Dick Grayson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Dick Grayson
Detective Comics 38.jpg
Dick Grayson as Robin in his first appearance, with Batman.
Cover of Detective Comics #38 (April 1940). Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson.
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceDetective Comics #38
(April 1940)
Created by
In-story information
Full nameRichard John Grayson
Team affiliations
Partnerships
Notable aliasesRobin, Nightwing, Batman, The Target, Renegade,[1] Robbie Malone, Freddy Loyd, Chester Honeywell
Abilities
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Dick Grayson
Detective Comics 38.jpg
Dick Grayson as Robin in his first appearance, with Batman.
Cover of Detective Comics #38 (April 1940). Art by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson.
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceDetective Comics #38
(April 1940)
Created by
In-story information
Full nameRichard John Grayson
Team affiliations
Partnerships
Notable aliasesRobin, Nightwing, Batman, The Target, Renegade,[1] Robbie Malone, Freddy Loyd, Chester Honeywell
Abilities

Dick Grayson is a fictional character, a superhero that appears in comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger and illustrator Jerry Robinson, he first appeared in Detective Comics #38 in April 1940. The youngest in a family of acrobats known as the "Flying Graysons", Dick watches a mafia boss kill his parents in order to extort money from the circus that employed them. Bruce Wayne, secretly the superhero Batman, takes him in as his legal ward, retconned in some cases as his adopted son, and eventually as his crime-fighting partner, Robin. He is written out by many authors as the first son of Batman as well as his prodigal son.[2] Many, including OMAC, state that he is the one that Batman cares about the most.[3]

Throughout Dick's adolescence, Batman and Robin are inseparable. However, as Dick grows older and spends more time as the leader of the Teen Titans, he retires as Robin and takes on his own superhero identity as Nightwing to assert his independence (others would fill in as Robin). His Nightwing persona was created by writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez, and first appeared in Tales of the Teen Titans #44 (July 1984). As Nightwing, Dick leads the Teen Titans and later the Outsiders. Following the events of the Zero Hour miniseries, he temporarily replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman, beginning in Robin #0 (October 1994) and extending throughout the Batman: Prodigal storyline. In an eponymous series, launched in 1996 and continuing until 2009, he becomes the protector of Blüdhaven, Gotham's economically troubled neighboring city. Following the destruction of Blüdhaven, at the command of Deathstroke, Nightwing relocates to New York. Following "Batman: Knightfall", Dick Grayson takes up the mantle of Batman while Bruce was recovering from a broken back as he considers Dick his prodigal son.

After the events of "Batman R.I.P." and Final Crisis, Dick moves operations to Gotham to protect the city following Bruce's apparent death. Despite Bruce's will instructing him not to, the chaos in Gotham following Bruce's disappearance prompts Dick to take up his mentor's identity once again as Batman. With Bruce's return, Dick once again picked up his previous identity as Nightwing.

As Robin, Dick Grayson has appeared in several other media adaptations of Batman, including the 1943 and 1949 fifteen chapter Batman serials in which he was played by Douglas Croft and Johnny Duncan, respectively, and the 1966–1968 live action Batman television series as well as its motion picture, where he was portrayed by Burt Ward. In the 1995 film Batman Forever and its 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, he was played by Chris O'Donnell. In the 1990s' Batman: The Animated Series and The New Batman Adventures, he was voiced by Loren Lester. The latter series was the first adaptation to portray Grayson's evolution into Nightwing. In May 2011, IGN ranked Grayson #11 on their list of the "Top 100 Super Heroes of All Time".[4]

Contents

Publication history

Robin, The Boy Wonder

The character was first introduced in Detective Comics #38 (1940) by Batman creators Bill Finger and Bob Kane. Robin's debut was an effort to make Batman a lighter, more sympathetic character. DC Comics also thought a teenaged superhero would appeal to young readers, being an effective audience surrogate. The name "Robin, The Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume are inspired by the legendary hero Robin Hood, as well as the red-breasted American Robin, which parallels the "winged" motif of Batman. Richard John "Dick" Grayson was born on the first day of spring, son of John and Mary Grayson, a young aerialist couple.

In his first appearance, Dick is a circus acrobat, and, with his parents, one of the "Flying Graysons". While preparing for a performance, Dick overhears two gangsters attempting to extort protection money from the circus owner. The owner refuses, so the gangsters sabotage the trapeze wires with acid. During the next performance, the trapeze from which Dick's parents are swinging snaps, sending them to their deaths. Before he can go to the police, Batman appears to him and warns him that the two gangsters work for Tony Zucco, a very powerful crime boss, and that revealing his knowledge could lead to his death. When Batman recounts the murder of his own parents, Dick asks to become his aide. After extensive training, Dick becomes Robin. They start by disrupting Zucco's gambling and extortion rackets. They then successfully bait the riled Zucco into visiting a construction site, where they capture him.

Robin's origin has a thematic connection to Batman's in that both see their parents killed by criminals, creating an urge to battle the criminal element. Bruce sees a chance to direct the anger and rage that Dick feels in a way that he himself cannot, thus creating a father/son bond and understanding between the two. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, DC Comics portrayed Batman and Robin as a team, deeming them the "Dynamic Duo", rarely publishing a Batman story without his sidekick; stories entirely devoted to Robin appeared in Star-Spangled Comics from 1947 through 1952.

Teen Titans

Dick Grayson in his original Nightwing costume. From Tales of the Teen Titans #59 (November 1985).

1964's The Brave and the Bold #54 introduces a junior version of the Justice League of America; an all-star superhero team of which Batman was a part. This team is led by the modern-day Robin, residing on Earth-One, and was joined by two other teenage sidekicks, Aqualad (sidekick of Aquaman) and Kid Flash (sidekick of The Flash), to stop the menace of Mr. Twister.

Later, the three sidekicks join forces with Speedy and Wonder Girl in order to free their mentors in the JLA from mind-controlled thrall. They decide to become a real team: the Teen Titans. By virtue of the tactical skills gleaned from Batman, Robin is swiftly recognized as leader before the Titans disband some years later.

In 1969, still in the Pre-Crisis continuity, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams return Batman to his darker roots. One part of this effort is writing Robin out of the series by sending Dick Grayson to Hudson University and into a separate strip in the back of Detective Comics. The by-now Teen Wonder appears only sporadically in Batman stories of the 1970s as well as a short lived revival of The Teen Titans.

In 1980, Grayson once again takes up the role of leader of the Teen Titans, now featured in the monthly series The New Teen Titans, which became one of DC Comics' most beloved series of the era.

Nightwing

In pre-Crisis on Infinite Earths continuity, the maturing Dick Grayson grows weary of his role as Batman's young sidekick. He renames himself Nightwing, recalling his adventure in the Kryptonian city of Kandor, where he and Batman meet the local hero of the same name.

In the "Prodigal" story arc, Bruce Wayne, still recovering from his broken back, asks a reluctant Dick to substitute for him as Batman for a time.

Miniseries and ongoing

Dick Grayson in his Nightwing costume from Nightwing #41 (March 2000).
Pencils by Greg Land.

In Nightwing: Alfred's Return #1 (1995), Grayson travels to England to find Alfred, who resigns from Bruce Wayne's service following the events of KnightSaga. Before returning to Gotham City together, they prevent an attempted coup d'état against the British government that involves destroying the Channel Tunnel under the English Channel.

Later on, with the Nightwing miniseries (September to December 1995, written by Dennis O'Neil with Greg Land as artist), Dick briefly considers retiring from being Nightwing forever before family papers uncovered by Alfred reveal a possible link between the murder of the Flying Graysons and the Crown Prince of Kravia. Journeying to Kravia, Nightwing helps to topple the murderous Kravian leader and prevent an ethnic cleansing, while learning his parents' true connection to the Prince.

In 1996, following the success of the miniseries, DC Comics launched a monthly solo series featuring Nightwing (written by Chuck Dixon, with art by Scott McDaniel), in which he patrols Gotham City's neighboring municipality of Blüdhaven.

During the battle of Metropolis, Grayson suffers a near-fatal injury from Alexander Luthor, Jr. when he shields Wayne from Luthor's attack.[5] Originally, the editors at DC intended to have Grayson killed in Infinite Crisis as Newsarama revealed from the DC Panel at WizardWorld Philadelphia:[6]

It was again explained that Nightwing was originally intended to die in Infinite Crisis, and that you can see the arc that was supposed to end with his death in the series. After long discussions, the death edict was finally reversed, but the decision was made that, if they were going to be keeping him, he would have to be changed. The next arc of the ongoing series will further explain the changes, it was said.

During the "Batman R.I.P." storyline, Nightwing is ambushed by the International Club of Villains. He is later seen being held in Arkham Asylum, where one of the surgeons, in reality also the civilian identity of ICoV member Le Bossu, arranged for Nightwing to be admitted under the name of Pierrot Lunaire (Another ICoV member) and be kept both heavily drugged and regularly beaten by staff to subdue him. Scheduled for an experimental lobotomy by Le Bossu himself, he manages to free himself and come to Batman's aid for the finale of the story arc.

Dick Grayson as Batman. Promotional art of Batman & Robin #1 (June 2009). Art by Frank Quitely

Batman: Reborn

Following the events of Batman's apparent death during the Final Crisis, Nightwing has closed down shop in New York so as to return to Gotham, where after the events of "Battle for the Cowl", he assumes the identity of Batman, with Damian, Bruce Wayne's biological son, as the new Robin.[7]

The new team of Batman and Robin is the focus of Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely's Batman and Robin series.[8] IGN Comics has done various interviews on the Batman and Robin team up. They have said that the dynamic between Dick's Batman and Damian's Robin will be reversed from the usual Batman/Robin relationship: Batman will be lighter, while Robin will be darker. However, Dick's experience as the Dark Knight would harden his personality as his mentor.

Nightwing again

Dick will return as Nightwing following the Flashpoint events, leaving his mentor as Gotham's Dark Knight once more. After the relaunch, Dick along with all other members of the Batfamily are a few years younger. Dick, despite being 21, as opposed to his mid-late twenties, is drawn a bit shorter than in his pre relaunch frame. This is likely due to adding believability to his acrobat past.[9] According to various interviews it is stated that Dick was adopted at 16, as opposed to 12. This is due to the DCNU's timeline existing for 5 years.[10] In his civilian identity he is attacked by an assassin named Saiko who insists that he's the fiercest killer in Gotham.[11] Dick inherits the deed to the circus from a dying C.C. Haly and begins a relationship with his childhood friend acrobat Raya Vestri. Saiko tortures Haly for information on Nightwing's secret identity, and the old man dies in Dick's arms after telling him the circus holds a terrible secret.[12] Investigating leads, he tracks down a supervillain named Feedback who used to be a childhood friend but doesn't learn anything.[13]Batgirl visits and they team up to take down a shape-shifter named Spinebender. Following Haly's clues, he finds a mysterious Book of Names in the circus that holds his on the last page.[14][He's forced to fight a rhyming demon named Acheron when his clown Jimmy Clark is attacked by an ex-fiancee using black magic.[15]Tracking down more leads, he fights a super-villain known as Shox for information. The circus announces they will be doing a memorial show on the anniversary of the night Dick's parents were murdered, and Saiko attacks by detonating a massive explosion.[16] It's revealed that the circus has been training assassins for years, and Saiko was a childhood friend using Raya as an accomplice. Grayson had been selected to become a new Talon for the Court of Owls, but when Batman adopted him Saiko took his place. The killer plummets to his death, and Raya turns herself in. Returning to the Batcave, Bruce reveals to Dick that the current Talon is his great-grandfather William Cobb.[17]

Night of The Owls

Nightwing receives Alfred's message, which conveys the forty people the Court of Owls targeted for assassination. He goes to save Mayor Sebastian Hady and comes face-to-face with a Talon. Using lethal force on the Talon, Nightwing stabs him across the eye with his stick, as the Talon is already dead and Nightwing's stick is slowing his healing factor down. However, William Cobb, having been revived by another Talon, attacks Nightwing and stabs him in the chest.[18] However Dick tricks Cobb into leading them to Gotham's train tunnels, where he is able to freeze him with a liquid nitrogen tube[19]

Love interests

Dick Grayson has had several romantic relationships with various female characters throughout his years fighting crime.

Starfire: Grayson fell in love with fellow Teen Titans teammate Starfire and nearly married her, but their wedding was interrupted by Raven (whose body was taken over by her evil side at the time). Raven murdered the priest before he could pronounce Dick and Kory husband and wife. The relationship was already on unsteady ground, with Kory fearing that Dick was rushing into marriage and also concerned by the anti-alien sentiments that sprang up in response to the news of the impending nuptials. When Grayson rejoined the JLA, it was stated that Dick had moved on.[20]

In "Titans Tomorrow", a storyline of a potential future, Batwoman (Bette Kane) stated that Starfire would have a wonderful future with Nightwing.[21] However, it is later implied during Infinite Crisis that Dick Grayson is deceased in this timeline.[22] In the "Kingdom Come" alternate reality, Starfire marries Grayson and bears their daughter Mar'i Grayson.

Barbara Gordon: Dick Grayson and Barbara Gordon shared a young love as Robin and Batgirl, and continued to have an on-and-off relationship after she was paralyzed in The Killing Joke. The two grew closer after the events of "No Man's Land", and became engaged before Infinite Crisis, but they later broke it off when Dick left to help Batman rediscover himself, with Barbara telling him they were not ready for marriage. Both still show feelings towards each other, but are no longer together.

Barbara reacted jealously when seeing Dick and Helena Bertinelli kiss, but later kept an eye on Dick while he recovered from Penguin's control and a gunshot wound from the new Black Mask.[23]

Donna Troy: Dick grew up alongside Donna as fellow members of the Teen Titans, with her serving as his second-in-command. While the two are best friends and confidantes,[24] and express that they love each other,[25] their relationship has been portrayed as that of brother and sister. Dick gave Donna away at her wedding to her former husband Terry, and she in turn hosted his own (failed) wedding to Starfire. She even died (albeit not permanently) saving his life.[26] Marv Wolfman, creator of the Nightwing persona and longtime Titans writer, indicated that there was once a Dick and Donna romance planned, but the idea was quashed by editorial mandate.

Donna personally recruited Dick (now Batman) into an incarnation of the Justice League.[27] Though she angrily criticized his decision to follow Bruce in distancing himself from others,[28] she trusted him completely as their leader.[29]

Catalina Flores: After Tarantula killed Blockbuster,[30] she had sex with Nightwing on a rooftop. Nightwing's consent was dubious at the time as he was in shock from deep emotional trauma, prompting debate over whether he was raped.[31] Writer Devin Grayson herself has given the statement, "For the record, I’ve never used the word 'rape', I just said it was non-consensual." This is further confused by the script for Nightwing #93 specifically mentioning (in parentheses) that this scene was a rape.[32]

Cheyenne Freemont: One Year Later after the Infinite Crisis, Nightwing is seen with clothing designer Cheyenne Freemont,[33] a metahuman with psionic powers who also briefly takes on the Nightwing identity.

Skills, abilities, and resources

Dick Grayson possesses the peak athletic strength and endurance of a man in his mid-twenties who regularly engages in intensive physical exercise. His martial arts skills rival those of Batman. He is a master of dozens of martial arts disciplines and was rigorously trained by his mentor in everything from escapology to criminology, fencing, stealth, disguise, and numerous other combat/non-combat disciplines. Dick Grayson is 5' 10" (1.78 m) and 175 lbs (79 kg).[34]

Nightwing is a master of a half-dozen martial arts disciplines (including aikido, savate, judo, and capoeira) with an emphasis on aikido, as well as being armed with twin Eskrima sticks made from an unbreakable polymer. He also carries several dozen modified batarangs (called wing-dings) along with de-cel jumplines and gas capsules.[34][35]

Grayson is a prodigious natural athlete, possessing a peak human level of agility/acrobatic skills. He is regarded as the greatest human acrobat in the DC Universe.[34] He is the only human on Earth who can do the quadruple somersault (formerly one of three, the other two being his parents). Having had the finest education as Bruce Wayne's ward, he fluently speaks in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Mandarin, Cantonese, and Japanese and has some knowledge of Romany, the alien language of Tamaran, and American Sign Language. He is also a brilliant and experienced strategist with superlative leadership skills, having served as leader to the Titans, the Outsiders, and even the Justice League. Additionally, Dick's interpersonal skills and efforts to remain in contact with other heroes makes him a master at rallying, unifying, and inspiring the superhero community, a skill in which he has surpassed his mentor.[36]

Besides his resources as Bruce Wayne's adopted son and heir apparent, Dick's parents also left him a trust fund which Lucius Fox turned into a small fortune. Although it is not comparable to Bruce Wayne's wealth, it has been enough to maintain his Nightwing equipment, purchase the rights to Haly's Circus (saving Dick's former home from financial troubles), and secretly buy his former Blüdhaven apartment building at 1013 Parkthorne Avenue.

Costumes

The Robin costume worn by Grayson alluded to the American Robin and Robin Hood. The cape was alternately depicted as yellow or green. The costume also featured the poulaines of crakows, which some artists would discard from the portrayal.

Grayson's Nightwing costume was made of a version of the Nomex fire-resistant, triple-weave Kevlar-lined material. It was an excellent protection against damage, and was also insulated against electricity. Specifically tailored to his style of fighting, Nightwing's costume had fewer body-armor inlays than Batman, anticipating a decreased need for shock absorption and an increased capacity for motion. Against opponents both fast and strong, Nightwing had supplemental body-armor overlays he could attach to his gauntlets, boots, shoulders, and mask. Instead of a black cape to keep him hidden, which Grayson dislikes wearing,[37][38] the suit was light sensitive, darkening when there was more light in the area. The mask, in the form of his symbol, was fixed in place with spirit gum, and included a built-in radio transmitter/receiver and Starlite night vision lenses. The third costume, with its stylized blue "wing" across his shoulders and extending to his hands, coloring his two middle fingers, over a black bodysuit, made its first appearance in Nightwing: Ties That Bind #2 (October 1995), and was designed by the cover artist Brian Stelfreeze. His suit was also equipped with wings that allow him to glide in the air or fly. With his return to Nightwing, Dick will wear a similar suit, albeit with the blue "wing" being red now.

Grayson's Batsuit featured a lighter cape to accommodate his more acrobatic fighting style[37] and a utility belt with a bat-shaped buckle.[39] He also developed "para-capes" for his and Damian's costumes which gave them the ability to glide.[39] Grayson is noticeably shorter than Bruce Wayne.[38]

Some version's of Dick's story as Nightwing do not make clear whether the public at large knows that the first Robin is now Nightwing, or whether he is simply an entirely new hero. A metafictional forward (said to have been made by a future historian) to a trade paperback for "A Death In The Family" made the claim that the public at large always thought there was just one Robin. In versions that do address it, Dick and Bruce seem to want to spread the belief that Nightwing started his career as an adult, the better to hide their true identities.

Other versions

Robin (Earth-Two)

The Robin of Earth-Two is an alternate version of Dick Grayson, introduced after DC Comics created Earth-Two, a parallel world that was retroactively established as the home of characters published in the Golden Age of Comic Books. This allowed DC Comics to publish comic books featuring Robin while disregarding incongruities with the single ongoing history that had been followed since inception.

The character history of the Earth-Two Robin accordingly adopts all of the earliest stories featuring the character from the 1940s and 1950s, while the adventures of the mainstream Robin (who lived on "Earth-One") begin later in time and with certain elements of his origin retold. Both were depicted as separate, though parallel, individuals living in their respective universes.

Batman Beyond (comics)

The 2010 comic book limited series Batman Beyond, set after the events of Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker, features Terry McGinnis facing a new Hush. After ruling out Tim Drake as a suspect, Terry questions Dick Grayson, who now runs an athletics training course after retiring as Nightwing due to sustaining severe gunshot wounds (including the loss of an eye) in a battle between the Joker and Batman.[40] Though Dick gives an alibi, Hush later incapacitates Terry and removes his bandages to reveal the face of Dick with both eyes intact.[41] It is later revealed that Hush is actually a clone of Grayson, created by Project Cadmus under the guidance of Amanda Waller in order to ensure that the world will always have a Batman.[42] Hush later dies during a final confrontation with Terry, the real Dick Grayson, and a new Catwoman, after they thwart the villain's plan to destroy Gotham.[43]

Dick later serves as a supporting character for the ongoing series. When a GCPD detective discovers Dick's past as Nightwing due to Hush's recent actions, despite Terry and Maxine "Max" Gibson's efforts by having to convince the public otherwise by having Terry masquerading in his former identity while Max writes false alibis of his past throughout the internet, Dick partially admits to Gotham the truth without jeopardizing his allies' secrets, claiming he was a paid agent of Batman Inc. just as the new Batman.

Flashpoint

In the alternate timeline of the Flashpoint event, Dick Grayson and his parents are part of the Haley Circus acrobats, featured in a show alongside Boston Brand. In a vision that Doctor Fate gives Boston Brand, Boston is standing over Dick's body. Before the next show, Boston tries to convince Dick to perform solo. However, Dick tells him that family means too much to him. Dick poses the question that Boston's seeming fearlessness could stem from his insecurity of being alone.[44] During the attack on Haley Circus by the Amazons, Dick's mother falls to the ground in the ensuing madness. When Dick, along with the circus, is running away from the Amazons, they are rescued by the Resistance member Vertigo. While they are hiding, Dick's father is fatally wounded by the Amazons. Deadman tells him to leave his father but Dick refuses. Later, Dick's dying father makes Deadman promise to protect his son.[45] Afterwards, Dick and Boston run at the countryside looking for reinforcements, when they are soon caught in an explosion. Dick survived, but his friend Boston is killed. When he walks towards his friend's body, he is unaware of the fact that he walks through the ghost of Boston. Dick manages to take the Amazons down with a gasoline explosion. Meeting up with the Resistance, Dick becomes the new Doctor Fate. He is aided by the ghostly Boston, who lets him know that he is not alone.[46]

In other media

Serials and live action television

Batman

Douglas Croft portrayed Robin in the 1943 serial Batman, which dealt with Batman and Robin's struggle against Dr. Daka, a Japanese scientist who invented a device that turns people into pseudo-zombies.

Batman and Robin

In the 1949 successor Batman and Robin, actor Johnny Duncan took over the role. The plot dealt with the Dynamic Duo facing off against the Wizard, a mysterious hooded villain.

Batman (TV series)

Actor Burt Ward played Dick Grayson/Robin in the Batman television series that ran from 1966 through 1968, which further made Robin and Grayson inseparable parts of the Batman mythos. In the series, Dick was Bruce's ward (rather than adopted son) and attended "Woodrow Roosevelt High School". Robin was noted for delivering one-liners that would begin with "Holy" and end with "Batman", such as "Holy haberdashery, Batman!" or "Holy atomic pile, Batman!" Ward also reprised the role for the feature film produced in 1966 in conjunction with the show, as well as for the 1979 NBC television special, Legends of the Superheroes.

Birds of Prey (TV series)

Dick Grayson was mentioned by Barbara Gordon, in an episode of the short lived television series Birds of Prey.

The Graysons

On October 1, 2008, it was announced that the CW network was preparing a new live-action pilot called The Graysons which would follow the life of a pre-Robin Dick Grayson.[47] Smallville exec producers Kelly Souders and Brian Peterson, as well as Supernatural exec producer McG and Peter Johnson, were behind The Graysons, which landed a put pilot commitment at the netlet. Souders and Peterson were set to serve as showrunners (along with Todd Slavkin and Darren Swimmer).[48]

On November 6, 2008, Variety revealed that Warner Bros. executive Jeff Rubinov, who had initially supported the project, pulled the plug on the show. Rubinov stated that "the studio has opted not to go forward with the development of The Graysons at this time", stating that the concept did not fit with the aims of the current Batman franchise. Rubinov continued, "Warner Bros. Television is currently working on several replacement options for the CW."

Film

The special edition version of the Batman DVD features an animated storyboard sequence of when his parents are killed by the Joker. Jason Hillhouse provides the voice of Dick Grayson, while Kevin Conroy and Mark Hamill reprise their respective roles (from the DC animated universe) as Batman and the Joker in the storyboard sequence. Director Tim Burton planned to cast actor Ricky Addison Reed as Robin, but later felt it was unimportant to the story and cut Robin out altogether. Marlon Wayans was originally cast as Robin in the 1992 film Batman Returns,[49] however it was felt that the film featured too many characters, so the character was omitted from that film. In an earlier script of Batman Returns, he was portrayed as a technologically savvy street kid who would help Batman following his narrow escape when the Penguin tried to kill him. He would later play a crucial role in Batman's final confrontation with the Penguin. In that script, he was simply called Robin, and has no known real name. He was considered for the role in Batman Forever, but the change in directors from Tim Burton to Joel Schumacher would also mean a change in the choice of actor for the role of Robin. Despite not actually appearing in either film, he was reportedly still paid for the role.

Joel Schumacher films

Dick Grayson/Robin was played by actor Chris O'Donnell in 1995's Batman Forever. His costume in the film uses the familiar red and green coloring of the traditional Robin costume, after first contemplating using the code name "Nightwing". Grayson's parents and older brother are murdered by Two-Face at the annual Gotham Circus. Upon discovering Bruce Wayne's identity as Batman, he insists on becoming a crime-fighter himself to avenge his family.

In the sequel Batman & Robin, released in 1997, O'Donnell reprised the role of Robin. He wears a new costume, similar to that of Nightwing except that it is molded rubber, has a cape and a utility belt; the emblazoned logo is a deep red instead of blue. Also, for the finale where he, Batman, and Batgirl unveil new costumes, the logo is changed to an ice-blue color. In the film, Robin has grown frustrated with playing second fiddle to Batman and feels held back as his overconfidence causes Batman not to trust him.

Teen Titans

In 2007, Robin was confirmed as the lead in a Teen Titans movie for Warner Bros., with Akiva Goldsman as the writer.[50]

Animation

Dick Grayson appeared in many of the early animated series related to DC Comics superheroes. These shows included:

In all of these cartoons, he is paired with Batman and the two are portrayed as an inseparable duo. This is probably why Dick was not featured in the Teen Titans segments in The Batman/Superman Hour despite him being the Titans leader in the comics. With the exception of Burt Ward returning to voice the character for The New Adventures of Batman, Casey Kasem provided the voice for the character throughout these shows.

DC animated universe

Dick Grayson appeared as Robin and later Nightwing on Batman: The Animated Series and The New Batman Adventures, voiced by Loren Lester. The ten-year old version of the character was voiced by Joey Simmrin in the Emmy Award winning two-part episode "Robin's Reckoning", which provided Dick's origin story. While much of Dick's past remained the same, his costume was updated to a modern look with short sleeves and long pants, similar to Tim Drake's original Robin outfit. While Dick attended college at Gotham University, he dated Barbara Gordon, though neither was aware of each other's secret identity, despite having worked together.[51][52] Dick retired and left Gotham after coming to blows with Batman over the Dark Knight's controlling and ruthless behavior. Years later, Dick returned as Nightwing, and while he would work with Batman, the two never fully reconciled. Nightwing does however establish a strong working bond with his replacement, Tim Drake. Barbara Gordon also showed a desire to renew their relationship.

In the Batman Adventures, a spin-off comic book series based on the TV shows, the story arc "The Lost Years" bridged the gap between the end of Batman: The Animated Series and the start of The New Batman Adventures, telling the DCAU's version of Grayson's journey to become Nightwing.

Dick Grayson had two brief non-speaking cameos on Justice League and Justice League Unlimited. In a timeline altered by Vandal Savage, he is seen sharing an intimate moment with Barbara Gordon, and both are members of Bruce Wayne's resistance against Savage's regime.[53] He also appears watching Black Canary follow Huntress into Blüdhaven during the events of "Grudge Match".

Batman Beyond, a spin-off series of Batman: The Animated Series set in the future of the DC animated universe, implies Dick is still alive[54] and occasionally references him. Dick's departure from Gotham is further described: Dick had wished to continue his relationship with Barbara, but was hurt when she chose to stay with Bruce instead.[55] Terry McGinnis finds Dick's old formal wear in Wayne Manor, and wears it occasionally thereafter.[54][56]

Teen Titans

Robin is voiced by Scott Menville in the Teen Titans animated series, in which he leads a team including Beast Boy, Cyborg, Raven, and Starfire. Robin is portrayed as a generally respected leader, but obsessed with winning ("Divide and Conquer", "Masks", "Winner Take All") and filled with self-doubt when he fails ("Fractured", "The Quest"). As in the comics, Robin and Starfire are romantic interests, and she kisses him when they first meet in order to learn English ("Go"). He demonstrates jealously when she shows interest in others ("Betrothed"), but is also embarrassed by his own feelings for her ("Stranded"). Robin goes out of his way to protect Starfire during battles, such as by always catching her when she falls. At the end of Teen Titans: Trouble in Tokyo, they finally become a couple.

Though the series never explicitly stated the real name of the show's Robin, certain instances prove he is Dick Grayson. In the episode "How Long is Forever?", Nightwing appeared as Robin's alternate future identity. In "Fractured", a Bat-Mite-like other-dimensional character who idolizes Robin (and who wears a version of Robin's costume) had the name "Nosyarg Kcid": "Dick Grayson" spelled backwards. When Raven temporarily possessed Robin's mind in 'Haunted', there are brief flashbacks, one of which is in a circus as two people on the trapeze begin to fall, the fate Dick Grayson's parents meet in the comics. In the episode "Go", Robin makes his first chronological appearance in Jump City, surprising a local criminal with the lines "And now, I work alone," which coincides with Dick Grayson's dramatic breakup with Batman. Also in "Go," Starfire acquired the ability to speak English by giving Robin a passionate kiss, as her character did with Dick Grayson in the comics, a detail confirmed in the film Teen Titans: Trouble in Tokyo.

Robin currently appears in Teen Titans Go!, a spin-off comic book series based on the TV shows. #47 confirmed Robin to be Dick Grayson. During the "Apprentice" arc, Slade made a comment about wanting to be a father figure for Robin, to what he replied by saying "I already have a father", followed by a shot of several bats flying.

The Batman

Since the start of its fourth season, The Batman has included the character of Dick Grayson/Robin in its cast. Evan Sabara has provided the voice of the teenaged character. In this continuity, Dick consistently bickers with Barbara Gordon/Batgirl (possibly because of her jealousy that Bruce had accepted Dick so promptly, while she took a long time to be considered part of the team), but they always cooperate in the end, sometimes showing flirtatious hints (in the episode "The Breakout" the two are alone together, and show each other how much they need each other as partners.) However, they both always agree on the fact that he treats them like kids more so than partners. There isn't nearly as much conflict between Bruce and Dick as there have been in almost all of the latest adaptations. The episode, "Artifacts" depicted Batman's team in the future, with Dick Grayson as Nightwing instead of Robin. Jerry O'Connell voiced the character for this episode. Nightwing (wearing his costume from his debut in the New Teen Titans), returned in the episode "The Metal Face of Comedy" where he is a character created by Dick for an online Mortal Kombat-esque fighting game.[57]

Justice League: The New Frontier

Dick Grayson appeared as Robin in the direct-to-video animated movie Justice League: The New Frontier. This was Robin's first appearance in his original costume since the end of The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians, aside from The New Batman Adventures 1999 episode, "Legends of the Dark Knight". He was voiced by Shane Haboucha. Here, he apparently was adopted as a teenager after Batman realizes that he is frightening the innocent, instead of being adopted as a child. The circumstances surrounding their meeting are not shown. Robin thought that Superman was cool and showed great skills in acrobatics in the Batcave.

Batman: The Brave and the Bold

Dick appears as Robin in the episode "The Color of Revenge!"; he and Batman team up when Crazy Quilt escapes prison to get revenge on Robin. This teamup takes place sometime after Robin has moved to Blüdhaven and become an independent hero (he protects this city in the comics when he became Nightwing). The episode also has a flashback to Dick's early days and an earlier encounter between the Dynamic Duo and Crazy Quilt. The present-day Dick is voiced by Crawford Wilson and wears the costume that the Earth-Two Robin wore near the end of his career, while the younger Dick is voiced by Jeremy Shada and wears the classic Robin costume. He appears again in "Sidekicks Assemble!" where he, along with Speedy and Aqualad, faces off against Ra's al Ghul. At the end of the fight, Dick decides to go on his own and becomes Nightwing. This Nightwing costume is a nod to the original 1984 version. Nightwing is briefly seen in the first part of the episode "Starro Lives", where he is one of the many super-heroes who's mind is taken over by the villain Starro. Eventually, Dick is returned to normal like the others. Dick later appears in "The Knights of Tomorrow!", where he becomes Batman after Bruce retires and marries Selina Kyle. After Bruce and Selina are killed by Joker Jr., Dick partners with their son Damian, who becomes the new Robin. Here, he is voiced by Lex Lang.

Batman: Under the Red Hood

Neil Patrick Harris voices Dick in the DC Universe Animated Original Movies feature Batman: Under the Red Hood. Dick has already become Nightwing in this film. At the story's start, he takes down two minor thugs, one of whom seems to know that Nightwing was once Robin. The Joker also recognizes this.

Young Justice

Dick Grayson appears as Robin in the animated adaptation of Young Justice.[58] The character is voiced by actor Jesse McCartney.[59] He is introduced as Robin, but takes up the Nightwing mantle in season 2.

Mad

Robin appears in Mad where he tries to appeal to Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman about being called "Super Friends."

Video games

Radio

James Goode provided the voice for Dick Grayson as Nightwing first in 1989's Batman: The Lazarus Syndrome and again in 1994's Batman: Knightfall.

Fan films

Grayson is depicted as the principal character in the 2004 fan film Grayson, a trailer for a fictional film in which Grayson investigates the apparent death of Batman.

See also

References

  1. ^ Nightwing #114 (January 2006)
  2. ^ "Batman and Robin 25 Preview". http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=preview&id=9144. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  3. ^ Johns, Geoff. "Infinite Crisis". 
  4. ^ "Dick Grayson (Robin) - #11 Top Comic Book Heroes". IGN. http://www.ign.com/top/comic-book-heroes/11. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  5. ^ Infinite Crisis #7 (2006)
  6. ^ "WizardWorld Philadelphia: DCU panel". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929125311/www.newsarama.com/WWPhilly06/DC/DCUPanel.html. 
  7. ^ Batman: Battle for the Cowl #1-3
  8. ^ http://dccomics.com/dcu/comics/?cm=11864[clarification needed]
  9. ^ "What's Changed and What's the Same in Batman #1? [Spoilers". Comic Vine. 2011-09-21. http://www.comicvine.com/news/whats-changed-and-whats-the-same-in-batman-1-spoilers/143603/. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  10. ^ "KYLE HIGGINS on NIGHTWING's Ties to Babs & Slade". Newsarama.com. 2011-10-19. http://www.newsarama.com/comics/kyle-higgins-nightwing-111019.html. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  11. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #1
  12. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #2
  13. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #3
  14. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #4
  15. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #5
  16. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #06
  17. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #07
  18. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #11
  19. ^ Nightwing (Volume 3) #09
  20. ^ Titans #11 (2009)
  21. ^ Teen Titans (vol. 3) #19 (2005)
  22. ^ Teen Titans (vol. 3) #33 (2006)
  23. ^ Batman: Life After Death
  24. ^ Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day #2 (2003)
  25. ^ Wonder Woman (vol. 2) #165 (2001)
  26. ^ Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day #3 (2003)
  27. ^ Justice League of America #41 (2010)
  28. ^ Titans #23 (2010)
  29. ^ Justice League of America #50 (2010)
  30. ^ Nightwing #93 (2003)
  31. ^ "A specific look at ''Nightwing'' #93". Kalinara.blogspot.com. 2006-01-28. http://kalinara.blogspot.com/2006/01/on-rape-2-specific-look-at-nightwing.html. Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  32. ^ "Interview with Devin Grayson". Comicboards.com. 2004-08-09. http://www.comicboards.com/devin.php. Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  33. ^ Nightwing #118 (May 2006)
  34. ^ a b c Nightwing: Secret Files and Origins (October 1999)
  35. ^ Robin: Year One #3 (December 2000)
  36. ^ Infinite Crisis #3 (February 2006)
  37. ^ a b Batman #688
  38. ^ a b Batman and Robin #2
  39. ^ a b Batman and Robin #1
  40. ^ Batman Beyond #3 (October 2010)
  41. ^ Batman Beyond #4 (November 2010)
  42. ^ Batman Beyond #5 (November 2010)
  43. ^ Batman Beyond #6 (November 2010)
  44. ^ Flashpoint: Deadman and the Flying Graysons #1 (June 2011)
  45. ^ Flashpoint: Deadman and the Flying Graysons #2 (July 2011)
  46. ^ Flashpoint: Deadman and the Flying Graysons #3 (August 2011)
  47. ^ "Batman: CW Builds a Series Around pre-Robin Dick Grayson". Tvseriesfinale.com. 2008-10-01. http://tvseriesfinale.com/articles/batman-cw-builds-a-series-around-pre-robin-dick-grayson/. Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  48. ^ Schneider, Michael (September 30, 2008). "CW's 'Graysons' takes flier on Robin". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117993158.html?categoryid=14&cs=1. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  49. ^ Rabin, Nathan. "Marlon Wayans". The A.V. Club. http://www.avclub.com/content/node/23240. Retrieved September 13, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Teen Titans growing up at Warner Bros.". The Hollywood Reporter. May 31, 2007. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/film/news/e3ibdf0b7dd533b3de61add7273f8d79b81. 
  51. ^ "Batgirl Returns"
  52. ^ Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero
  53. ^ "The Savage Time"
  54. ^ a b Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker
  55. ^ "A Touch of Curaré"
  56. ^ "Spellbound"
  57. ^ The Batman "Artifacts" at the Internet Movie Database
  58. ^ Hyde, David (April 21, 2010). "Breaking News From Cartoon Network, Warner Bros. Animation and DC Entertainment". DC Universe: The Source. http://dcu.blog.dccomics.com/2010/04/21/breaking-news-from-cartoon-network-warner-bros-animation-and-dc-entertainment/. 
  59. ^ Fitzpatrick, Kevin (July 23, 2010). "Comic-Con 2010: Young Justice Goes Under Cover". UGO Networks. http://www.ugo.com/tv/comic-con-2010-young-justice. Retrieved July 23, 2010. 
  60. ^ "LEGO Batman: Character Gallery". Game Informer (186): 92. October 2008.  Features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph.

External links