Dignitas (assisted dying organisation)

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Dignitas is a Swiss group, helping those with terminal illness and severe physical and mental illnesses to die, assisted by qualified doctors and nurses. They have helped over 1000 people die in suicide clinics in Zurich. Additionally, they provide assisted suicide for people provided that they are of sound judgement and submit to an in-depth medical report prepared by a psychiatrist that establishes the patient's condition, as required by Swiss courts.[1]

History and operation[edit]

Dignitas was founded in 1998 by Ludwig A. Minelli, a Swiss lawyer. Swiss laws provide that assistance to suicide is only illegal if it is motivated by self-interest. As a result, Dignitas seeks to ensure that it acts as a neutral party by proving that aside from non-recurring fees, they have nothing to gain from the deaths of its members.[citation needed]

The person who wishes to die meets several Dignitas personnel, in addition to an independent doctor, for a private consultation. The independent doctor assesses the evidence provided by the patient and is met on two separate occasions, with a time gap between each of the consultations.[2] Legally admissible proof that the person wishes to die is also created, i.e. a signed affidavit, countersigned by independent witnesses. In cases where a person is physically unable to sign a document, a short video film of the person is made in which they are asked to confirm their identity, that they wish to die, and that their decision is made of their own free will, without any form of coercion. This evidence of informed consent remains private and is preserved only for use in any possible legal dispute.[citation needed]

Finally, a few minutes before the lethal overdose is provided, the person is once again reminded that taking the overdose will surely kill them. Additionally, they are asked several times whether they want to proceed, or take some time to consider the matter further. This gives the person the opportunity to stop the process. However, if at this point the person states that they are determined to proceed, a lethal overdose is provided and ingested.[3]

Suicide method[edit]

In general, Dignitas uses the following protocol to assist suicides: an oral dose of an antiemetic drug, followed approximately 1 hour later by a lethal overdose of powdered pentobarbital dissolved in a glass of water or fruit juice. If necessary, the drugs can be ingested via a drinking straw. The pentobarbital overdose depresses the central nervous system, causing the person to become drowsy and fall asleep within 5 minutes of drinking it. Anaesthesia progresses to coma as the person's breathing becomes more shallow, followed by respiratory arrest and death, which occurs within 30 minutes of ingesting the pentobarbital.

In a few cases in 2008, Dignitas used breathing helium gas[4] as a suicide method instead of a pentobarbital overdose. This avoids the need for medical supervision and prescription controlled drugs, and is therefore cheaper.[5]

Referendum[edit]

In a referendum on 15 May 2011, voters in the Canton of Zurich overwhelmingly rejected calls to ban assisted suicide or to outlaw the practice for non-residents. Out of more than 278,000 ballots cast, the initiative to ban assisted suicide was rejected by 85 per cent of voters and the initiative to outlaw it for foreigners was turned down by 78 per cent.[6][7][8]

Statistics[edit]

Ludwig Minelli said in an interview in March 2008 that Dignitas had assisted 840 people to die, 60% of them Germans.[4] By 2010, that number had exceeded a thousand assisted suicides.[9]

Most people coming to Dignitas do not plan to die but need insurance in case their illness becomes intolerable. Of those who receive the green light, 70% never return to Dignitas.[4]

21% of people receiving assisted suicide in Dignitas do not have a terminal or progressive illness, but rather "weariness of life".[10]

Costs and finances[edit]

According to Ludwig Minelli,[4] Dignitas charges its patients €4,000 (£3,182/$5,263.16) for preparation and suicide assistance, or €7,000 (£5,568/$9,210.53) in case of taking over family duties, including funerals, medical costs and official fees.

Despite being a non-profit organization, Dignitas has repeatedly refused to open its finances to the public.[11]

Suicide tourism[edit]

Main article: Suicide tourism

Although the assisted suicide market is largely German, as of March 2012, approximately 180 British citizens had travelled to Switzerland from the UK to die at one of Dignitas' rented apartments in Zurich.[12]

In July 2009, British conductor Sir Edward Downes and his wife Joan died together at a suicide clinic outside Zürich "under circumstances of their own choosing." Sir Edward was not terminally ill, but his wife was diagnosed with rapidly developing cancer.[13]

In March 2010, British comics artist John Hicklenton ended his life at the Dignitas clinic following a 10-year battle with multiple sclerosis.[14]

Allegations by Dignitas ex-employee[edit]

Soraya Wernli (a nurse employed by Dignitas for two-and-a-half years, until March 2005), accused the organization of being a 'production line of death concerned only with profits'.[15] Wernli claimed many wealthy and vulnerable people bequeathed "vast sums" to Minelli in addition to standard fees and some were not terminally ill.[15] She also complained some patients died in pain and resigned after an alleged incident in which a new type of machine left a client suffering for 70 hours.[15] Dignitas denied all allegations and pointed out that Wernli left Dignitas several years ago.[15] Minelli said that "If the state prosecutors feel I’m making myself rich they should start legal proceedings."[16]

Reaction of local Swiss people and organisations[edit]

Director Ludwig Minelli describes the difficulties that Dignitas has faced over the years.[17] In Sept 2007, it was evicted, blocked or locked out of three flats, and so Mr Minelli offered assisted suicide to two German men in a car. In Oct 2007 Dignitas was prevented from working in a private house by the local council and refused rooms on an industrial site. In Dec 2007 an interim judgment prevented Dignitas from working in a building next to a busy brothel.

Patient selection[edit]

Although Dignitas and Exit provide little or no data into its activities, it is known that 21% of people receiving assistance by Dignitas and 65% of women attending Exit do not have a terminal or progressive illness; in certain clinics an age-restriction is in place for potential clients, so as to prevent young people from using their services. [18]

Cremation urns found in Lake Zurich[edit]

In April 2010, police divers found a group of over 60 cremation urns in Lake Zurich. Each of the urns bore the logo of the Nordheim crematorium used by Dignitas. Soraya Wernli, a former employee, had told The Times 18 months previously that Dignitas had dumped at least 300 urns in the lake. She claimed that Minelli dumped them there himself, but later asked his daughter and another member of staff to do it. In 2008 two members of Dignitas were caught trying to pour the ashes of 20 dead people into the lake.[19][20]

Dignitas in media[edit]

In 2008, the documentary film Right to Die? was broadcast on Sky Real Lives (rebroadcast on PBS Frontline in March 2010 as The Suicide Tourist). Directed by Oscar-winning Canadian John Zaritsky, it depicts the assisted suicide of several people who have gone to Switzerland to end their lives.[21] It includes the story of Craig Ewert, a 59-year-old retired university professor who suffered from a motor neurone disease. Ewert traveled to Switzerland where he was assisted by the Dignitas NGO. The documentary shows him passing away with Mary, his wife of 37 years, at his side. It was shown on the Swiss television network SF1 and is available as a web movie on the Dignitas website.[22]

The BBC produced a film titled A Short Stay in Switzerland[23] telling the story of Dr Anne Turner, who made the journey to the Dignitas assisted suicide clinic. On January 24, 2006, the day before her 67th birthday, she ended her life. The film was shown on BBC1 on January 25, 2009.

British maestro Sir Edward Downes, who conducted the BBC Philharmonic and the Royal Opera but struggled in recent years (but was not terminally ill) as his hearing and sight failed, died with his wife, who had terminal cancer, at an assisted suicide clinic in Switzerland in July 2009. He was 85 and she was 74.[13]

French lesbian theorist and translator, Michele Causse chose to die on her birthday, July 29, 2010, in association with Dignitas.[24][25]

On June 13, 2011, BBC Two aired a documentary titled Terry Pratchett: Choosing to Die, featuring author and Alzheimer's disease sufferer Sir Terry Pratchett guiding viewers through an assisted suicide which took place at Dignitas facilities in Switzerland. Peter Smedley, a British hotelier and millionaire, and his wife Christine allowed for Pratchett to film Smedley's deliberate consumption of prepared barbiturate in a glass in order to kill himself as Christine comforted Smedley in his demise. The documentary received a highly polarized reaction in the United Kingdom, with much praise for the programme as "brave", "sensitive"[26] and "important"[27] whilst it also gathered accusations of "pro-death" bias from anti-euthanasia pressure groups and of encouraging the view that disability was a good reason for killing from disability groups.[28][29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A suicide right for the mentally ill? A Swiss case opens a new debate". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. March 18, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Paralysed player killed himself". BBC News. December 10, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  3. ^ "'If you drink this, you will die': Father reveals what paralysed rugby son was told before he took poison in Swiss suicide". Daily Mail (UK). December 11, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d Wenn Sie das trinken, gibt es kein Zurück Tagesspiegel.de Retrieved April 12, 2008
  5. ^ Euthanasia group Dignitas films gas and plastic bag deaths Daily Mail
  6. ^ "Zurich votes to keep 'suicide tourism' alive". The Daily Telegraph (London). May 15, 2011. 
  7. ^ CBS News http://www.cbsnews.com/news/zurich-voters-keep-suicide-tourism-alive/ |url= missing title (help). 
  8. ^ "Zurich voters keep 'suicide tourism' alive". Fox News. May 15, 2011. 
  9. ^ Bruce Falconer (March 2010). "Death Becomes Him". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  10. ^ Fischer, S.; Huber, CA.; Imhof, L.; Mahrer Imhof, R.; Furter, M.; Ziegler, SJ.; Bosshard, G. (Nov 2008). "Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organisations.". J Med Ethics 34 (11): 810–4. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023887. PMID 18974416. 
  11. ^ Branching Out to Serve a Growing but Dying Market Washington Post
  12. ^ Philippa Roxby (21 October 2012). "Assisted suicide: 10 years of dying at Dignitas". BBC News. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Lundin, Leigh (August 2, 2009). "YOUthanasia". Criminal Brief. Retrieved August 27, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Judge Dredd artist dies at centre". BBC News. March 26, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b c d Allan Hall (January 25, 2009). "Cashing in on despair? Suicide clinic Dignitas is a profit obsessed killing machine, claims ex-worker | Mail Online". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ telegraph.co.uk Dignitas founder accused of profiting from assisted suicides
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ Fischer S. Huber CA. Imhof L. Mahrer Imhof R. Furter M. Ziegler SJ. Bosshard G. Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organisations. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2008; 34(11):810-4.
  19. ^ Boyes, Roger (April 28, 2010). "Ashes dumped in Lake Zurich put Dignitas back in the spotlight". The Times (London). Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  20. ^ Parker, Nick (April 27, 2010). "Dignitas urns dumped in lake". The Sun (London). 
  21. ^ The Suicide Tourist documentary film, imdb.com database information
  22. ^ Selbstmord-Touristen documentary on Dignitas website[dead link]
  23. ^ Daily Mail Online: 'Anne, if you drink this you will die': Why we stood by and allowed our mother to commit suicide By Andrea Thompson
  24. ^ "France Soir". France Soir. France. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  25. ^ http://michele-causse.com/ Michele Causse
  26. ^ Gee, Catherine (13 Jun 2011). "Terry Pratchett: Choosing to Die, BBC Two, review". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  27. ^ Radford, Ceri (13 Jun 2011). "Terry Pratchett: Choosing to Die is important TV, not a tasteless polemic". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  28. ^ "BBC flooded with complaints over Choosing to Die documentary". The Daily Telegraph (London). June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2011. 
  29. ^ Taylor, Jerome (June 15, 2011). "Author defends film of assisted dying as BBC fields complaints". The Independent (London). Retrieved June 18, 2011. 

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