This article is about the genus of flowering plants. For genus of beetles, see
is a Dianella monocot genus of flowering plants. They are [1 ] commonly called flax lilies.
APG II system of plant classification, Dianella was placed in the family Hemerocallidaceae. When that system was replaced by APG III in 2009, Hemerocallidaceae was combined with two other families to form a larger version of Xanthorrhoeaceae. [2 ] Dianella ranges from Japan to India, thence south to Australia and New Zealand; also occurring on many Pacific Islands. About half of the species are native to Australia. Several [3 ] species are grown for their attractive foliage and shiny, blue to purple berries. Estimates of the number of species range from 20 [4 ] to more than 40. [1 ] The [5 ] type species for the genus is Dianella ensata, now a synonym of [6 ] Dianella ensifolia. [7 ] Dianella is not well understood taxonomically and is in much need of revision. It is closely related to and Thelionema . Herpolirion Not all taxonomists recognize the genus. In one [8 ] paper on the classification of Xanthorrhoeaceae, Dianella and six other genera were subsumed in the genus . Phormium Dianella sandwicensis
Description [edit ]
Underground rhizome Long, strappy leaves up to 1 meter long, ranging from deep to pale green, to blue-green Blue flowers in spring, with 3 petals, 3 sepals, and prominent yellow stamens Shiny blue to purple berries up to 1.5 centimeters in diameter, spherical or elongated with spongy pulp and shiny black seeds Species [edit ]
As of May 2012
, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes 41 species:
Dianella acutifolia Schlittler Dianella adenanthera (G.Forst.) R.J.F.Hend. Dianella amoena G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall Dianella atraxis R.J.F.Hend. Dianella bambusifolia Hallier f. Dianella boliviana Schlittler Dianella brevicaulis (Ostenf.) G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall Dianella brevipedunculata R.J.F.Hend. Dianella caerulea Sims Dianella callicarpa G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall Dianella carolinensis Lauterb. Dianella congesta R.Br. Dianella crinoides R.J.F.Hend. Dianella daenikeri Schlittler Dianella dentata Schlittler Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. (syn. D. ensata) Dianella fruticans R.J.F.Hend. Dianella haematica Heenan & de Lange Dianella incollata R.J.F.Hend. Dianella intermedia Endl. Dianella javanica (Blume) Kunth Dianella latissima Heenan & de Lange Dianella longifolia R.Br. Dianella monophylla Hallier f. Dianella nervosa R.J.F.Hend. Dianella nigra Colenso Dianella odorata Blume Dianella pavopennacea R.J.F.Hend. Dianella pendula Schlittler Dianella plicata Schlittler Dianella porracea (R.J.F.Hend.) Horsfall & G.W.Carr Dianella prunina R.J.F.Hend. Dianella rara R.Br. Dianella revoluta R.Br. Dianella saffordiana Fosberg & Sachet Dianella sandwicensis Hook. & Arn. Dianella serrulata Hallier f. Dianella stipitata Schlittler Dianella tarda Horsfall & G.W.Carr Dianella tasmanica Hook.f. Dianella tenuissima G.W.Carr Australian species (incomplete) [edit ] Dianella amoena , berries reported edible Dianella admixta Dianella bambusifolia, berries reported edible [9 ] , coast flax-lily Dianella brevicaulis [10 ] Dianella brevipedunculata, leaves to 60 cm, flowers & berries hidden within leaves , Paroo lily, leaves to 60 cm, flower stem to 90 cm Dianella caerulea Dianella congesta, beach flax lily, fruit in tight bunches, berries reported edible and the best-tasting [9 ] , found on Dianella intermedia Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Dianella longifolia, berries reported edible [9 ] Dianella pavopenacea, berries reported edible [9 ] Dianella porracea Dianella rara (including Dianella revoluta D. admixta), berries reported edible [5 ] [9 ] Dianella tarda , Tasman flax lily, leaves to 80 cm, flower stem to 1.5m, berries not edible Dianella tasmanica [9 ] Dianella tenuissima, recently described tussock-forming species from the Blue Mountains of New South Wales New Zealand species (incomplete) [edit ] Uses [edit ]
Some species can be cultivated. They are frost-hardy and grow in full sun or partial shade. They can be propagated by division of the rhizome. Some plants have dense, attractive foliage and showy flowers and fruits.
Reports of the edibility of the fruit range from very poisonous
[11 ] to sweet and nutty (such as [12 ] D. caerulea), and the beach flax lily ( [13 ] D. congesta) is reportedly the best-tasting. [9 ]
The leaves were used to weave
dillies and baskets by Australian aboriginals. [9 ] History [edit ]
genus name Dianella was published by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1786 in his , Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique but this did not [14 ] validly establish the botanical name because Lamarck did not include a description of the new genus. [15 ] Antoine Laurent de Jussieu made it a correct name in 1789 when he published a description in the first edition of his . Genera Plantarum [16 ] In an [17 ] etymology of this name, Umberto Quattrocchi states that Dianella is "diminutive of Diana, the mythical goddess of hunting, the sylvan goddess. [18 ] References [edit ] ^ a b H. Trevor Clifford, Rodney J.F. Henderson, and John G. Conran. 1998. "Hemerocallidaceae" pages 245-253. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor). 1998. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume III. Springer-Verlag: Berlin;Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-64060-8 ^ Mark W. Chase, James L. Reveal, and Michael F. Fay. "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2):132–136. ^ Starting out with Natives, John Wriggley & Murray Fagg ^ Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set). ^ a b c Search for "Dianella", , World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , retrieved 2012-05-25 ^ Dianella In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below). ^ ", Dianella ensata" World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , retrieved 2012-05-25 ^ Dion S. Devey, Ilia Leitch, Paula J. Rudall, J. Chris Pires, Yohan Pillon, and Mark W. Chase. "Systematics of Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato, with an emphasis on Bulbine". Aliso 22( Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution):345-351. ISSN 0065-6275. ^ a b c d e f g h Wild food plants of Australia, Tim Low ^ "Dianella brevicaulis". . FloraBase Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia. ^ http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/112796/garden-plants-poisonous-to-people.pdf, page 8 ^ http://www.alpaca.asn.au/docs/about/husbandry/poison_plants.pdf ^ http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/plant_info/aboriginal_bush_foods ^ Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. 1786. Encyclopédie Méthodique: Botanique. 2:176 (See External links below). ^ Rodney J.F. Henderson. 1977. Typification of Dianella Lam. ex Juss. (Liliaceae). Taxon 26(1):131-137. ^ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1789), , Paris: Herrisant and Barrois, p. 41 Genera Plantarum (See External links" below) ^ Dianella in International Plant Names Index. (see External links below). ^ Umberto Quattrocchi. 2000. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names volume II. CRC Press: Boca Raton; New York; Washington,DC;, USA. London, UK. ISBN 978-0-8493-2676-9 (vol. II). (see External links below). External links [edit ]