Dianella (plant)

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Dianella
Dianella sp.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Xanthorrhoeaceae
Subfamily:Hemerocallidoideae
Genus:Dianella
Lamarck ex. A.L. Jussieu
Type species
Dianella ensata
( Thunberg) R.J.F. Henderson
Species

See text.

 
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Dianella
Dianella sp.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Monocots
Order:Asparagales
Family:Xanthorrhoeaceae
Subfamily:Hemerocallidoideae
Genus:Dianella
Lamarck ex. A.L. Jussieu
Type species
Dianella ensata
( Thunberg) R.J.F. Henderson
Species

See text.

Dianella is a monocot genus of flowering plants.[1] They are commonly called flax lilies.

In the APG II system of plant classification, Dianella was placed in the family Hemerocallidaceae. When that system was replaced by APG III in 2009, Hemerocallidaceae was combined with two other families to form a larger version of Xanthorrhoeaceae.[2]

Dianella ranges from Japan to India, thence south to Australia and New Zealand; also occurring on many Pacific Islands. About half of the species are native to Australia.[3] Several species are grown for their attractive foliage and shiny, blue to purple berries.[4] Estimates of the number of species range from 20[1] to more than 40.[5] The type species for the genus is Dianella ensata,[6] now a synonym of Dianella ensifolia.[7]

Dianella is not well understood taxonomically and is in much need of revision. It is closely related to Thelionema and Herpolirion.[8] Not all taxonomists recognize the genus. In one paper on the classification of Xanthorrhoeaceae, Dianella and six other genera were subsumed in the genus Phormium.

Dianella sandwicensis fruit

Description[edit]

Characteristics:

Dianella 'Sea Breeze'

Species[edit]

As of May 2012, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes 41 species:[5]

  • Dianella acutifolia Schlittler
  • Dianella adenanthera (G.Forst.) R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella amoena G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall
  • Dianella atraxis R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella bambusifolia Hallier f.
  • Dianella boliviana Schlittler
  • Dianella brevicaulis (Ostenf.) G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall
  • Dianella brevipedunculata R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella caerulea Sims
  • Dianella callicarpa G.W.Carr & P.F.Horsfall
  • Dianella carolinensis Lauterb.
  • Dianella congesta R.Br.
  • Dianella crinoides R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella daenikeri Schlittler
  • Dianella dentata Schlittler
  • Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. (syn. D. ensata)
  • Dianella fruticans R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella haematica Heenan & de Lange
  • Dianella incollata R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella intermedia Endl.
  • Dianella javanica (Blume) Kunth
  • Dianella latissima Heenan & de Lange
  • Dianella longifolia R.Br.
  • Dianella monophylla Hallier f.
  • Dianella nervosa R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella nigra Colenso
  • Dianella odorata Blume
  • Dianella pavopennacea R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella pendula Schlittler
  • Dianella plicata Schlittler
  • Dianella porracea (R.J.F.Hend.) Horsfall & G.W.Carr
  • Dianella prunina R.J.F.Hend.
  • Dianella rara R.Br.
  • Dianella revoluta R.Br.
  • Dianella saffordiana Fosberg & Sachet
  • Dianella sandwicensis Hook. & Arn.
  • Dianella serrulata Hallier f.
  • Dianella stipitata Schlittler
  • Dianella tarda Horsfall & G.W.Carr
  • Dianella tasmanica Hook.f.
  • Dianella tenuissima G.W.Carr

Australian Species (incomplete)[edit]

New Zealand Species (incomplete)[edit]

Uses[edit]

Some species can be cultivated. They are frost-hardy and grow in full sun or partial shade. They can be propagated by division of the rhizome. Some plants have dense, attractive foliage and showy flowers and fruits.

Reports of the edibility of the fruit range from very poisonous[11][12] to sweet and nutty (such as D. caerulea),[13] and the beach flax lily (D. congesta) is reportedly the best-tasting.[9]

The leaves were used to weave dillies and baskets by Australian aboriginals.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b H. Trevor Clifford, Rodney J.F. Henderson, and John G. Conran. 1998. "Hemerocallidaceae" pages 245-253. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor). 1998. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume III. Springer-Verlag: Berlin;Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-64060-8
  2. ^ Mark W. Chase, James L. Reveal, and Michael F. Fay. "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2):132–136.
  3. ^ Starting out with Natives, John Wriggley & Murray Fagg
  4. ^ Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
  5. ^ a b c Search for "Dianella", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-05-25 
  6. ^ Dianella In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
  7. ^ "Dianella ensata", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-05-25 
  8. ^ Dion S. Devey, Ilia Leitch, Paula J. Rudall, J. Chris Pires, Yohan Pillon, and Mark W. Chase. "Systematics of Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato, with an emphasis on Bulbine". Aliso 22(Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution):345-351. ISSN 0065-6275.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Wild food plants of Australia, Tim Low
  10. ^ "Dianella brevicaulis". FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia. 
  11. ^ http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/112796/garden-plants-poisonous-to-people.pdf, page 8
  12. ^ http://www.alpaca.asn.au/docs/about/husbandry/poison_plants.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/plant_info/aboriginal_bush_foods

External links[edit]