children's play park and the town Gazebo. JFK Park hosts the town's annual Christmas tree lighting, Easter egg hunt, Halloween parade, summer concerts and on occasions ceremonies following town parades. The park was constructed by filling in the basin for the old Morris Canal. The name was given following the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963.
Crescent Field includes a new turf soccer field and is the hosting site for Dover's annual Colombian Festival.
Water Works Park consists of a baseball field, picnic area, and accessible banks of the Rockaway River. The Water Commission purchased the lane in 1902 and developed wells for much needed water to a growing community. In 1933, the land became a playground for picnicking and swimming in the nearby Rockaway River.
Hurd Park is a passive park with no playgrounds or ballfields. Ideal location for wedding and graduation photographs with its Greek style pavilion having fluted columns and a circular gazebo-like center with a red-tiled roof and a scenic background. Donated to the town in 1911 by John Hurd, the park is also host to a 1922 World War I Spirit of the American Doughboy statue, one of a few found around the country. The park also displays a Civil War Memorial, a Spanish American War Memorial and a brick-walk memorial naming those on stone bricks who served in the Armed Forces. The park is also adjacent to Indian Falls, a scenic walk along the Jackson Brook to Hedden Park.
Hedden Park on Reservoir Avenue. An active park, mostly in Randolph Township, with a picnic pavilion and tables, stone cooking grills for picnics in the woods, paddle boats in season, playgrounds, ball fields and hiking trails.
Triangle Park. In downtown Dover at the foot of Prospect Street, the small park is maintained by Dover's Renaissance Club and the home of Hudson Favell's "Story Poles."
Hooey Park is a small neighborhood park with a climbing playground for kids located in the Salem Village section of town.
Richards Avenue Park is a small park built on a vacant lot consisting of a small climbing playground for kids.
Bowlby Park and King Field located in North Dover was developed for Little League Baseball, soccer and high school girls softball games.
Mountain Park is located in South Dover on the old Munson Mine Tract and is being developed for hiking trails.
Dover is served by St. Clare's Dover General Hospital, located on Route 46, which is the local medical facility for Dover and other communities in western Morris County. Saint Clare's Denville Hospital is located 5 miles (8.0 km) east of Dover in Denville, and Morristown Medical Center is located 11 miles (18 km) east of Dover in Morristown. The Zufall Health Center is located on Warren Street and provides basic medical and dental services to low-income residents of Dover and neighboring communities.
The climactic scene of the 2008 movie, The Wrestler, was filmed at the Baker Theater.
The music video for Eddie Money's "I Wanna Go Back" was filmed on Blackwell Street and at the old Dover High School, Dover Middle School, and now Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art.
^Kullen, Charlotte G. "RANDOLPH A DAY IN THE LIFE", Daily Record (Morristown), October 21, 1999. Accessed April 27, 2012. "It is here that in 1722, Dover's first European settler, John Jackson, built an iron forge that gave birth to the industry that for the next 212 centuries [sic] would shape the growth of the town... The ban wiped out Jackson, who sold his farm to Hartshorne Fitz Randolph, for whom the modern township is named, and his forge to Josiah Beaman."
^Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013. "Former Newark Mayor Cory Booker was sworn in as a Democratic senator from New Jersey today, taking the oath of office, exchanging hugs with Vice President Joe Biden and acknowledging the applause of friends and family members seated in the visitor's gallery that rings the chamber.... Booker, 44, was elected to fill out the term of the late Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who died earlier this year."
^Martin, Liz. "Voters have their say on the budgets", Neighbor News, April 28, 2010. Accessed December 18, 2012. "The school board goes from 11 members to 10 after this election as the temporary Board seat assigned to the Victory Gardens representative Danielle Press expired permanently on April 20. Now that Victory Gardens has merged with the Dover school district, there will no longer be a dedicated Victory Gardens seat on the Board. Any resident from either Dover or Victory Gardens will be eligible to run for any available Board seat."
^Diamant, Jeff; and Adarlo, Sharon. "Dover's Sacred Heart School, saved in 2006, to close in June", The Star-Ledger, January 9, 2009. Accessed September 3, 2003. "An 85-year-old Catholic school in Dover will close in June, two years after parents and alumni worked to stave off that fate by raising money and working to increase enrollment.The Roman Catholic Diocese of Paterson said the student body at Sacred Heart School has since dropped back to unsustainable levels -- 121 from preschool through eighth grade -- and the current term will be the school's last."
^ abcdJennings, Dana. "Paper, Pencil And a Dream", The New York Times, December 14, 2003. Accessed March 29, 2012. "Mr. Kubert said that Dover, which has 18,000 people and is bisected by the Rockaway River, suits him. He and his wife, Muriel, raised their five children here, and it was here that they opened their school."
^Dover, Saint Clare's Health System. Accessed September 3, 2013.
^Hyman, Vicki. "Baker Theatre", The Star-Ledger, March 18, 2008. Accessed September 3, 2013. "It'll take 9 1/2 weeks to scrub these images out of our brains. Mickey Rourke, in flowing blond locks and lime green spandex, thrilled wrestling fans over the weekend in Dover, where he was filming scenes for his upcoming movie The Wrestler in between real wrestling matches at the historic Baker Theater."
^Schoonejongen, John. "RNC Chairman Priebus touts his Jersey cred", Asbury Park Press Capitol Quickies, August 30, 2012. Accessed November 8, 2012. "'I have something in common I think a little bit with you all, I was born in New Jersey,' Reince Priebus told New Jersey Republicans at their delegation breakfast. “I was born in Dover, and some of my favorite childhood memories … we moved when I was seven to Wisconsin, but I still remember very fondly, and I think about it, was growing up in Netcong. That’s where I grew up.”"