Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation

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The Morrison Formation is a distinctive sequence of Late Jurassic sedimentary rock that is found in the western United States, which has been the most fertile source of dinosaur fossils in North America. It is composed of mudstone, sandstone, siltstone and limestone and is light grey, greenish gray, or red. Most of the fossils occur in the green siltstone beds and lower sandstones, relics of the rivers and floodplains of the Jurassic period.

Contents

Ornithischians

The herbivorous ornithischian dinosaurs were diverse but not as common as sauropods in the Morrison. Unclassified members include the "Fruita Echinodon", a possible heterodontosaurid, and the dubious Tichosteus lucasanus and T. aequifacies. Plate-backed stegosaurids included Hesperosaurus mjosi, Hypsirophus discursus, Stegosaurus armatus (?including S. ungulatus), S. stenops, and "S." longispinus. Armored dinosaurs that weren't stegosaurs were unknown in the formation until the 1990s. Two have been named: Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum and Mymoorapelta maysi. Ornithopods, bipedal herbivores, came in several types. Small "hypsilophodonts" included Drinker nisti, Laosaurus celer, "L." gracilis, Nanosaurus agilis, Othnielia rex, and Othnielosaurus consors. Larger but similar-looking dryosaurids were represented by Dryosaurus altus and the camptosaurid Camptosaurus aphanoecetes, which is currently known only from Dinosaur National Monument. Still larger was the more common Camptosaurus dispar, probably including Brachyrophus altarkansanus and Symphyrophus musculosus. Dryosaurids and camptosaurids were early iguanodonts, a group that would later spawn the duck-billed dinosaurs.

Ornithopods

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.
GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Anomoepus

Morrison Anomoepus lack the handprint impressions found associated with earlier instances of the ichnogenus in New England.[1]


Camptonotus

C. dispar

The original name for Camptosaurus, which was preoccupied by a cricket.

Camptosaurus[2]

C. amplus[3]

A species named for a large foot found at Como Bluff.[3]

C. aphanoecetes[5]

  • Brushy Basin[5]

Reclassified as Uteodon.

C. browni[6]

Junior synonym of C. dispar.[6]

?C. depressus[3]

"Illia and vertebrae."[7]

The ?C. depressus remains may be from non-Morrison strata.[3]

C. dispar[8]

"[Twenty-five to thirty] disarticulated skull elements, some with associated postcrania, approximately [ten] partial, articulated skeletons, juvenile to adult."[7]

C. medius[3]

Junior synonym of C. dispar.[6] Lack of fusion in the neural arches of the type specimen's vertebrae indicate the specimens were from a juvenile.[3]

C. nanus[3]

Junior synonym of C. dispar.[6] Lack of fusion in the neural arches of the type specimen's vertebrae indicate the specimens were from a juvenile.[3]

Dinehichnus[1]

Multiple Dinehichnus trackways have been discovered. The tracks run parallel to one another, indicating that the trackmaker was at least somewhat of a social animal.[1]

Dinehichnus are attributed to dryosaurids. The tracks preserve feet characterized by widely splayed toes and that are rotated somewhat toward the midline of the trackmaker's body. Each track is accompanied by "distinct ... heel impressions".[1]

Drinker[2][11]

D. nisti[11]

"Partial skull and postcranial skeleton."[13]

A basal hypsilophodont about 2 m long,[citation needed] slightly smaller than Othnielosaurus.[11] It is distinguished from other Morrison Ornithopods by the complexity of its tooth denticles.[11]

Dryosaurus[2]

D. altus[8]

The remains of many individuals have been uncovered, with some sites containing hundreds of bones from Dryosaurus of multiple age groups.[14]

A large dryosaurid iguanodont up to 2.4 m (7.9 feet) long and 114 kg (251 lbs) in weight. It was physically similar to Othnielosaurus, although larger and with more derived teeth.[15]

"Laosaurus"

L. altus

Now known as Dryosaurus altus

L. celer

Considered dubious due to fragmentary remains.

L. consors

"L. gracilis"

Considered dubious due to fragmentary remains.

Nanosaurus

N. agilis

A small ornithopod, possibly a hypsilophodont

Othnielia[8]

O. rex[8]

"[Two] partial skeletons, postcranial elements, teeth."[17]

A small hypsilophodont 2 m in length.

Othnielosaurus[2]

O. consors

A basal hypsilophodont about 2 m long.

Preprismatoolithus[18]

P. coloradensis[18]

Eggshell present in great abundance at the so-called "Young Egg Locality" which seems to have been a dinosaur nesting ground.[18] Congeneric eggshell fossils are found at additional Colorado sites including the Fruita Paleontological Area, the Uravan Locality and Garden Park.[18]

P. coloradensis is described by John Foster as being "of the prismatic basic type,"[18] with subspherical eggs about 10cm (4 inches) in diameter.[19] This oospecies has been attributed to "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs, although a lack of associated embryo material currently makes confirming the egg-layer's identity impossible.[18]

Tichosteus

T. aequifacies

"Vertebrae."[20]

T. lucasanus

"Vertebra."[20]

Uteodon

U. aphanoecetes[5]

  • Brushy Basin[5]

Thyreophorans

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.
GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Anomoepus

Gargoyleosaurus[2]

G. parkpini

An early ankylosaur similar to Mymoorapelta in appearance and lifestyle, although differing in osteological details like the length of vertebral centra.[21]

G. parkpinorum[21]

"Skull [and] partial postcranium."[22]

Hesperosaurus[2]

H. mjosi[23]

"Complete skeleton with skull, subadult."[24]

Known only from a single specimen.[23]

A stegosaurid that was slightly smaller and more primitive than Stegosaurus itself. H. mjosi had a broader skull and longer, lower plates.

Hypsirhophus

H. discurus

"[Two] dorsal vertebrae, caudal neural arch fragment."[25]

Mymoorapelta[2]

M. maysi[9]

  • Brushy Basin

"Skull fragments, portions of [three] skeletons, [and] other postcrania."[26]

Both the first ankylosaur discovered in the formation and the first known North American Jurassic ankylosaur.[27] It probably weighed 500 kg (1,102 lbs) in life.[27]

Stegopodus[28]

Stegopodus represent only a portion of the Morrison's stegosaur tracks, which are already rare and generally only preserve the animal's hind feet.[28]

Stegosaur tracks which record front feet with five digits and hind feet with three weight-bearing digits.[28] The general morphology of the tracks fit scientific predictions made eight years in advance of the erection of Stegopodus.[28]

Stegosaurus[2]

S. affinis[8]

"Pubis."[25]

S. armatus[8]

"[Two] partial skeletons, [two] braincases, at least [thirty] fragmentary postcrania, adult."[25]

S. armatus is both the first Stegosaurus to be discovered and the type species.[29] Its type specimen is poorly preserved, incomplete, and has never been fully prepared.[29] Consequently it is not possible to tell which, if any, of the subsequently erected Stegosaurus species are synonymous with it, and it is likely one or more of them are.[29]

S. stenops[8]

"[Two] complete skeletons with skulls, [four] braincases, at least [fifty] partial postcrania, juvenile to adult."[25]

The best known Stegosaurus species, it has shorter limbs and larger plates than S. ungulatus.[30]

?S. longispinus[8]

"Fragmentary postcranial skeleton, adult."[25]

Physically similar to S. stenops but with much larger tail spines.[31] May or may not be a separate species.[31]

S. ungulatus[8]

S. ungulatus had longer limbs and comparatively smaller plates than the better known S. stenops.[32] Although formerly portrayed with eight tail spikes, it is now known to have had the typical four.[33] Possibly synonymous with S. armatus.[32]

Indeterminate.[34]

Misc

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.
GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Anomoepus

Echinodon[2]

Indeterminate.

Later determined to be a new, unique genus which was named Fruitadens in 2009.

Fruitadens[35]

F. haagarorum[35]

Sauropods

Sauropods, the giant long-necked long-tailed four-legged herbivorous dinosaurs, are among the most common and famous Morrison fossils. A few have uncertain relationships, like "Apatosaurus" minimus (possibly an early titanosaur) and Haplocanthosaurus. Sauropods including Haplocanthosaurus priscus, H. delfsi, and the diplodocids Dystrophaeus and Eobrontosaurus appeared in the early stages of the Morrison. The middle stages were dominated by familiar forms such as the Giraffe-like Brachiosaurus altithorax, which were uncommon, but related camarasaurids, like Camarasaurus supremus, C. grandis, C. lentus, and C. lewisi, were very common. Also common were long, low diplodocids, like Apatosaurus ajax, A. excelsus (formerly "Brontosaurus"), A. louisae, A. parvus, Atlantosaurus montanus, Barosaurus lentus, Diplodocus longus, D. carnegii, "D." hayi, "D." lacustris, Dyslocosaurus polyonychius.

By the late Morrison, gigantic diplodocids (or likely diplodocids) had appeared, including Diplodocus hallorum (formerly Seismosaurus), Supersaurus vivianae, Amphicoelias altus, and the largest of all, A. fragilimus. Smaller sauropods, such as Suuwassea emiliae from Montana, tend to be found in the northern reaches of the Morrison, near the shores of the ancient Sundance Sea, suggesting ecological niches favoring smaller body size there compared with the giants found further south.[37]

Diplodicoids

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.

"Pelvis [and] partial vertebral column."[38]D. hayi

GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Amphicoelias

A. altus[9]

"Partial skull and skeleton, dorsal vertebrae, pubis, femur."[38]

Large diplodocids about 25 m (82 ft) in length. A. fragillimus may have obtained a length of up to 60 m (190 ft) in length based on a single neural arch 1.5 m (5 ft) tall.

A. brontodiplodocus[39]

A. fragillimus

Atlantosaurus

A. montanus

Barosaurus[2]

B. lentus[8]

"[Five] partial skeletons without skulls [and] isolated limb elements."[41]

A diplodocid about 24 m (79 ft) in length, similar in appearance to Diplodocus.

Indeterminate.[9]

Diplodocus[2]

D. carnegii[8]

Known from two skulls, five partial skeletons that lack skulls and manus, and hundreds of isolated postcranial remains.[41]

Large diplodocids reaching lengths of up to 28 m (92 ft).

D. hallorum

Known from a partial skeleton and braincase.[41]

D. lacustris[9]

Known from a dentary with teeth.[41]

D. longus[8]

Known from two skulls and a series of tail vertebrae.[41]

Indeterminate.

Dystrophaeus[43]

Eobrontosaurus

E. yahnahpin

An apatosaurine diplodocid slightly more primitive than Apatosaurus.

Haplocanthosaurus[2]

H. delfsi[9]

Partial skeleton lacking a skull.[44]

Small haplocanthosaurs of indeterminate classification, ranging about 14 m (46 ft) long.

H. priscus[9]

Two skulless partial skeletons.[44]

Parabrontopodus

Seismosaurus[34]

S. halli[34]

"Pelvis [and] partial vertebral column."[38]

Titanosaurus[9]

T. montanus[9]

"Sacral centra."[45]

Apatosaurines

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.
GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Apatosaurus[2]

A. ajax[9]

Two partial skeletons and a braincase.[41]

Robust apatosaurine diplodocids reaching lengths of up to 25 m (82 ft).

A. excelsus[9]

Six partial skeletons lacking preserved skulls and hundreds of isolated postcranial elements.[41]

A. louisae[8]

Two mostly complete skeletons, but only one preserving a skull. An additional partial skeleton and isolated limb elements have been found.[41]

A. minimus

"Sacrum [and] pelvis."[46]

A. parvus

Indeterminate.[34]

Brontosaurus[9]

B. amplus[9]

Dystylosaurus[9]

D. edwini[9]

"Dorsal vertebra."[47]

Supersaurus[2][9]

S. vivianae[9]

Known from some neck vertebrae, shoulder elements, and ischium and some proximal tail vertebrae.[38]

A large diplodocid about 38 m (125 ft) in length.

Suuwassea[2]

S. emilieae

A small diplodocid about 15m in length.

Ultrasaurus

U. macintoshi[9]

Ultrasauros[9]

U. macintoshi[9]

Macronarians

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.
GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Brachiosaurus[2]

Brachiosaurus cf. altithorax[8]

"Partial skeletons from [two] individuals."[47]

A large brachiosaurid about 26 m (85 ft) long.

Brontopodus

Camarasaurus[2]

C. supremus[9]

"At least 5 partial skeletons including braincase and jaws."[44]

Camarasaurs reached an adult size of about 18 m (60 ft) in length.[49] A Camarasaurus pelvis from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry shows evidence of gouging that has been attributed to Allosaurus. A juvenile specimen was recovered from Dinosaur National Monument in Utah.[49]

C. lentus[8]

"5 skeletons with skulls, hundreds of postcranial elements"[44]

C. annae[8]

C. grandis[9]

"At least 6 partial skeletons including 2 skulls, hundreds of postcranial elements."[44]

C. lewisi[9]

"Nearly complete postcranial skeleton."[44]

Indeterminate.

Cathetosaurus

Junior synonym of Camarasaurus.

Morosaurus[9]

M. agilis[9]

"Partial skull and cervicals."[46]

Junior synonym of Camarasaurus.

Uintasaurus

Junior synonym of Camarasaurus.

Theropods

Theropod dinosaurs, the carnivorous dinosaurs, came in several different types. The less derived types, the ceratosaurs and megalosaurids, included Ceratosaurus nasicornis, C. dentisulcatus, C. magnicornis, Elaphrosaurus sp., and the megalosaur Torvosaurus tanneri (?including Edmarka rex). Allosaurids included the common Allosaurus fragilis (including Epanterias amplexus), A. new species, Antrodemus valens, and giant Saurophaganax maximus.

Indeterminate theropod remains have been recovered in Utah. Indeterminate theropod tracks have been recovered from both Utah and Arizona.[51]

Carnosaurs

Color key
TaxonReclassified taxonTaxon falsely reported as presentDubious taxon or junior synonymIchnotaxonOotaxonMorphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative data are in small text; crossed out data are discredited.
GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Allosaurus[2]

A. fragilis[8]

"At least [three] complete skulls, many partial skulls and skull elements, many partial and complete skeletons representing at least 60 individuals."[52]

Epanterias (maroon), record sized Allosaurus (red), average sized Allosaurus (brown), "Big Al" Allosaurus (gold).

"A. jimmadseni"

  • UT

Antrodemus

A. valens

Epanterias

E. amplexus

An allosaurid about 12.1 m (40 ft) in length, similar in appearance to Allosaurus.

Labrosaurus[9]

L. ferox[9]

L. lucaris

L. sulcatus

Laelaps

L. trihedrodon

  • CO

Although the type specimen included a partial dentary, all material except for a collection of five damaged partial tooth crowns (AMNH 5780) has been lost.

AMNH 5780 has many features in common with Allosaurus and is probably referrable to that genus. However some of the Allosaurus-like characters of the tooth are primitive to theropods as a whole and may have been present in the less studied or poorly preserved Morrison theropod species. Consequently the synonymization of L. trihedrodon with Allosaurus is tentative, despite its high likelihood.[53]

Saurophaganax[2][10]

S. maximus[10]

"Isolated cranial and postcranial elements."[52]

A large allosaurid reaching lengths of up to 12.5 m (41 ft). The largest carnivore known from the formation.

Ceratosaurs

GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Ceratosaurus[2]

C. dentisulcatus[8]

"Partial skull, vertebrae, [and] limb elements."[54]

Large ceratosaurs about 6 m (20 ft) in length with large nasal horns on their snouts as well as two smaller horns above the eyes.

C. magnicornis[9]

"Skull [and] assorted postcrania."[54]

C. nasicornis[9]

Remains of "5 individuals, including [a] nearly complete adult skeleton and subadult skeleton."[54]

Indeterminate.[4]

Elaphrosaurus[2]

Indeterminate.[9]

A medium-sized ceratosaur about 6 m (20 ft) in length.

Labrosaurus

L. sulcatus

"Tooth."[55]

Coelurosaurs

Coelurosaurs, more derived types more closely related to birds, included Coelurus fragilis, Ornitholestes hermanni, Tanycolagreus topwilsoni, the possible troodontid Koparion douglassi, and the definite troodontid WDC DML 001. There was also the possible early tyrannosaur relative Stokesosaurus clevelandi. Marshosaurus bicentesimus was a medium-sized theropod of uncertain classification that may have been related to the allosaurids.

GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Coelurus[2]

C. fragilis[8]

"Postcranial skeleton."[56]

A basal coelurosaurid about 2.3 m (7.5 ft) long.

C. gracilis

Indeterminate.[9]

Koparion[2]

K. douglassi[8]

A small theropod thought to be one of the oldest known Troodontids.

Palaeopteryx[9]

P. thomsoni[9]

Ornitholestes[2]

O. hermanni[8]

"Skull and associated postcranial skeleton."[56]

A small basal coelurosaurid about 2 m (6.5 ft) long.

Stokesosaurus[2]

S. clevelandi[8]

"Illium, associated elements and pelvic cranial material. [sic]"[57]

A possible early tyrannosauroid about 4 m (13 ft) in length.

Tanycolagreus[2]

T. topwilsoni

A basal coelurosaurid about 3.4 m (11.3 ft) long, similar in appearance to Coelurus.

Misc

GenusSpeciesStateMemberMaterialNotesImages

Edmarka[2]

E. rex[4]

A megalosaurid similar in appearance to Torvosaurus.

Marshosaurus[2]

M. bicentesimus[8]

Partial skeleton, including part of a skull.[58]

A medium-sized avetheropod about 6 m (20 ft) in length. Further classification is indeterminate.

Torvosaurus[2]

T. tanneri[8]

  • Brushy Basin

"Partial skeletons of at least [three] individuals."[59]

A large, robust megalosaurid reaching lengths of up to 11 m (35 ft). One of the largest carnivores of the formation.

Eggs

Dinosaur eggs have been found in Utah.[8]

Tracks

Ornithopods

Morrison ornithopod trace fossils are represented by three toed tracks which are generally small.[1] The toes of Morrison ornithopod tracks are usually more widely splayed than the theropod tracks preserved in the formation.[1]

Stegosaurs

Stegosaur tracks were first recognized in 1996 from a hindprint-only trackway discovered at the Clevland-Lloyd quarry, which is located near Price, Utah.[28] Two years later, a new ichnogenus called Stegopodus was erected for another set of stegosaur tracks which were found near Arches National Park, also in Utah.[28] Unlike the first, this trackway preserved traces of the forefeet. Fossil remains indicate that stegosaurs have five digits on the forefeet and three weight-bearing digits on the hind feet.[28] From this, scientists were able to successfully predict the appearance of stegosaur tracks in 1990, six years in advance of the first actual discovery of Morrison stegosaur tracks.[28] Since the erection of Stegopodus, more trackways have been found, however none have preserved traces of the front feet, and stegosaur traces remain rare.[28]

Theropods

Indeterminate theropod tracks have been recovered from both Utah and Arizona.[51]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Walk and Don't Look Back: The Footprints; Ornithopods" Foster (2007) pg. 238
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "Table 2.1: Fossil Vertebrates of the Morrison Formation" in Foster (2007) pp. 58-59.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Fleet-Footed Plant Eaters: The Ornithopod Dinosaurs; Camptosaurus dispar," Foster (2007) pg. 220
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Wyoming)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 545.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Systematic Paleontology: Camptosaurus aphanoecetes" in "A New Species of Camptosaurus..." Carpenter and Wilson (2008), page 232.
  6. ^ a b c d "Fleet-Footed Plant Eaters: The Ornithopod Dinosaurs; Camptosaurus dispar," Foster (2007) pp. 219-220
  7. ^ a b "Table 19.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 415.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Utah)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pp. 543-544.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Colorado)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Oklahoma)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Heading at end of Pg. 544, content starts at the beginning of pg. 545.
  11. ^ a b c d "Fleet-Footed Plant Eaters: The Ornithopod Dinosaurs; Drinker nisti," Foster (2007) pg. 219
  12. ^ Jurassic West Foster (2007) pg. 219 attributes most Drinker nisti specimens to Como Bluff, which is in Wyoming. See figure 1.2 on Jurassic West page 6.
  13. ^ "Table 18.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 394.
  14. ^ a b "Fleet-Footed Plant Eaters: The Ornithopod Dinosaurs; Dryosaurus altus," Foster (2007) pg. 218
  15. ^ a b "Fleet-Footed Plant Eaters: The Ornithopod Dinosaurs; Dryosaurus altus," Foster (2007) pp. 218-219
  16. ^ "Previous work on Dryosaurus" in "Dryosaurus, a hypsolophodontid dinosaur..." Galton (1981), page 272.
  17. ^ "Table 18.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 395.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Another Generation: The Eggs," Foster (2007) page 239.
  19. ^ "Eggs," Foster (2007) page 125.
  20. ^ a b "Table 19.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 417.
  21. ^ a b "Jurassic Knights: The Ankylosaur Dinosaurs; Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum," Foster (2007) pp. 216
  22. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 364.
  23. ^ a b "Roof Lizards: The Stegosaur Dinosaurs; Hesperosaurus mjosi," Foster (2007) page 213.
  24. ^ "Table 16.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 344.
  25. ^ a b c d e "Table 16.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 345.
  26. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 366.
  27. ^ a b "Jurassic Knights: The Ankylosaur Dinosaurs; Mymoorapelta maysi," Foster (2007) pp. 215-216
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Walk and Don't Look Back: The Footprints; Stegosaurs" Foster (2007) pg. 238
  29. ^ a b c "Roof Lizards: The Stegosaur Dinosaurs; Stegosaurus armatus," Foster (2007) page 212.
  30. ^ "Roof Lizards: The Stegosaur Dinosaurs; Stegosaurus stenops," Foster (2007) page 213.
  31. ^ a b "Roof Lizards: The Stegosaur Dinosaurs; Stegosaurus longispinus," Foster (2007) page 213.
  32. ^ a b "Roof Lizards: The Stegosaur Dinosaurs; Stegosaurus ungulatus," Foster (2007) pp. 212-213.
  33. ^ See Carpenter and Galton (2001).
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; New Mexico)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544.
  35. ^ a b See Butler et al. (2009)
  36. ^ a b "Systematic Paleontology; Horizon and locality" in Butler et al. (2009) p. 2
  37. ^ Harris, J.D. and Dodson, P. (2004). "A new diplodocoid sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Montana, USA." Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(2): 197–210.
  38. ^ a b c d "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 265.
  39. ^ a b Galiano, H. and Albersdorfer, R. (2010). "A new basal diplodocid species, Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus, from the Morrison Formation, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, with taxonomic reevaluation of Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, and other genera." Dinosauria International, LLC. 44pp.
  40. ^ a b c d "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; South Dakota)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 545.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 264.
  42. ^ a b "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Montana)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 545.
  43. ^ "Appendix" in Foster (2007) pp. 327-329.
  44. ^ a b c d e f "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 266.
  45. ^ "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 271.
  46. ^ a b "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 262.
  47. ^ a b "Table 13.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 267.
  48. ^ The New Mexico Camarasaurus supremus was listed as Camarasaurus cf. supremus in "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; New Mexico)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544. This means that although the remains were very similar to those of C. supremus, the identification is only tentative.
  49. ^ a b "Camarasaurus." In: Dodson et al. Page 56.
  50. ^ "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Texas)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544.
  51. ^ a b "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; 'Utah' and 'Arizona')." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544.
  52. ^ a b "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 75.
  53. ^ "Affinities of AMNH 5780," in Chure (2001). Pg. 17.
  54. ^ a b c "Table 3.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 49.
  55. ^ "Table 3.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 50.
  56. ^ a b "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 76.
  57. ^ "Table 5.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 112.
  58. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 77.
  59. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 72.

References