Autonomous cruise control system

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Schematic of Intelligent Cruise Control. The red car automatically follows the blue car.

Autonomous cruise control (also called adaptive or radar cruise control) is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. It makes no use of satellite or roadside infrastructures nor of any cooperative support from other vehicles. Hence control is imposed based on sensor information from on-board sensors only. The extension to cooperative cruise control requires either fixed infrastructure as with satellites, roadside beacons or mobile infrastructures as reflectors or transmitters on the back of other vehicles ahead.[citation needed]

Such systems go under many different trade names according to the manufacturer. These systems use either a radar or laser sensor setup allowing the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle ahead and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows - example video. ACC technology is widely regarded as a key component of any future generations of intelligent cars. The impact is equally on driver safety as on economising capacity of roads by adjusting the distance between vehicles according to the conditions.


The Jeep adaptive cruise control radar sensor located in the center of the lower grill

Laser-based systems and radar-based systems compete in quality and price.

Laser-based ACC systems do not detect and track vehicles in adverse weather conditions nor do they reliably track extremely dirty (non-reflective) vehicles. Laser-based sensors must be exposed, the sensor (a fairly large black box) is typically found in the lower grille offset to one side of the vehicle.

Radar-based sensors can be hidden behind plastic fascias; however, the fascias may look different from a vehicle without the feature. For example, Mercedes packages the radar behind the upper grille in the center, and behind a solid plastic panel that has painted slats to simulate to the look of the rest of the grille.

Single radar systems are the most common. Systems involving multiple sensors use either two similar hardware sensors like the 2010 Audi A8[1] or the 2010 Volkswagen Touareg,[2] or one central long range radar coupled with two short radar sensors placed on the corners of the vehicle like the BMW 5 and 6 series.[3]

Assisting systems[edit]

Radar-based ACC often feature a precrash system, which warns the driver and/or provides brake support if there is a high risk of a collision. Also in certain cars it is incorporated with a lane maintaining system which provides power steering assist to reduce steering input burden in corners when the cruise control system is activated.

Multi-sensor systems[edit]

GPS-aided ACC: the GPS navigation system provides guidance input to the ACC. On the motorway, the car in the front is slowing down, but with turn signal on and it is actually heading for a highway off-ramp. A conventional ACC would sense the car in front was decelerating and it would simply apply brakes accordingly. But with GPS-guided ACC takes into account the approaching highway exit and it simultaneously receives images from a camera attached e.g. behind the front pane to the rearview mirror. The camera may detect the turn signal from the car ahead. So instead of braking, this new system continues uninterrupted, because it knows that the car in front will exit the lane.[4]

Cooperative systems[edit]

The next generation, also known as the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, will include information served from a vehicle ahead in the same lane. Such dependant approach however requires standardization across manufacturers and model generations. There is no vision when such agreement could come into practice. All designs without such cooperative support will operate with comparably lower dynamic, but promise better reliability and independent operation.

The cooperative approach is the better advances concept to improve road capacity. Therefore reach of detection must exceed the capabilities of on-board laser or radar. A wireless communication between vehicles in a queue may not serve for braking, but surely for adjusting speed to avoid longitudinal oscillations.

Available systems[edit]

Mitsubishi was the first automaker to offer a laser-based ACC system in 1995 on the Japanese Mitsubishi Diamante. Marketed as "Preview Distance Control", this early system did not apply the brakes and only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting.[5][6][not in citation given]

In August 1997, Toyota began to offer a "radar cruise control" system on the Celsior.[7][8] Toyota further refined their system by adding "brake control" in 2000 and "low-speed tracking mode" in 2004. The low-speed speed tracking mode was a second mode that would warn the driver if the car ahead stopped and provide braking; it could stop the car but then deactivated.[9] In 2006 Toyota introduced its "all-speed tracking function" for the Lexus LS 460. This system maintains continuous control from speeds of 0 km/h to 100 km/h and is designed to work under repeated starting and stopping situations such as highway traffic congestion.[10] The Lexus division was the first to bring adaptive cruise control to the US market in 2000 with the LS 430's Dynamic Laser Cruise Control system.[11]

Mercedes introduced Distronic in late 1998 on the S-class.[12] For 2006, Mercedes-Benz refined the Distronic system to completely halt the car if necessary (now called "Distronic Plus" and offered on their E-Class and S-Class range of luxury sedans), a feature now also offered by Bosch as "ACC plus" and available in the Audi Q7, the Audi Q5, 2009 Audi A6 and the new 2010 Audi A8. The Audi A4 is available with an older version of the ACC that does not stop the car completely. In an episode of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson[citation needed] demonstrated the effectiveness of the cruise control system in the S-class by coming to a complete halt from motorway speeds to a round-about and getting out, without touching the pedals.

Jaguar began offering a system in 1999; BMW's Active Cruise Control system went on sale in 2000 on the 7-series and later in 2007, added a system called Stop-and-Go system to the 5-series.[13] Volkswagen and Audi introduced their own systems in 2002[citation needed] through the radar manufacturer Autocruise.

In the United States, Acura first introduced Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) integrated with a Collision Mitigation Braking System (CMBS) in the late calendar year 2005 in the model year 2006 Acura RL as an optional feature.[14] ACC and CMBS also became available as optional features in the model year the 2010 Acura MDX[15][not in citation given] Mid Model Change (MMC) and the newly introduced model year 2010 Acura ZDX.[16]

Vehicles models supporting adaptive cruise control[edit]

Vehicles with full speed range adaptive cruise control are able to bring the car to a full stop, and resume from standstill. Partial cruise control cuts off below a set minimum speed, requiring driver intervention.

MakeFull speed range ACCPartial cruise control
AftermarketAny Vehicle 1990+ [17]Uses OpenCV, Wikispeedia, no braking.

Motor Authority Review [18]

BMW2007 5-series, 2011+ X5[19] excl Diesel, 2013 3-series, i3Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go2000 7, 5, 6, 3(only as an option together with big engines, Stop & Go Variant available on 3, 5, 6 and 7 models) (Active Cruise Control)
Mercedes-Benz2006 S, B, E, CLS, CL (2009+); A, CLA, M, G, GL (2013+)Distronic Plus1998 S, E, CLS, SL, CL, M, GL, CLK, 2012 CDistronic
VolkswagenPassat, Touareg (2011+) Golf (2013+) Polo(2014+)not in USPassat, Phaeton all generations, Touareg
AudiA8, A7, A6 (2011+); Q7 (2007+),A3 (2013+),Q5 (2013+), A3 (2015+ Prestige trim)Adaptive Cruise Control with Stop & GoA3, A4 (see a demonstration on YouTube), A5, Q5, A6, A8 (also uses data from navigation and front camera sensors),[20] Q7
BentleyContinental GT (2009+)Follow-to-Stop option
PorschePanamera (2010+); Cayenne (2011+), Cayman (2013+), Boxster(2012+)Porsche Active Safe (PAS), PDK transmission only.
Vauxhall / OpelInsignia, Zafira Tourer (on selected variants of SE, SRi, Elite, VXR), Astra
Jaguar1999 XK-R, S-Type, XJ, XF
Land RoverRange Rover (2013+)Range Rover Sport
VolvoV40, S60,[21] S80, XC60, XC70[22]Also includes full power automatic braking under 20 mph
CadillacXTS, ATS, SRX (2013+), Escalade (2015+ Premium trim)Also includes full power automatic braking under 20 mph2004 XLR, 2005 STS, 2006 DTS (shuts off below 25 mph)
ChevroletImpala (2014+)Availability: Early Spring 2013
Chrysler200c (2015+)Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go.[23]2007 300Claser, for a limited time, now uses a Bosch radar-based system
Dodge2011 Charger, 2013 Durangoradar, by Bosch
JeepCherokee (Limited and TrailHawk Models), Grand Cherokee Stop & Go2011 Grand Cherokee, Grand Cherokee (2014+) - 20+ mph (Option on Limited & Overland, standard on Summit)[24]radar, by Bosch
FordDoes not work or brake under 20 mph; Most are available on models outside of the United States.2011 Explorer, Taurus, 2006 Mondeo, 2013 Focus, 2013 Kuga, 2013 Fusion, S-Max, Galaxy, 2010 Taurus, 2011 Edge, Focusradar[25]
Lincoln2009 MKS, 2011 Lincoln MKT, 2010 MKT, 2011 MKX
Honda2003 Inspire, 2005 Legend, 2013 Accord (USA), 2007 CR-V series III, 2015 Honda CRV [26]Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Mitigating Braking System; for 2015 CRV, Honda Sensing [27]
Mazda2014 Mazda6, Mazda3Radar Cruise Control and Forward Obstruction Warning[28]
Acura2014 RLX, 2014 MDX2005 RL, MDX, ZDX
Nissan1998 Cima, Primera T-Spec ModelsIntelligent Cruise Control
InfinitiEX (2010+)older, laser based system2006 EX, M, Q45, QX56, G35, FX35/45/50, G37shuts off below 3 mph, EX: in North America as an option, shuts off below 40 km/h
Toyota1997 Celsior, 2009 Sienna (XLE Limited Edition), Avalon, Sequoia (Platinum Edition), Avensis, 2009 Corolla (Japan),[22] 2010 PriusDynamic Laser Cruise Control (DLCC) on 2009+ Sienna XLE Limited, Avalon Limited and Sequoia Platinum shuts off below 25 mph (US)[29]
Lexus2006 LS 460, 2013 GS hybridDynamic Radar Cruise Control
LS 460 full ACC not available in US
2000 LS430/460 (laser and radar), RX (laser and radar), GS, IS, ES 350, and LX 570 (shuts off below 30 mph)
SubaruLegacy, Outback (2013+) Forester (2014)EyeSight[30][31] Non-Radar Camera System
HyundaiEquus (2012+), Genesis (2015+), Sonata (2015+)Edmunds review[32]Genesis (2012+)Edmunds review[33]
SeatLeón (2012+)
SkodaOctavia (2013+), Fabia (2014+)
KiaCadenza (2014+)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bloch, Alexander (2010-01-18). "Die Technik-Highlights des neuen Audi A8" (in German). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  2. ^ Bloch, Alexander (2011-02-09). "Assistenzsysteme im Test: Sechs Modelle im Sicherheitsvergleich" (in German). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  3. ^ Bloch, Alexander (2010-01-08). "Abstandsregeltempomaten im Test: Mittelklasse-Autos" (in German). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  4. ^ "A8 Integrated Technology". Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  5. ^ "Preview Distance Control". November 2000. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  6. ^ "Press Release | Mitsubishi Motors Corporation". Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  7. ^ Treece, James B. (1997-08-04). "Toyota offers radar on Japan's Celsior. (automobile) - Automotive News". (High Beam). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  8. ^ Hara, Mike (2004). "Safety first: VDIM puts Toyota at the head of the safety technology pack in Japan". Automotive Industries. 
  9. ^ "Intelligent Vehicle Source ( - Low Speed ACC Finally Hits the Market". Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ (2000-09-29). "Finally! Adaptive Cruise Control Arrives in the USA". Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  12. ^ "A brief flash-back on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class history". May 19, 2013. 
  13. ^ Interone Worldwide GmbH (2008-06-17). "Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go function on the BMW 5 Series Sedan". Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  14. ^ "2006 Acura RL – Safety" (Press release). 2005-08-17. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  15. ^ "Acura Media Newsroom – MDX – Releases". Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  16. ^ "New 2010 Acura ZDX Four-Door Sports Coupe Delivers Style, Performance, Luxury and Refinement" (Press release). 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  17. ^ "SPEED LIMIT AWARE CRUISE-CTRL". Retrieved 2014-10-31. 
  18. ^ "An Android App For Cruise Control" Accessed 3 November 2011.
  19. ^ "BMW USA News." Accessed 6 September 2013.
  20. ^ "The new Audi A8". Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  21. ^ "Volvo S60 Adaptive Cruise Control". Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  22. ^ a b "Toyota Introduces New 10th-Generation Corolla in Japan". Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  23. ^ "Chrysler - Build & Price" Accessed 9 September 2014.
  24. ^ "2014 Jeep Grand Cherokee Owners Manual". Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  25. ^ "Ford Media Release:Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support". Retrieved July 2012. 
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ "09 Dynamic Laser Cruise Control Release - Toyota" Accessed 7 September 2013.
  30. ^ "2013 Subaru Legacy and Outback". Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  31. ^ "Eyesight Technology". 
  32. ^ "2012 Hyundai Equus Sedan". Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  33. ^ "2012 Hyundai Genesis". Retrieved 2013-12-27. 

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