Dole Food Company

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Dole Food Company, Inc.
TypePrivate
IndustryAgribusiness
Founded1851[1] as Castle & Cooke
FoundersSamuel Northrup Castle
Amos Starr Cooke
HeadquartersWestlake Village, California, USA
Area servedGlobal
Key peopleDavid H. Murdock
Chairman[2]
ProductsFruit
Vegetables
Other food products
RevenueUS $7.2 Billion (2011)[2]
Net income38.4 million (2011)[2]
Employees34,500 (2011)[3]
Websitewww.dole.com
 
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Dole Food Company, Inc.
TypePrivate
IndustryAgribusiness
Founded1851[1] as Castle & Cooke
FoundersSamuel Northrup Castle
Amos Starr Cooke
HeadquartersWestlake Village, California, USA
Area servedGlobal
Key peopleDavid H. Murdock
Chairman[2]
ProductsFruit
Vegetables
Other food products
RevenueUS $7.2 Billion (2011)[2]
Net income38.4 million (2011)[2]
Employees34,500 (2011)[3]
Websitewww.dole.com

Dole Food Company, Inc. is an American-based agricultural multinational corporation headquartered in Westlake Village, California. The company is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world, operating with 74,300 full-time and seasonal employees who are responsible for over 300 products in 90 countries.[4][5] However, once Chiquita Brands and Fyffes finish their merger, it will be No. 2.[6] Dole markets such food items as bananas, pineapples (fresh and packaged), grapes, strawberries, salads, and other fresh and frozen fruits and juices.

Dole's Chairman founded the Dole Nutrition Institute, a nutritional research and education foundation.

History[edit]

Dole Plantation on Oahu, Hawaii.

The company traces its origin to the 1851 establishment of Castle & Cooke by missionaries Samuel Northrup Castle and Amos Starr Cooke. Castle & Cooke rapidly became one of the largest companies in Hawaii, investing in shipping, railroad construction, sugar production, and seafood packing. The other half of Dole's corporate heritage, the Hawaiian Pineapple Company, was founded in 1901 by James Dole, who opened his first pineapple plantation in the central plateau of the Hawaiian island of Oahu. Sanford Dole, the cousin of James, had been president of the Republic of Hawaii from 1894 after the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii (her last monarch, Queen Liliʻuokalani), and first governor of the Territory of Hawaii until 1903.[7] The annexation of Hawaii to the United States made selling agricultural products to the mainland much more profitable, since they would never be subject to import tariffs.

In 1932, Castle & Cooke purchased a 21% interest in the Hawaiian Pineapple Company. In the 1960s, Castle & Cooke acquired the remainder of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company and the Standard Fruit Company and renamed the company "The Dole Food Company, Inc" in 1991. Castle & Cook also owned Bumble Bee Foods from 1961 until the 1980s.[8]

Dole freighter sailing out of San Juan, Puerto Rico

It was then the third largest producer and U.S. importer of bananas. Dole and Chiquita remain the top two U.S. banana companies as of 2011.

In 2011, the company reported $7.2 billion in annual revenue.[2] It is a publicly traded company on the NYSE (DOLE).

Castle & Cooke Inc, a real estate company, was spun off in 1995; it is currently operating as a subsidiary of Flexi-Van Leasing, Inc.

Dole operates plantations throughout Central and South America, and in the Asia-Pacific region, with plantations in the Philippines and two packing plants in Thailand, Hua Hin and Chumphon.[9]

PepsiCo distributes Dole's Single Serving Juices.[10]

Dole Food Company Inc. has agreed to sell its worldwide packaged foods and Asia fresh produce businesses to Japanese trading house Itochu Corporation for $1.7 billion in cash.[11]

In August 2013, Dole announced it has sold itself to CEO David Murdock for $1.2 billion.[12]

Operations[edit]

Management and staff[edit]

As of March 2013, Dole's board of directors consisted of David H. Murdock, Chairman of the Board; C. Michael Carter, President and Chief Operating Officer; Elaine L. Chao, former U.S. Secretary of Labor; Andrew J. Conrad; David A. DeLorenzo; E. Rolland Dickson, M.D.; Sherry Lansing, former actress and film studio executive; Justin M. Murdock; and Dennis M. Weinberg.[13]

Products[edit]

Fresh ripe Dole pineapples (Philippines)

Including the original pineapple, Dole distributes fresh plant foods in the forms of whole fruits, whole vegetables, berries, and fresh-cut vegetables. Packaged products include fruit bowls, fruit bowls in gel, fruit in plastic jars, fruit parfaits, fruit crisps, dates, raisins, and canned fruits. Frozen products include berries, tropical fruits, and fruit bars. Juices are sold chilled, frozen, or canned. Salad products include greens, salad kits, and shreds.[14]

In 1998 Dole bought several growers in Colombia and became the largest distributor of fresh-cut flowers in the US. However, by 2008 the flower business was losing money, and it was bought in January 2009 by a group of private investors.

Corporate headquarters[edit]

In 1994, Dole announced that it would finalize its plans to build its world headquarters on a 30-acre (120,000 m2) site owned by the company, located north of the Ventura Freeway in Westlake Village, California. The decision had been delayed by groundwater contamination tests and reviewing of possible site plan revisions. Having submitted its plans for final approval by the Westlake Village City Council on February 9, 1994,[15] Dole completed construction and opened its new world headquarters building in May 1999.

Legacy[edit]

Dole Plantation Pineapple Maze

The Guinness Book of World Records (2001) lists the pineapple maze at the Dole Plantation in Oahu, Hawaii as the world's largest maze.[16]

The Dole Nutrition Institute (DNI) was founded by David H. Murdock in 2003 to “Feed the World with Knowledge” through research and education regarding the health benefits of a plant-based diet.

Mascot[edit]

Bobby Banana is a mascot of Dole Food Company and the leader of the SuperKids (children who regularly eat five to nine fruits and vegetables every day).[17] He is an anthropomorphic banana, who appears in Dole comics and games for children, along with friends Courtney Cauliflower, Mia Mango, Pinellopy Pineapple, and Gavin Grape, all of whom are also anthropomorphic fruits and vegetables.[18]

In 1985 and 1986, the Dole banana was featured as the official banana of the Pittsburg State University (KS) Gorillas' athletic programs. The project was the brainchild of then Pitt State radiosports play-by-play voice Scott Burton. The introduction of the Dole banana as the official banana of the Gorillas delighted then Athletic Director David Suenram and Pittsburg State University sports fans alike. The head football coach at the time of the promotion was Dennis Franchione. Dole provided company trinkets for fan giveaways and the popularity of the Dole banana thrived in southeast Kansas and southwest Missouri (Joplin) during the promotion's two year run.

Criticism and controversies[edit]

Legal cases[edit]

In 2001, Dole was involved in the suit Del Monte Fresh Produce Co. v. Dole Food Co. with Del Monte Fresh over the potential misappropriation of Del Monte's specially-bred pineapple.

Hawaiian coup[edit]

James Dole, who founded the Hawaiian Pineapple Company, came to Hawaii in 1899, five years after his cousin (once removed), Sanford B. Dole had taken up position as first president of the republic, following the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy.[19] Although his elder cousin was involved with the takeover of Hawaii, James himself was a teenager living in Massachusetts at the time of the coup.[20] However, the company's commercial activities would not have been possible without the later annexation of Hawaii to the US,[21] which resulted in the removal of high import tariffs on Hawaiian products (see Overthrow). Removal of tariffs through annexation was one of the goals of the 1894 coup plotters, though annexation did not occur until 1898.[22]

Food safety[edit]

In 2005, 23 people in Minnesota were sickened with E. coli O157:H7. The source of the bacteria was found to be Dole brand bagged lettuce.[23] Then in 2006, another E. coli outbreak that caused over 200 people to become ill and killed 3 more was linked to bagged spinach sold by Dole. The spinach was processed by Natural Selection Foods in California.[24]

Labor relations[edit]

The banana industry has traditionally been dominated by a few large corporations, which employ low-wage workers in developing countries.[25][26] Dole was named as a defendant in a wrongful death lawsuit filed on behalf of 73 heirs of victims of paramilitary violence in Colombia.[27]

In 2007, Nicaraguan plantation workers, represented by Los Angeles-based personal injury lawyer Juan Dominguez, sued Dole and Dow Chemical Company, claiming the use of illegal pesticides such as the now banned Nemagon (containing DBCP) had made them sterile. The pesticide was not banned in Nicaragua until after Dole ceased its operations within the country. The suit and two others were subsequently thrown out by California courts after it was concluded that “[c]ontrary to their sworn testimony, most of the plaintiffs never worked on Dole-affiliated banana farms and none were involved in the DBCP application process,” while similar lawsuits were filed in U.S. and Nicaraguan courts.[28]

A lawyer for the Nicaraguans, Steve Condie, however, stated that some of the witnesses who gave testimony that the claims were fraudulent, had been paid by Dole. The witnesses' identities were kept secret so that the plaintiffs' lawyers could not interview them.[28]

Swedish film director Fredrik Gertten made a documentary film about Dominguez and the alleged banana workers. The movie Bananas!* premiered in the 2009 Los Angeles Film Festival. Dole said they had serious concerns about the film's accuracy and they urged festival officials to "immediately cease and desist" their sponsorship of the film.[29][30][31][32] The festival officials allowed the film to be screened, but it was not allowed to compete for placement in the competition. In addition, festival officials distributed information before the film's screening that indicated Dole believed the film to be factually inaccurate.

Although the film was screened with a disclaimer from the festival, Gertten was subsequently sued for defamation by Dole.[33] The lawsuit was dropped on October 15, 2009, and in November 2010 a court in Los Angeles found in favour of the movie crew making it possible to release the movie in the USA, and ordering Dole to pay SEK 1.4 million (roughly USD 200,000) to the filmmakers.[34]

The Nicaraguan DBCP awards against Dole were overturned in July 2010.[35]

In May 2013 Oxfam demanded Dole remove its 'Ethical Choice' labels from its bananas in New Zealand until it improved treatment of its workers in the Philippines, but Dole said Oxfam was trying to "destroy the Dole brand" in favour of another supplier.[36]

Labeling of genetically engineered foods in California[edit]

In 2012, Dole Packaged Foods contributed $171,261 to a $46 million political campaign known as "The Coalition Against The Costly Food Labeling Proposition, sponsored by Farmers and Food Producers".[37] This organization opposed California Proposition 37 (2012), proposing mandatory labeling of foods containing genetically modified ingredients. Dole's donation was among the lowest provided by manufacturers to the "No" campaign.[38] Proposition 37 was defeated in the California state election on November 6, 2012.[39]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dole: Company History (Retrieved November 29, 2007)
  2. ^ a b c d Hoover's: Dole Food Company, Inc. Factsheet (Retrieved April 2, 2012)
  3. ^ "Dole Food Company Inc.: Private Company Information - Businessweek". Investing.businessweek.com. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  4. ^ "Dole Food Company, Inc. Company Profile - Yahoo! Finance". Biz.yahoo.com. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  5. ^ "| Company Profile from Hoover’s". Hoovers.com. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  6. ^ "Chiquita and Fyffes join to make world's biggest banana firm". Reuters.com. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Dole, Sanford Ballard office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Retrieved 2010-01-20. 
  8. ^ "Bumble Bee History & Timeline". San Diego, CA, USA: Bumble Bee. Retrieved October 6, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Locations of Dole Food Company in Thailand". Dole Food Company. 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  10. ^ "Sierra Mist". Retrieved 2008-08-22. "Pepsi-Cola North America, the refreshment beverage unit of PepsiCo, Inc., in the United States and Canada." 
  11. ^ "Japan's Itochu to buy Dole Food businesses for $1.7 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 18 September 2012. 
  12. ^ "Dole Food Agrees to $1.2 Billion Buyout Offer". The Wall Street Journal. August 12, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Dole | Company Info | Board of Directors". Dole | Company Info | Investor Relations Home. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Dole Food Company, Inc. Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  14. ^ "All About Dole Products". official web site. Dole Food, Inc. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Dole gets ready to turn first shovel of headquarters dirt: plans are set to go to Westlake Village City Council". Los Angeles Business Journal. January 31, 1994. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Dole Plantation - Hawaii's Complete Pineapple Experience - Maze". Dole Plantation, Inc. Archived from the original on 2008-01-21. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  17. ^ "WhatsASuperkid". Dole. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  18. ^ "Homepage". Dole. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  19. ^ Tsai, Michael (July 2, 2006), "James Dole", The Honolulu Advertiser (Honolulu, HI, USA: Black Press), retrieved October 4, 2012 
  20. ^ Siddall, John William, ed. (1921). Men of Hawaii: a biographical reference library, complete and authentic, of the men of note and substantial achievement in the Hawaiian Islands. The Story of Hawaii and its builders 2. Honolulu, HI, USA: Honolulu Star-Bulletin. p. 133. LCCN 22017988. OCLC 80553001, 32127632 and 16326675. Retrieved October 4, 2012. 
  21. ^ Okihiro, Gary Y (2009), "Hawaiian Pine", Pineapple culture : a history of the tropical and temperate zones, The California world history library 10, Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, p. 130, ISBN 9780520265905, OCLC 449860318 
  22. ^ Furnas, J. C. (1948) [1937], "Land of Makebelieve Come True", Anatomy of paradise : Hawaii and the islands of the South Seas, Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council, New York, NY, USA: William Sloane Associates, pp. 173–183, OCLC 577040553, 183094599 and 8278107, archived from the original on November 1, 2006, retrieved October 4, 2012 
  23. ^ Murphy, Joan (October 17, 2005). "Minnesota finds E. coli in lettuce bags". www.producenews.com. Oradell, NJ, USA: The Produce News. ISSN 0032-969X. OCLC 4109334. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2012. 
  24. ^ About E. coli (2006-10-27). "E. coli Food Poisoning". About-ecoli.com. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  25. ^ Peter Chapman (July 2009). Bananas: How the United Fruit Company Shaped the World. Canongate U.S. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-84767-194-3. 
  26. ^ Anup Shah (January 3, 2010). "The Banana Trade War". Global Issues Blog. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Juana Perez 1-51/Juan Perez 5E-50 v. Dole Food Company, Inc.". Cases. International Rights Advocates. April 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-20. 
  28. ^ a b "Dole Uses Judge Attack in Banana Case to Undo $2 Billion Awards". Bloomberg. June 24, 2009. 
  29. ^ Edelman, Scott A. (May 8, 2009). "Letter from Dole, May 8, 2009". bananasthemovie.com. Retrieved October 6, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Interview with director Fredrik Gertten | BANANAS!*". Bananasthemovie.com. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  31. ^ "Bananas får inte tävla på festival - Regionala nyheter". svt.se. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  32. ^ "About the film – BANANAS!*".  11 June 2009 - bananasthemovie.com
  33. ^ Deutcsh, Linda (July 9, 2009). "Dole sues 'Bananas!' filmmaker, alleges defamation". The Seattle Times (Seattle, WA, USA: The Seattle Times Company). Associated Press. Retrieved October 4, 2012. 
  34. ^ Mlik, Nora (November 30, 2010). "Filmen "Bananas" vann mot Dole" [The film "Bananas" won against Dole]. DN.se [Daily News] (in Swedish). Stockholm, Sweden: Gunilla Herlitz(sv). Retrieved October 6, 2012.  Google machine translation of this article
  35. ^ Victoria Kim (July 16, 2010). "Judge throws out verdict awarding millions to Dole workers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Dole bananas not ethical - Oxfam". 3 News NZ. May 28, 2013. 
  37. ^ http://www.kcet.org/news/ballotbrief/elections2012/propositions/prop-37-funding-genetically-engineered-food.html
  38. ^ "Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food (2012)". California Proposition 37, BallotPedia. November 7, 2012. 
  39. ^ "With Proposition 37 defeated, food movement vows to fight on". Mercury News. November 7, 2012. 

External links[edit]