Dinosaur size

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Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public. This article lists the largest and smallest dinosaurs from various groups, sorted in order of weight and length.

Scale diagram comparing a human and the largest known dinosaurs of five major clades

This list excludes unpublished size estimates (such as those for Bruhathkayosaurus, possibly the largest dinosaur of all). In some cases, dinosaurs are known that will be included on this list if/when they are officially described. In addition, weight estimates for dinosaurs are much more variable than length estimates, because estimating length for extinct animals is much more easily done from a skeleton than estimating weight.

General records[edit]

Heaviest dinosaurs[edit]

See also Most massive sauropods

The ten largest known dinosaur species by weight, based on published weight estimates.

  1. Amphicoelias fragillimus: 122.4 t[1]
  2. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 73 t[2][3]
  3. Puertasaurus reuili: (comparable to Argentinosaurus)[4]
  4. Futalognkosaurus dukei: (comparable to Argentinosaurus and Puertasaurus)[5]
  5. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 69 t[3]
  6. Paralititan stromeri: 59 t[2]
  7. Unnamed (MPM-PV-39): 58 t[6]
  8. Sauroposeidon proteles: 50-60 t[7][8]
  9. Turiasaurus riodevensis: 40-48 t[9]
  10. Diplodocus hallorum: 38 t[1]

Longest dinosaurs[edit]

See also Longest sauropods The ten longest known dinosaurs, based on published length estimates.

  1. Amphicoelias fragillimus: 58 m (190 ft)[1]
  2. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 30–36 m (98–118 ft)?[1][10]
  3. Supersaurus vivianae: 33–34 m (108–112 ft)[11]
  4. Diplodocus hallorum: 30–33 m (98–108 ft)[11][12]
  5. Sauroposeidon proteles: 28–34 m (92–112 ft)[1][7][8]
  6. Futalognkosaurus dukei: 28–34 m (92–112 ft)[5][10]
  7. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 33 m (108 ft)?[10]
  8. Paralititan stromeri: 26–32 m (85–105 ft)[1][10]
  9. Turiasaurus riodevensis: >30 m (98 ft)[9]
  10. Puertasaurus reuili: 30 m (98 ft)?[10]

Lightest non-avian dinosaurs[edit]

The smallest known non-avian dinosaurs by weight, based on published weight estimates.

  1. Epidexipteryx hui 164 g[13]
  2. Compsognathus longipes: 0.26 kg-3.5 kg[14][15]
  3. Juravenator starki: 0.34 kg[15]
  4. Fruitadens haagarorum: 0.50 kg-0.75 kg[16]
  5. Sinosauropteryx prima: 0.55 kg[15]
  6. Microraptor gui: 0.95 kg[17]

Shortest non-avian dinosaurs[edit]

The shortest known non-avian dinosaur species, based on published length estimates.

  1. Epidexipteryx hui 25 cm (9.8 in)[13]
  2. Eosinopteryx brevipenna: 30 cm (12 in)[18]
  3. Parvicursor remotus: 30 cm (12 in)[10]
  4. "Ornithomimus" minutus: 30 cm (12 in)[10]
  5. Palaeopteryx thomsoni: 30 cm (12 in)?[10]
  6. Nqwebasaurus thwazi: 30 cm (0.98 ft)[15]
  7. Unnamed (BEXHM: 2008.14.1): 33–50 cm (13–20 in)[10][19]
  8. Xixianykus zhangi: 50 cm (20 in)[10]
  9. Alwalkeria maleriensis: 50 cm (20 in)?[10]

Theropods[edit]

Sizes are given with a range, where possible, of estimates that have not been contradicted by more recent studies. In cases where a range of currently accepted estimates exist, sources are given for the sources with the lowest and highest estimates, respectively, and only the highest values are given if these individual sources give a range of estimates.

Longest theropods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs

Size by overall length, including tail, of all theropods over 12 meters.

  1. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: 14.3–18 m (47–59 ft)[15][20]
  2. Oxalaia quilombensis: 12–14 m (39–46 ft)[21]
  3. Giganotosaurus carolinii: 12.2–13.2 m (40–43 ft)[10][22]
  4. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: 12–13 m (39–43 ft)[10][15]
  5. Chilantaisaurus tashuikouensis: 11–13 m (36–43 ft)?[10][23]
  6. Saurophaganax maximus: 10.5–13 m (34–43 ft)?[10][23]
  7. Mapusaurus roseae: 12.2–12.6 m (40–41 ft)[10][22]
  8. Tyrannosaurus rex: 12.3 m (40 ft)[24]
  9. Tyrannotitan chubutensis: 12.2 m (40 ft)[10]
  10. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis: 11–12 m (36–39 ft)[10][23]
  11. Bahariasaurus ingens: 11–12 m (36–39 ft)?[10][23]
  12. Torvosaurus tanneri: 9–12 m (30–39 ft)[10]
  13. Allosaurus fragilis: 8.5–12 m (28–39 ft)[10]

Most massive theropods[edit]

Size by overall weight of all theropods with maximum weight estimates of over 5 metric tons.

  1. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: 7-20.9 t[15][20]
  2. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: 6.1-15.1 t[14][15]
  3. Giganotosaurus carolinii: 6.5-13.8 t[14][15]
  4. Tyrannosaurus rex: 6-9.5 t[15][24][25]
  5. Oxalaia quilombensis: 5-7 t[21]
  6. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis: 5.6-6.2 t[15][26]
  7. Suchomimus tenerensis: 3.8-5.2 t[14][15]
  8. Therizinosaurus cheloniformis: 5 t[23]
  9. Tarbosaurus bataar: 4-5 t[23][27]

Shortest non-avian theropods[edit]

Size comparison of the smallest non-avialan theropods

A list of all known non-avian theropods with an adult length of under 70 centimeters, excluding soft tissue such as feathered tails.

  1. Epidexipteryx hui 25 cm (9.8 in)[13]
  2. Eosinopteryx brevipenna: 30 cm (12 in)[18]
  3. Nqwebasaurus thwazi: 30 cm (12 in)[15]
  4. "Ornithomimus" minutus: 30 cm (12 in)[10]
  5. Palaeopteryx thompsoni: 30 cm (12 in)?[10]
  6. Parvicursor remotus: 30 cm (12 in)[10]
  7. Unnamed (BEXHM: 2008.14.1): 33–50 cm (13–20 in)[10][19]
  8. Xixianykus zhangi: 50 cm (20 in)[10] -->
  9. Alwalkeria maleriensis: 50 cm (20 in)?[10]
  10. Jinfengopteryx elegans: 55 cm (1.80 ft)[28]
  11. Albinykus baatar: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  12. Linhenykus monodactylus: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  13. Pamparaptor micros: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  14. Shuvuuia deserti: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]

Least massive non-avian theropods[edit]

A list of all known non-avian theropods with an adult weight of 1 kilogram or less.

  1. Epidexipteryx hui 164 g[13]
  2. Compsognathus longipes: 0.26 kg-3.5 kg[14][15]
  3. Juravenator starki: 0.34 kg[15]
  4. Sinosauropteryx prima: 0.55 kg[15]
  5. Microraptor gui: 0.95 kg[17]

Sauropods[edit]

Sauropod size is difficult to estimate given their usually fragmentary state of preservation. Sauropods are often preserved without their tails, so the margin of error in overall length estimates is high. Mass is calculated using the cube of the length, so for species in which the length is particularly uncertain, the weight is even more so. Estimates that are particularly uncertain (due to very fragmentary or lost material) are preceded by a question mark. Each number represents the highest estimate of a given research paper.

Note that, generally, the giant sauropods can be divided into two categories: the shorter but stockier and more massive forms (mainly titanosaurs and some brachiosaurids), and the longer but slenderer and more light-weight forms (mainly diplodocids).

Longest sauropods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant sauropod dinosaurs

A list of sauropods that reached 30 meters or more in length, including neck and tail.

  1. Amphicoelias fragillimus: 40–60 m (130–200 ft)[1]
  2. Diplodocus hallorum: 30–38 m (98–125 ft)[11][12]
  3. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 30–36 m (98–118 ft)[1][10]
  4. Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum: 35 m (115 ft)[23][dubious ]
  5. Supersaurus vivianae: 33–35 m (108–115 ft)[11][23]
  6. Futalognkosaurus dukei: 28–34 m (92–112 ft)[5][10]
  7. Ruyangosaurus giganteus: 33 m (108 ft)[23]
  8. Alamosaurus sanjuanensis: 33 m (108 ft)[29]
  9. Paralititan stromeri: 20–33 m (66–108 ft)[10][23]
  10. Puertasaurus reuili: 33 m (108 ft)[23]
  11. "Xinjiangtitan shanshanesis": 32 m (105 ft)
  12. Sauroposeidon proteles: 28–32 m (92–105 ft)[1][7][8]
  13. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 30–32 m (98–105 ft)[10][23]
  14. Daxiatitan binglingi: 30 m (98 ft)[30]
  15. Turiasaurus riodevensis: 30 m (98 ft)[23]
  16. Hudiesaurus sinojapanorum: 20–30 m (66–98 ft)[10][31]

Most massive sauropods[edit]

Size by overall weight of all sauropods 30 metric tons and over.

  1. Amphicoelias fragillimus: 100-150 t[23]
  2. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 69-80 t[3][23]
  3. Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum: 75 t[23][dubious ]
  4. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 50-73 t[2][3][23]
  5. Sauroposeidon proteles: 40-60 t[8][23]
  6. Paralititan stromeri: 20-59 t[2][23]
  7. Unnamed (MPM-PV-39): 58 t[6]
  8. Futalognkosaurus dukei: 50+ t[23]
  9. Puertasaurus reuili: 50+ t[23]
  10. Ruyangosaurus giganteus: 50+ t[23]
  11. Alamosaurus sanjuanensis: (comparable to Argentinosaurus and Puertasaurus)[29]
  12. Turiasaurus riodevensis: 40-50 t[9][23]
  13. Brachiosaurus altithorax: 28.9-43.9 t[32][33]
  14. Giraffatitan brancai: 23.3-39.5 t[3][32]
  15. Diplodocus hallorum: 30-38 t[1][23]
  16. Supersaurus vivianae: 32-36 t (35-40 tons)[11]
  17. Apatosaurus louisae: 18-35 t[23][34]

Smallest sauropods[edit]

A list of all sauropods measuring 10 meters or less in length.

  1. Ohmdenosaurus liasicus: 4 m (13 ft)
  2. Blikanasaurus cromptoni: 5 m (16 ft)
  3. Magyarosaurus dacus: 5.3 m (17 ft)
  4. Europasaurus holgeri: 6 m (20 ft)
  5. Vulcanodon karibaensis: 6.5 m (21 ft)
  6. Isanosaurus attavipachi: 7 m (23 ft)
  7. Camelotia borealis: 9 m (30 ft)
  8. Tazoudasaurus naimi: 9 m (30 ft)
  9. Antetonitrus ingenipes: 8–10 m (26–33 ft), 1.5–2 m (4.9–6.6 ft) tall at hip
  10. Shunosaurus lii: 10 m (33 ft)
  11. Brachytrachelopan mesai: 10 m (33 ft)
  12. Amazonsaurus maranhensis: 10 m (33 ft), 10 tons

Ornithopods[edit]

Longest ornithopods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant ornithopod dinosaurs

Size by overall length, including tail, of all ornithopods over 11 meters.

  1. Huaxiaosaurus aigahtens: 18.7 m (61 ft)[35]
  2. Shantungosaurus giganteus: 15–16.6 m (49–54 ft)[10][36]
  3. Hypsibema crassicauda: 15 m (49 ft)?[10]
  4. Hypsibema missouriensis (Parrosaurus):[10] 15 m (49 ft)?[10]
  5. Edmontosaurus regalis: 12–13 m (39–43 ft)[37][38]
  6. Iguanodon bernissartensis: 10–13 m (33–43 ft)[10][39]
  7. Magnapaulia laticaudus: 12.5 m (41 ft)[40]
  8. Edmontosaurus annectens (Anatosaurus): 12 m (39 ft)[10][41]
  9. Olorotitan arharensis: 12 m (39 ft)[42]
  10. Saurolophus angustirostris: 12 m (39 ft)[43]
  11. Ornithotarsus immanis: 12 m (39 ft)?[10]
  12. Kritosaurus sp.: 11 m (36 ft)[44]

Most massive ornithopods[edit]

  1. Shantungosaurus giganteus: up to 16 metric tons (17.6 short tons)[45]
  2. Edmontosaurus regalis: 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons)[45]
  3. Hypacrosaurus altispinus: 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons)[45]

Ceratopsians[edit]

Longest ceratopsians[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant ceratopsian dinosaurs

Size by overall length, including tail, of all ceratopsians measuring 7 meters or more in length.

  1. Titanoceratops 9 m (30 ft)[10]
  2. Eotriceratops 8.5–9 m (28–30 ft)[10][23]
  3. Triceratops 8–9 m (26–30 ft)[10][23]
  4. Torosaurus: 8–9 m (26–30 ft)[10][23]
  5. Ojoceratops: 8 m (26 ft)[10]
  6. Coahuilaceratops: 8 m (26 ft)[10]
  7. Pentaceratops: 6.4–8 m (21–26 ft)[10][23]
  8. Pachyrhinosaurus: 5–8 m (16–26 ft)[10][23]
  9. Nedoceratops: 7.6 m (25 ft)[10]
  10. Utahceratops: 7 m (23 ft)[10]
  11. Sinoceratops: 7 m (23 ft)[10]
  12. Mojoceratops: 7 m (23 ft)[10]
  13. Vagaceratops: 4.5–7 m (15–23 ft)[10][23]
  14. Arrhinoceratops: 4.5–7 m (15–23 ft)[10][23]
  15. Agujaceratops: 4.3–7 m (14–23 ft)[10][23]
  16. Chasmosaurus: 4.3–7 m (14–23 ft)[10][23]

Smallest ceratopsians[edit]

A list of all ceratopsians 2 metres (6.6 ft) or less in length.

  1. Chaoyangsaurus: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  2. Graciliceratops: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  3. Xuanhuaceratops: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  4. Microceratus: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[10]
  5. Bagaceratops: 90 cm (3.0 ft)[10]
  6. Ajkaceratops: 1 m (3.3 ft)[46]
  7. Hongshanosaurus: 1.2 m (3.9 ft)[10]
  8. Protoceratops: 1.4 to 2 m (4.6 to 6.6 ft)[10][47]
  9. Archaeoceratops: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[10]
  10. Yamaceratops: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[10]
  11. Asiaceratops: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[10]
  12. Cerasinops: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[10]
  13. Leptoceratops: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[10]
  14. Psittacosaurus: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[10]

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Longest pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Size comparison of an adult P. wyomingensis (green), potential growth stages, and a human

Size by overall length, including tail, of all pachycephalosaurs measuring 3 meters or more in length.

  1. Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis: 4.5–7 m (15–23 ft)[10][23]
  2. Stygimoloch spinifer: 3 m (9.8 ft)[10]
  3. Gravitholus albertae: 3 m (9.8 ft)?[10]

Shortest pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Size by overall length, including tail, of all pachycephalosaurs measuring 2 meters or less in length as adults.

  1. Colepiocephale lambei: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[10]
  2. Stegoceras validum: 2 m (6.6 ft)[10]

Thyreophorans[edit]

Longest thyreophorans[edit]

Estimated size of Ankylosaurus compared to a human.
Size of Stegosaurus armatus compared to a human

Size by overall length, including tail, of all thyreophorans measuring 7 meters or more in length.

  1. Cedarpelta: 7–10 m (23–33 ft)[10]
  2. Ankylosaurus: 6.25–9 m (20.5–29.5 ft)[48]
  3. Stegosaurus: 7–9 m (23–30 ft)[10][23]
  4. Dacentrurus: 7–8 m (23–26 ft)[10][49]
  5. Tarchia: 4.5–8 m (15–26 ft)[10][23]
  6. Sauropelta: 5–7.6 m (16–25 ft)[10][50]
  7. Dyoplosaurus: 7 m (23 ft)?[10]
  8. Tuojiangosaurus: 6.5–7 m (21–23 ft)[10][23]
  9. Edmontonia: 6–7 m (20–23 ft)[10][23]
  10. Jiangjunosaurus: 6–7 m (20–23 ft)[10][23]
  11. Euoplocephalus: 5.5–7 m (18–23 ft)[10][23]
  12. Saichania: 5.2–7 m (17–23 ft)[10][23]
  13. Panoplosaurus: 5–7 m (16–23 ft)[10][23]
  14. Shamosaurus: 5–7 m (16–23 ft)[10][23]
  15. Gigantspinosaurus: 4.2–7 m (14–23 ft)[10][23]
  16. Tsagantegia: 3.5–7 m (11–23 ft)[10][23]

Smallest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Scutellosaurus: 1.2 m (3.9 ft)[10]
  2. Dracopelta: 2 m (6.6 ft)[10]
  3. Minmi: 2 m (6.6 ft)[10]

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