Dieffenbachia

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Dieffenbachia (dumb cane)
Colpfl29.jpg
Dieffenbachia bowmannii
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Monocots
Order:Alismatales
Family:Araceae
Subfamily:Aroideae
Tribe:Dieffenbachieae
Genus:Dieffenbachia
Schott
Synonyms[1]
 
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Dieffenbachia (dumb cane)
Colpfl29.jpg
Dieffenbachia bowmannii
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Monocots
Order:Alismatales
Family:Araceae
Subfamily:Aroideae
Tribe:Dieffenbachieae
Genus:Dieffenbachia
Schott
Synonyms[1]

Dieffenbachia /ˌdfɨnˈbækiə/[2] is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Araceae. It is native to the New World Tropics from Mexico and the West Indies south to Argentina. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental, especially as a house plant, and has become naturalized on a few tropical islands.[1][3][4]

Dieffenbachia is a perennial herbaceous plant with straight stem, simple and alternate leaves containing white spots and flecks, making it attractive as indoor foliage. Species in this genus are popular as houseplants because of their tolerance of shade. The common name, "dumb cane" refers to the poisoning effect of raphides. It is also known as the "Mother-in-law" plant. Dieffenbachia was named by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, the Director of the Botanical Gardens in Vienna, to honor his head gardener Joseph Dieffenbach (1796–1863).

Cultivation[edit]

Dieffenbachia flower

With a minimum temperature of 5 °C (41 °F), dieffenbachia must be grown indoors in temperate areas. They need light, but filtered sunlight through a window is usually sufficient. They also need moderately moist soil, which should be regularly fertilized with a proprietary houseplant fertilizer. Leaves will periodically roll up and fall off to make way for new leaves. Yellowing of the leaves is generally a sign of problematic conditions, such as a nutrient deficiency in the soil. Dieffenbachia respond well to hot temperatures and dry climates.

Numerous cultivars have been selected. The cultivars 'Camille'[5] and 'Tropic Snow'[6] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Species
[1]
  1. Dieffenbachia aglaonematifolia Engl. - Brazil, Paraguay; Corrientes + Misiones Provinces of Argentina
  2. Dieffenbachia antioquensis Linden ex Rafarin - Colombia
  3. Dieffenbachia aurantiaca Engl - Costa Rica, Panama
  4. Dieffenbachia beachiana Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica, Panama
  5. Dieffenbachia bowmannii Carrière - Colombia, northwestern Brazil
  6. Dieffenbachia brittonii Engl. - Colombia
  7. Dieffenbachia burgeri Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica
  8. Dieffenbachia cannifolia Engl. - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  9. Dieffenbachia concinna Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica, Nicaragua
  10. Dieffenbachia copensis Croat - Panama
  11. Dieffenbachia cordata Engl. - Peru
  12. Dieffenbachia costata Klotzsch ex Schott - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  13. Dieffenbachia crebripistillata Croat - Panama
  14. Dieffenbachia daguensis Engl. - Colombia, Ecuador
  15. Dieffenbachia davidsei Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica
  16. Dieffenbachia duidae (Steyerm.) G.S.Bunting - Venezuela, Guyana
  17. Dieffenbachia elegans A.M.E.Jonker & Jonker - Bolivia, northwestern Brazil, the Guianas
  18. Dieffenbachia enderi Engl. - Colombia
  19. Dieffenbachia fortunensis Croat - Panama
  20. Dieffenbachia fosteri Croat - Panama
  21. Dieffenbachia fournieri N.E.Br. - Colombia
  22. Dieffenbachia galdamesiae Croat - Panama
  23. Dieffenbachia gracilis Huber - Peru, northwestern Brazil
  24. Dieffenbachia grayumiana Croat - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia
  25. Dieffenbachia hammelii Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica, Nicaragua
  26. Dieffenbachia herthae Diels - Ecuador
  27. Dieffenbachia horichii Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica
  28. Dieffenbachia humilis Poepp. - Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, northwestern Brazil, the Guianas
  29. Dieffenbachia imperialis Linden & André - Peru
  30. Dieffenbachia isthmia Croat - Panama
  31. Dieffenbachia killipii Croat - Panama
  32. Dieffenbachia lancifolia Linden & André - Colombia
  33. Dieffenbachia leopoldii W.Bull - Colombia
  34. Dieffenbachia longispatha Engl. & K.Krause - Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela
  35. Dieffenbachia lutheri Croat - Panama
  36. Dieffenbachia macrophylla Poepp. - Peru
  37. Dieffenbachia meleagris L.Linden & Rodigas - Ecuador
  38. Dieffenbachia nitidipetiolata Croat & Grayum - Panama
  39. Dieffenbachia obliqua Poepp. - Peru
  40. Dieffenbachia obscurinervia Croat - Panama
  41. Dieffenbachia oerstedii Schott - southern Mexico (Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Oaxaca, Chiapas), Central America (all 7 countries), Colombia
  42. Dieffenbachia olbia L.Linden & Rodigas - Peru
  43. Dieffenbachia paludicola N.E.Br. ex Gleason - northwestern Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela
  44. Dieffenbachia panamensis Croat - Panama
  45. Dieffenbachia parlatorei Linden & André - Colombia, Venezuela
  46. Dieffenbachia parvifolia Engl. - northwestern Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
  47. Dieffenbachia pittieri Engl. & K.Krause - Panama
  48. Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Schott - West Indies, south to Brazil and Bolivia
  49. Dieffenbachia shuttleworthiana Regel - Colombia
  50. Dieffenbachia standleyi Croat - Honduras
  51. Dieffenbachia tonduzii Croat & Grayum - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador
  52. Dieffenbachia weberbaueri Engl. - Peru
  53. Dieffenbachia weirii Berk. - Colombia
  54. Dieffenbachia wendlandii Schott - southern Mexico (Querétaro, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas) south to Panama
  55. Dieffenbachia williamsii Croat - Bolivia
  56. Dieffenbachia wurdackii Croat - Peru

Cancer treatment[edit]

In the Philippines, dumb cane plant is being studied; researchers have found that dumb cane plant contains active ingredients that cause antiangiogenic effect[7] potential for the treatment of cancer. Antiangiogenesis is a process that inhibits the growth and development of new blood vessels in the body.

Antiangiogenesis controls the spread of tumour cells in the body by disabling the transport of nutrients toward the cancerous cells. Normally, tumour starts from a single cell and divides to make more cancer cells. The growth of malignant cells will depend on the availability of specific nutrients being transported by blood vessels.[8]

Findings of the study claimed that dumb cane’s ability to prevent blood vessel growth and development can be possibly used in the formulation of anti-cancer drug to help prevent the spread of cancer cells in the human body.

Other uses[edit]

In Brazil the plant is said to ward against "negative energies" and "evil eye", etc. Because of this, it is commonly placed on a "seven lucky herbs" vase, along with common rue, Capsicum annuum, snake plant, basil, rosemary and Petiveria alliacea.[9]

Toxicity[edit]

Dieffenbachia’s inflorescence

The cells of the Dieffenbachia plant contain needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals called raphides. If a leaf is chewed, these crystals can cause a temporary burning sensation and erythema. In rare cases, edema of tissues exposed to the plant has been reported. Mastication and ingestion generally result in only mild symptoms.[10] With both children and pets, contact with dieffenbachia (typically from chewing) can cause a host of unpleasant symptoms, including intense numbing, oral irritation, excessive drooling, and localized swelling.[11] However, these effects are rarely life-threatening. In most cases, symptoms are mild, and can be successfully treated with analgesic agents,[12] antihistamines,[13] or medical charcoal.[14][15] Gastric evacuation or lavage is "seldom"[14] indicated. In patients with exposure to toxic plants, 70% are children younger than 5 years.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  4. ^ Croat, T. B. 2004. Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91(4): 668–772
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Dieffenbachia 'Camille'". Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Dieffenbachia 'Tropic Snow'". Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  7. ^ http://www.breastcancer.org/treatment/targeted_therapies/2006_07/question_07
  8. ^ http://www.worldngayon.com/2013/07/dumb-cane-plant-uses/
  9. ^ Franco Guizetti. "Conheça o poder e a proteção das sete ervas" (in Portuguese). Retrieved Jan 19, 2012. 
  10. ^ Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. 29 (4): 485–91. 1991. 
  11. ^ http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/dieffenbachia.html
  12. ^ Boyle, Jennifer S; Holstege, Christopher P (December 9, 2008). "Toxicity, Plants - Caladium, Dieffenbachia, and Philodendron". emedicine. medscape.com. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  13. ^ GN Lucas - Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2008 - http://www.srilankacollegeofpaediatricians.com/pubs/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20CC%20de%20Silva%20Oration%20Plant%20poisonin.pdf
  14. ^ a b Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 245-249 (1996) doi:10.1177/096032719601500310
  15. ^ Snajdauf, J.; Mixa, V.; Rygl, M.; Vyhnánek, M.; Morávek, J.; Kabelka, Z. (Dec 9, 2003). "Aortoesophageal fistula--an unusual complication of esophagitis caused by Dieffenbachia ingestion.". J Pediatr Surg. (Elsevier) 40 (6): e29–31. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.03.036. PMID 15991162. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]