Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

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Osteopathic medicine
in the United States


Andrew Taylor Still (founder)

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO)

Medicine · US Medical education

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Schools · Physicians

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine

AOA · AACOM · AAO · COMLEX

MD & DO Comparison

Specialty Colleges · AOA BOS

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O. or DO) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States. Holders of the D.O. degree have attained the ability to become licensed as osteopathic physicians who have equivalent rights, privileges, and responsibilities as physicians with a Doctor of Medicine degree (M.D.).[1] D.O. physicians are licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries,[2] including all 50 states in the US, and make up 7 percent of the total U.S. physician population. In 2013, there were 87,300 osteopathic physicians in the United States.[3]

Currently, there are 30 medical schools with 40 locations throughout the United States that offer the D.O. degree,[4] and 141 medical schools that offer the M.D. degree.[5][6] As of 2011, 1 in 5 medical students in the United States were D.O. students.[7][8] The curricula at osteopathic medical schools are very similar to those at M.D.-granting medical schools.[9] Four years in total length,[9] the first two years of medical school focus on the biomedical and clinical sciences, followed by two years of core clinical training in the clinical specialties.

Upon leaving medical school, D.O. graduates may enter internship or residency training programs, which may be followed by fellowship training.[9] Many D.O. graduates attend the same graduate medical education programs as their M.D. counterparts,[10] and then take M.D. specialty board exams,[11] while other D.O. graduates enter osteopathic programs[12][13] and take D.O. specialty board examinations.[14]

One notable difference between D.O. and M.D. training is that D.O. training adds 300–500 hours studying philosophically-based techniques for hands-on manipulation of the human musculoskeletal system. These techniques, known as osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM),[1] have been criticized as "pseudoscientific".[15][16]

History[edit]

The practice of osteopathy began in the United States in 1874. The term "osteopathy" was coined by physician and surgeon[17][18] Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO.. Still named his new school of medicine "osteopathy," reasoning that "the bone, osteon, was the starting point from which [he] was to ascertain the cause of pathological conditions."[19] Still founded the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University of the Health Sciences) in Kirksville, Missouri, for the teaching of osteopathy on 10 May 1892. While the state of Missouri granted the right to award the MD degree,[20] he remained dissatisfied with the limitations of conventional medicine and instead chose to retain the distinction of the DO degree.[21] In 1898 the American Institute of Osteopathy started the Journal of Osteopathy and by that time four states recognized the profession.[22]

The osteopathic profession has evolved into two branches, non-physician manual medicine osteopaths and full scope of medical practice osteopathic physicians holding the D.O. degree which have attained the same rights, privileges, and responsibilities as physicians with a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.[1] These groups are so distinct that in practice they function as separate professions.

As originally conceived by Andrew Still, the letters "DO" stood for "Diplomate in Osteopathy" and the title conferred by the degree was "Doctor of Osteopathy".[23] Subsequently the degree also came to be entitled "Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine",[24] and in more recent times the AOA has preferred that this title be used exclusively,[25] resolving in a 1960 conference:

Be it resolved, that the American Osteopathic Association institute a policy, both officially in our publications and individually on a conversational basis, to use the terms osteopathic medicine in place of the word osteopathy and osteopathic physician and surgeon in place of osteopath; the words osteopathy and osteopath being reserved for historical, sentimental, and informal discussions only.[26]

Nevertheless, some DOs continue to use the old terms and the American Academy of Osteopathy retains the old usage in its name.[27]

Demographics[edit]

In 2013, there were 87,300 osteopathic physicians in the United States, of which 73,074 were in active practice.[3] The proportion of females in the profession has steadily increased since the 1980s.[28] In 1985, about 10 percent of D.O. physicians were female, compared with 34.6 percent in 2013.[3] Between 2008 and 2012, 49 percent of new D.O. graduates were females.[28]

During the 2011-12 academic year, the osteopathic medical student body consisted of: 69 percent white/non-hispanic, 19 percent Asian or Pacific Islander, 3.5 percent hispanic, 3 percent African American, and 0.5 percent Native American or Alaskan.[28] The remainder were listed as "other or not entered."

Education, training and distinctiveness[edit]

Osteopathic medical school curricula are virtually identical to those at schools granting the M.D. degree (Doctor of Medicine). Once admitted to an osteopathic medical school, it takes four years to graduate, and the schooling is divided into the pre-clinical and clinical years. The pre-clinical years, the first and second years, focus on the biomedical and clinical sciences. The clinical years, the third and fourth years, consist of core clinical training and sub-internships in the clinical specialties. Osteopathic medical school accreditation standards require training in internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, family practice, surgery, psychiatry, emergency medicine, radiology, preventive medicine and public health.[29] According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, "the training, practice, credentialing, licensure, and reimbursement of osteopathic physicians is virtually indistinguishable from those of physicians with M.D. qualifications, with 4 years of osteopathic medical school followed by specialty and subspecialty training and board certification."[9] However, D.O. schools provide an additional 300 – 500 hours in the study of hands-on manual medicine and the body's musculoskeletal system, which is referred to as osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM).[1] The D.O. physician Bryan E. Bledsoe, a professor of emergency medicine, has written disparagingly of this element of D.O. training. He characterized its foundations as pseudoscientific and asked "why members of the osteopathic medical profession continue to teach an outdated and ineffective system of healthcare to undergraduate osteopathic medical students"?[15]

After completing medical school, D.O. physicians begin graduate medical training. Many D.O. physicians attend the same internship and residency training programs as their M.D. counterparts,[10] and then take M.D. specialty board exams[30] while other D.O. graduates enter osteopathic internships and residencies[12][13] and take D.O. specialty board examinations.[14]

In 2003 Quackwatch published an article which stated that "although most DOs offer competent care, the percentage involved in dubious practices appears to be higher than that of [MDs]"; in particular, Quackwatch characterized some types of cranial therapy as "dubious".[31] In 2010, Steven Salzberg wrote that although he considered some D.Os. to be very good doctors, osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) was promoted as "the element that makes DOs 'special'" and that it amounted to no more than "'extra' training in pseudoscientific practices".[16]

Examinations[edit]

To be considered for entry into a D.O. program, an applicant must complete a national standardized exam called the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT). Some authors note the differences in the average MCAT scores and grade point average of students who matriculate at D.O. schools versus those who matriculate at M.D. schools within the United States. In 2011, the average MCAT and GPA for students entering U.S.-based M.D. programs were 31.1 and 3.67, respectively,[32] and 27.1 and 3.51 for D.O. matriculants,[33] although the gap has been getting smaller every year.[33] DO medical schools are more likely to accept non-traditional students[34][35] who are older and entering medicine as a second career, or coming from non-science majors.

D.O. medical students are required to take the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensure Examination (COMLEX-USA), which is sponsored by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME). The COMLEX-USA is series of three osteopathic medical licensing examinations. The first two steps of the COMLEX-USA are taken during medical school, and are prerequisites for osteopathic residency programs, which are available in almost every specialty of medicine and surgery. The step 3 portion of the COMLEX is taken during residency.

In addition to the COMLEX-USA, D.O. medical students may choose to sit for the M.D. board examinations, which are called the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE).[36] This is typically done if the student desires to enter an M.D. residency. However, this is not always required, as some M.D. residency programs do not require the USMLE from D.O. applicants.[37][38][39][40] USMLE pass rates for D.O. and M.D. students in 2012 are as follows: Step 1: 91% and 94%, Step 2 CK: 96% and 97%, and Step 2 CS: 87% and 97%, respectively (this number may be misleading as only 46 D.O. students compared to 17,118 M.D. students were evaluated for Step 2 CS) Step 3: 100% and 95% (this number may be misleading, as only 16 D.O. students compared to 19,056 M.D. students, were evaluated for Step 3).[41]

Licensing and board certification[edit]

To obtain a license to practice medicine in the United States, medical students must pass the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX),[42] which is the exam given by the licensing board at the conclusion of their medical training. Students are given the option of taking the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to apply for some Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) residency programs. Those that have received or are in the process of earning an M.D. or D.O. are both eligible to sit for the USMLE. Because of their additional training, only holders of the D.O. are eligible to sit for the COMLEX.[43]

Upon completion of internship and residency requirements for their chosen medical specialty, and depending on whether the program attended as ACGME or AOA accredited, holders of the D.O. may elect to be board certified by either a specialty board (through the American Medical Association's American Board of Medical Specialties) or an osteopathic specialty board (through the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists certifying boards). In February 2014, the American Osteopathic Association and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education agreed to unify allopathic and osteopathic Graduate medical education starting in 2020.[44]

Depending on the state, medical licensure may be issued from a combined board (D.O. and M.D.) or a separate board of medical examiners.[45] All of the 70 state medical boards are members of the Federation of State Medical Boards.[46]

International variations[edit]

Currently, there are no osteopathic programs located outside of the United States that would qualify an individual to practice as an osteopathic physician in the United States.[47] Foreign osteopathic degrees are not recognized by any state in the U.S. as being equivalent to American D.O. degrees.

International practice rights[edit]

The following is an International Licensure Summary for U.S.-trained Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine, as listed by the American Osteopathic Association:[48][49]

CountryYear of Latest PolicyMedical Practice RightsRequirements for Licensure
Argentina2006UnlimitedForeign physicians must submit credentials to various agencies and then appear before any of the National Universities in order to have their diploma recognized.
Australia2013UnlimitedAccording to documents published online, the Medical Board of Australia has “agreed to accept the DO USA as a primary medical qualification for the purposes of medical registration provided that the DO USA was awarded by a medical school which has been accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation.”"[50]
Austria2009UnlimitedHospital must have position unable to be filled by Austrian physician.
Bahamas2004UnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Bahrain2010UnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Barbados1995LimitedOMM only.
Bermuda1997UnlimitedRequired at least 2 years of GME and examination or interview by the Council’s Examination Committee. Non-Bermudans must have approval from the Ministry of Labour & Home Affairs to work on the island.
Brazil2007UnlimitedCompletion of Brazilian board exam, establishing residency & some training in Brazilian hospital is required.
CanadaAlbertaUnlimitedRequires at least 2 years of GME accredited by the ACGME or AOA and must have passed the Universities Coordinating Council Exam, a basic sciences exam, and have passed all three parts of the LMCC.
British ColumbiaUnlimitedRequires at least 1 year of GME approved by the AOA or the ACGME, completed at least 1 year of GME in Canada, passed all three parts of the LMCC.
ManitobaUnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
New BrunswickUnlimitedRequires at least 2 years of GME approved by the AOA or the ACGME and have passed all 3 parts of the LMCC. Reciprocity pathway for D.O. physicians with a Maine license.
NewfoundlandUnlimitedThe Medical Act 2011 allows full licensure of osteopathic physicians, both for the country’s full registry & its educational registry.
NW TerritoriesUnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Nova ScotiaUnlimitedRequires a Canadian or ACGME residency.
OntarioUnlimitedRequires a Canadian or ACGME residency.
Prince Edward IslandUnlimited
QuebecUnlimitedRequires 1 year of GME approved by the AOA or ACGME, 1 year of GME in Quebec passed the written, oral and clinical board examination of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and must speak French fluently.
SaskatchewanUnlimited
Yukon TerritoryUnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Cayman Islands (UK)1983UnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Central African Republic1990UnlimitedU.S. licensure and annual attendance at the National Congress for Physicians.
Chile1993UnlimitedA written exam in Spanish is required, besides a series of practical tests involving common procedures (CPR, intubation, lumbar puncture, etc.).
China2009UnlimitedU.S.-D.O. physicians are permitted to apply for "Short Term Medical Practice."
Colombia1996UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians.
Costa Rica1993UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians.
Dominican Republic2000UnlimitedU.S. license & board certification recognized.
Ecuador1990UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians. Reciprocity exists with most Latin American countries.
Finland1996UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians.
France2009LimitedOMM only. French government does not recognize full scope of practice osteopathic medicine.
The Gambia2011Unlimited
Germany2008UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians. Depends on need. Decisions made on individual basis.
Greece2009UnlimitedGreek citizenship required, unless in rare instances, there exists a crucial need for certain types of specialist physicians. Further, a work permit must be obtained, a difficult task, and speaking Greek is an unwritten requirement. These are the same requirements as other foreign physicians.
Grenada2007UnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Guyana1996UnlimitedCase-by case basis.
Honduras2009UnlimitedNational Autonomous University must accredit all foreign titles. After accreditation is completed, the applicant must seek registration with the Medical College of Honduras (MCH).
Hong Kong1998UnlimitedWritten examination. Personal interview. Training approval.
Indonesia1992Unlimited & RestrictedForeign physicians affiliated with a university project or a mission have unlimited practice rights. No private practice allowed.
Iran2009UnlimitedIranian citizens who have received both the DO degree from a US osteopathic school and are board certified in a clinical specialty. Osteopathic degrees from other countries are not accepted. The process of evaluation of the medical education and clincial training is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME).
Israel2007UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians. Hebrew required.
Italy2009UnlimitedPhysicians are discouraged from seeking employment in Italy without firm contracts and work permits. If there is a U.S. state law outlining reciprocity with Italy, a statement to this effect from the Italian Consulate will warrant better chances.
Jamaica1994Limited & RestrictedD.O. physicians were permitted to supply some services while participating in a specific mission project.
Kenya2007Unlimited
Lebanon2004UnlimitedAOA letter required. Examination required.
Lesotho1990sUnlimitedApplicants must appear before the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Council to answer some medical questions and present their credentials. The Council will also make a recommendation about where the applicant’s skills would be most helpful in the country.
Liberia1990sUnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians.
Luxembourg1987UnlimitedThe practice of medicine in Luxembourg by a doctor who is not an EU national is very rare.
Malta2010UnlimitedAccepted on a case by case basis, if training meets the minimum educational requirements for physicians in the EU (Article 24 of Directive 2005/36/EC). Examination required.
Malawi1991Unlimited
Mexico2011Unlimited & RestrictedHealth Secretary Quijano of the Yucatán State of Mexico signed a Proclamation recognizing U.S.-trained osteopathic physicians in that state; D.O. physicians can now obtain short-term & long-term licensure through the Health Secretary’s office. All other Mexican states require work permits - only available in conjunction with the association of a short-term medical mission project.
Micronesia1993UnlimitedStatutes specifically include DOs
Nepal2008UnlimitedApproval by the Nepal Medical Council & a visa from the Immigration Department.
Netherlands2009UnlimitedSame requirements as other foreign physicians.
New Zealand2008UnlimitedHearing required. Case-by-case basis.
Nigeria2010UnlimitedU.S. Licensure and completion of specialty training required.
Norway2009LimitedOMM only, but DOs may apply for recognition as medical doctors.[51]
Pakistan2011UnlimitedU.S. osteopathic medical schools meet the Medical and Dental Council’s statutory regulations for international medical graduates. Scope is unlimited, but practice setting may be restricted
Panama2009UnlimitedPanamanian citizenship required.
Papua New Guinea2010UnlimitedWork permit required. Short-term or a long-term volunteer service license also available.
Poland2009UnlimitedExamination & Polish required.
Russia2006UnlimitedForeign physicians make arrangements to practice through Russian sponsors, such as hospitals or businesses.
Saint Lucia2000UnlimitedU.S. credentials recognized.
Saudi Arabia2009UnlimitedForeign physician must be recruited by a government agency, a corporation or a private health care entity, such as a hospital.
Sierra Leone1993UnlimitedNotarized U.S. credentials.
South Africa2009LimitedOMM only
Sweden2005UnlimitedU.S. license recognized.
Taiwan2008UnlimitedThe ROC government recognizes U.S. D.O. degree. Applicants must take Taiwan Examination Yuan to obtain Taiwanese license.
Tanzania1985UnlimitedU.S. license & GME recognized. Temporary work permits are available
Uganda2008Unlimited
United Arab Emirates2009UnlimitedExamination required.
United Kingdom2005UnlimitedU.S.-trained D.O. physicians are eligible for full medical practice rights. Applicants must pass the PLAB examination and work for one year in the National Health Service. Following that year, the applicants will be able to apply for a license to practice privately. For GMC registration as a specialist, postgraduate training will need to be separately recognized by the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB). GOsC registration is also required.
Venezuela2007UnlimitedRecognized legal status under the "law of the practice of medical."
Vietnam1995UnlimitedForeign physicians can fill vacancies in hospitals that are in need of certain specialists.
Zambia2009UnlimitedU.S. licensure required.
Zimbabwe2009LimitedOMM only.
Table data from AOA International Licensure Summary (updated April 2013).[49]
OMM:Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d MedLine Plus (2007). "Doctor of Osteopathic medicine (D.O.)". National Institute of Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  2. ^ "DOs Around the World". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Osteopathic Medical Profession Report 2013". American Osteopathic Association. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine". AACOM. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  5. ^ Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs, Liaison Committee on Medical Education
  6. ^ "AAMC Medical Schools". Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  7. ^ Ricardo Lopez (April 6, 2012). "Booming medical school brings life to downtown Pomona". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 15, 2012. 
  8. ^ "What is Osteopathic Medicine". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. Retrieved May 15, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d Kasper, Dennis L.; Eugene Braunwald; Anthony S. Fauci; Stephen L. Hauser; Dan L. Longo; J. Larry Jameson; Kurt J. Isselbacher (2004). Chapter 10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Harrison's principles of internal medicine (16th ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0071391405. 
  10. ^ a b "Graduate Medical Education Data Resource Book: 2011-12". Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. pp. 5, 6, 59, 60. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "Roadmap to Residency: From Application to the Match and Beyond". Association of American Medical Colleges. 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b "AOA Approved Internships and Residencies". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  13. ^ a b "Opportunities, Directory of Osteopathic Postdoctoral Education Programs, Supplemental OPTI Affiliation List". The DO. October 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "AOA Specialty Certifying Boards". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Bryan E. Bledsoe (2004). "The Elephant in the Room: Does OMT Have Proved Benefit? (Letter to the editor)". J Am Osteopath Assoc 104 (10): 407. 
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^ "''Medical Registration for Macon County, MO as of March 27, 1874,'' Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  18. ^ "Medical registration for Adair County, MO dated 28 July 1883". Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri. 
  19. ^ "Early American Manual Therapy". 
  20. ^ "Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation". State of New Jersey. 
  21. ^ "Osteopathic Virtual Museum". Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "General Notices". Popular science monthly: 710. Mar 1898. Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  23. ^ Emmons Rutledge Booth (2006). History of Osteopathy. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-936679-04-5. 
  24. ^ Eileen L. DiGiovanna; Stanley Schiowitz; Dennis J. Dowling (2005). An Osteopathic Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-4293-1. 
  25. ^ "Terminology for Reporting on Osteopathic Medicine". Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  26. ^ Allen, TW (1993). "'Osteopathic physician' defines our identity". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 93 (9): 884. PMID 8244784. 
  27. ^ Allen, TW (2010). "Osteopathic medical terminology--redux". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 110 (12): 743–4. PMID 21178160. 
  28. ^ a b c "Osteopathic Medical Profession Report 2012". American Osteopathic Association. 
  29. ^ "Overview of Osteopathic Medical Education/Accreditation/The Four-Year Curriculum (2012 Osteopathic Medical College Information Book)". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012. 
  30. ^ "Roadmap to Residency: From Application to the Match and Beyond". Association of American Medical Colleges. 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Dubious Aspects of Osteopathy". Quackwatch. August 2003. Retrieved September 2013. 
  32. ^ "Table 17: MCAT Scores and GPAs for Applicants and Matriculants to U.S. Medical Schools". Association of American Medical Colleges. 2000–2011. 
  33. ^ a b "AACOMAS Matriculant Profile 2011 Entering Class". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  34. ^ "Osteopathic Medical College Information Book". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012. 
  35. ^ Madison Park (June 13, 2011). "Never too late to be a doctor". CNN News. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  36. ^ "United States Medical Licensing Examination | USMLE Bulletin | Eligibility". Usmle.org. Retrieved 2012-02-22. 
  37. ^ Sarko, John; Svoren, Elena; Katz, Eric (February 2010). "COMLEX-1 and USMLE-1 Are Not Interchangeable Examinations". Academic Emergency Medicine 17 (2): 218–220. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00632.x. PMID 20070273. 
  38. ^ Chick, Davoren A.; Harley P. Friedman; Vincent B. Young; David Solomon (22 January 2010). "Relationship Between COMLEX and USMLE Scores Among Osteopathic Medical Students who Take Both Examinations". Teaching and Learning in Medicine 22 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1080/10401330903445422. PMID 20391276. 
  39. ^ "Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Residency Program Director’s Manual". Association of Academic Physiatrists. Retrieved May 2011. 
  40. ^ "Program Directors FAQ". NBOME. Retrieved 2012-02-22. 
  41. ^ "2012 Annual Report". National Board of Medical Examiners. 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  42. ^ "Board Examinations and Licensure". Medical College Information Book, 2012 edition. AACOM. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  43. ^ "COMLEX-USA: Bulletin of Information". National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  44. ^ "Allopathic and Osteopathic Medical Communities Commit to a Single Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System". Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  45. ^ "Directory of State Medical and Osteopathic Boards". Federation of State Medical Boards. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  46. ^ "Federation of State Medical Boards". Federation of State Medical Boards. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  47. ^ "The Difference Between U.S.-Trained Osteopathic Physicians and Osteopaths Trained Abroad". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  48. ^ Frequently Asked Questions regarding International Licensure, Council on International Osteopathic Medical Education & Affairs, American Osteopathic Association. Contact information listed.
  49. ^ a b "AOA International Licensure Summary". American Osteopathic Association. April 2013. 
  50. ^ "FAQ and Fact Sheets". AHPRA. Medical Board of Australia. 
  51. ^ "Norway: Osteopathic Medicine". Osteopathic International Alliance. 

External links[edit]