Diana (mythology)

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The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography

In Roman mythology, Diana (lt. "heavenly" or "divine") was the goddess of the hunt, the moon and birthing, being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis,[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Dianic Wicca, a largely feminist form of the practice, is named for her. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, Diana, Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry.

Oak groves were especially sacred to her. According to mythology (in common with the Greek religion and their deity Artemis), Diana was born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman deities: Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife; and Virbius, the woodland god.

Etymology[edit]

Diana (pronounced with long 'ī' and 'ā') is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to later 'divus', 'dius', as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia and in the neuter form dium meaning the sky.[2] It is rooted in Indoeuropean *d(e)y(e)w, meaning bright sky or daylight, from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus, (god), dies, (day, daylight), and " diurnal", (daytime).

On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια (diwia) is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification.[3][need quotation to verify]

The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon.

Mythology[edit]

The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil[4] it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods, referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. Such gods, while keeping the original features of celestial divinities, i.e. transcendent heavenly power and abstention from direct rule in worldly matters, did not share the fate of other celestial gods in Indoeuropean religions - that of becoming dei otiosi or gods without practical purpose,[5] since they did retain a particular sort of influence over the world and mankind.

The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, and her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects the heavenly world (diuum means sky or open air) in its sovereignty, supremacy, impassibility, and indifference towards such secular matters as the fates of mortals and states. At the same time, however, she is seen as active in ensuring the succession of kings and in the preservation of humankind through the protection of childbirth.

These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess.

  1. The institution of the rex Nemorensis, Diana's sacerdos (priest) in the Arician wood, who held the position till someone else challenged and killed him in a duel, after breaking a branch from a certain tree of the wood. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations.[6] Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire.[7]
  2. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who, once pregnant, prayed for an easy delivery. This form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources, e.g. Ovid.[6]

According to Dumezil the forerunner of all frame gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image (avatar) of the Vedic god Dyaus. Having renounced the world, in his roles of father and king, he attained the status of an immortal being while retaining the duty of ensuring that his dynasty is preserved and that there is always a new king for each generation.

The Scandinavian god Heimdallr performs an analogous function: he is born first and will die last. He too gives origin to kingship and the first king, bestowing on him regal prerogatives. Diana, although a female deity, has exactly the same functions, preserving mankind through childbirth and royal succession.

F. H. Pairault in her essay on Diana qualifies Dumézil's theory as "impossible to verify".

Dumezil's interpretation appears deliberately to ignore that of James G. Frazer, who links Diana with the male god Janus as a divine couple. This looks odd as Dumézil's definition of the concept of frame god would fit well the figure of Janus.[8] Frazer identifies the two with the supreme heavenly couple Jupiter-Juno and additionally ties in these figures to the overarching Indoeuropean religious complex. This regality is also linked to the cult of trees, particularly oaks. In this interpretative schema, the institution of the Rex Nemorensis and related ritual should be seen as related to the theme of the dying god and the kings of May.[9]

Physical description[edit]

Gallo-Roman bronze statuette of Diana (latter 1st century)

As a goddess of hunting, Diana often wears a short tunic and hunting boots. She is often portrayed holding a bow, and carrying a quiver on her shoulder, accompanied by a deer or hunting dogs.[10] Like Venus, she was portrayed as beautiful and youthful. The crescent moon, sometimes worn as a diadem, is a major attribute of the goddess.

Worship[edit]

Diana was initially just the hunting goddess,[citation needed] associated with wild animals and woodlands. She also later became a moon goddess, supplanting Titan goddess Luna.[citation needed] She also became the goddess of childbirth and ruled over the countryside. Catullus wrote a poem to Diana in which she has more than one alias: Latonia, Lucina, Iuno, Trivia, Luna.[11]

In Rome the cult of Diana should have been almost as old as the city itself as Varro mentions her in the list of deities to whom king Titus Tatius vowed a shrine. It is noteworthy that the list includes Luna and Diana Lucina as separate entities. Another testimony to the high antiquity of her cult is to be found in the lex regia of king Tullus Hostilius that condemns those guilty of incest to the sacratio to the goddess.

Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13,[12] when King Servius Tullius, himself born a slave, dedicated her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century BC. Being placed on the Aventine, and thus outside the pomerium, meant that Diana's cult essentially remained a foreign one, like that of Bacchus; she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia,[13] where her priest, the Rex Nemorensis remained. There the simple open-air fane was held in common by the Latin tribes,[14] which Rome aspired to weld into a league and direct. Diana of the wood was soon thoroughly Hellenized,[15] "a process which culminated with the appearance of Diana beside Apollo in the first lectisternium at Rome".[16] Diana was regarded with great reverence and was a patroness of lower-class citizens, called plebeians,[17] and slaves; slaves could receive asylum in her temples. This fact is of difficult interpretation. Georg Wissowa proposed the explanation that it might be because the first slaves of the Romans must have been Latins of the neighbouring tribes.[18] However in Ephesus too there was the same custom of the asylum (ασυλιον).

According to Françoise Hélène Pairault's study,[19] historical and archaeological evidence point to the fact that both Diana of the Aventine and Diana Nemorensis were the product of the direct or indirect influence of the cult of Artemis spread by the Phoceans among the Greek towns of Campania Cuma and Capua, which in turn passed it over to the Etruscans and the Latins by the 6th and 5th centuries BC.

The origin of the ritual of the rex Nemorensis should have to be traced to the legend of Orestes and Iphigenia more than that of Hippolitos. The formation of the Latin League led by Laevius (or Baebius) Egerius[20] happened under the influence of an alliance with the tyrant of Cuma Aristodemos[21] and is probably connected to the political events at end of the 6th century narrated by Livy and Dionysius, such as the siege of Aricia by Porsenna's son Arruns. It is remarkable that the composition of this league does not reflect that of the Latin people who took part in the Latiar or Feriae Latinae given by Pliny and it has not as its leader the rex Nemorensis but a dictator Latinus.[22] It should thence be considered a political formation and not a traditional society founded on links of blood.

It looks as if the confrontation happened between two groups of Etruscans who fought for supremacy, those from Tarquinia, Vulci and Caere (allied with the Greeks of Capua) and those of Clusium. This is reflected in the legend of the coming of Orestes to Nemi and of the inhumation of his bones in the Roman Forum near the temple of Saturn.[23] The cult introduced by Orestes at Nemi is apparently that of the Artemis Tauropolos. The literary amplification[24] reveals a confused religious background: different Artemis were conflated under the epithet.[25] As far as Nemi's Diana is concerned there are two different versions, by Strabo [26] and Servius Honoratus. Strabo's version looks to be the most authoritative as he had access to first hand primary sources on the sanctuaries of Artemis, i.e. the priest of Artemis Artemidoros of Ephesus. The meaning of Tauropolos denotes an Asiatic goddess with lunar attributes, lady of the herds.[27] The only possible interpretatio graeca of high antiquity concerning Diana Nemorensis could have been the one based upon this ancient aspect of deity of light, master of wildlife. Tauropolos is an ancient epithet attached to Hecate, Artemis and even Athena.[28] According to the legend Orestes founded Nemi together with Iphigenia.[29] At Cuma the Sybil is the priestess of both Phoibos and Trivia.[30] Hesiod[31] and Stesichorus[32] tell the story according to which after her death Iphigenia was divinised under the name of Hecate, fact which would support the assumption that Artemis Tauropolos had a real ancient alliance with the heroine, who was her priestess in Taurid and her human paragon. This religious complex is in turn supported by the triple statue of Artemis-Hecate. A coin minted by P. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BC has been acknowledged as representing the archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis.[33] It represents Artemis with the bow at one extremity, Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a central deity not immediately identifiable, all united by a horizontal bar.

The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this image to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan models. Two heads found in the sanctuary[34] and the Roman theatre at Nemi,[35] which have a hollow on their back, lend support to this interpretation of an archaic Diana Trivia, in whom three different elements are associated. The presence of a Hellenised Diana at Nemi should be related to the presence of the cult in Campania, as Diana Tifatina was appelled Trivia in an imperial age inscription which mentions a flamen Virbialis dedicated by eques C. Octavius Verus.[36] Cuma too had a cult of a chthonic Hecate and certainly had strict contacts with Latium.[37] The theological complex present in Diana looks very elaborated and certainly Hellenic, while an analogous Latin concept of Diana Trivia seems uncertain, as Latin sources reflect a Hellenised character of the goddess.[38]

Though some Roman patrons ordered marble replicas of the specifically Anatolian "Diana" of Ephesus, where the Temple of Artemis stood, Diana was usually depicted for educated Romans in her Greek guise. If she is accompanied by a deer, as in the Diana of Versailles (illustration, above right) this is because Diana was the patroness of hunting. The deer may also offer a covert reference to the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon), who saw her bathing naked. Diana transformed Acteon into a stag and set his own hunting dogs to kill him.

Worship of Diana is mentioned in the Bible. In Acts of the Apostles, Ephesian metal smiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul’s preaching of Christianity, jealously rioted in her defense, shouting “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28, New English Bible). After the city secretary (γραμματεύς) quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper (guardian) of the temple of the great Diana and of her image that fell from heaven ?" (Acts 19:36)

Sanctuaries[edit]

Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes. Therefore many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans.

The Arician wood sanctuary near the lake of Nemi was Latin confederal as testified by the dedicatory epigraph quoted by Cato.[39]

She had a shrine in Rome on the Aventine hill, according to tradition dedicated by king Servius Tullius. Its location is remarkable as the Aventine is situated outside the pomerium, i.e. original territory of the city, in order to comply with the tradition that Diana was a goddess common to all Latins and not exclusively of the Romans.

Other sanctuaries we know about are listed below:

Legacy[edit]

In religion[edit]

Diana's cult has been related in Early Modern Europe to the cult of Nicevenn (aka Dame Habond, Perchta, Herodiana, etc.). She was related to myths of a female Wild Hunt.

Wicca[edit]

Today there is a branch of Wicca named for her, which is characterized by an exclusive focus on the feminine aspect of the Divine.[48] Diana's name is also used as the third divine name in a Wiccan energy chant- "Isis Astarte Diana Hecate Demeter Kali Inanna".[49]

Stregheria[edit]

In Italy the old religion of Stregheria embraced the goddess Diana as Queen of the Witches; witches being the wise women healers of the time. Diana was said to have created the world of her own being having in herself the seeds of all creation yet to come. It was said that out of herself she divided the darkness and the light, keeping for herself the darkness of creation and creating her brother Apollo, the light. Diana was believed to have loved and ruled with her brother Apollo, the god of the Sun.[50]

In language[edit]

Both the Romanian words for "fairy" Zânǎ[51] and Sânzianǎ, the Leonese and Portuguese word for "water nymph" xana, and the Spanish word for "shooting target" and "morning call" (diana) seem to come from the name of Diana.

In the arts[edit]

Diana Reposing by Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry. The nude goddess, identified by the crescent moon in her hair and the bow and quiver at her side, reclines on a blue drapery.

Since the Renaissance the myth of Diana has often been represented in the visual and dramatic arts, including the opera L'arbore di Diana. In the 16th century, Diana's image figured prominently at the châteaus of Fontainebleau, Chenonceau, & at Anet, in deference to Diane de Poitiers, mistress of Henri of France. At Versailles she was incorporated into the Olympian iconography with which Louis XIV, the Apollo-like "Sun King" liked to surround himself. Diana is also a character in the 1876 Léo Delibes ballet Sylvia. The plot deals with Sylvia, one of Diana's nymphs and sworn to chastity, and Diana's assault on Sylvia's affections for the shepherd Amyntas.

In literature[edit]

In Shakespeare
Diana as the Huntress, by Giampietrino.

In painting and sculpture[edit]

Diana has been one of the most popular themes in art. Painters like Titian, Peter Paul Rubens, François Boucher, Nicholas Poussin made use of her myth as a major theme. Most depictions of Diana in art featured the stories of Diana and Actaeon, or Callisto,or depicted her resting after hunting. Some famous work of arts with a Diana theme are :

In beaux arts[edit]

Pomona (left, symbolizing agriculture), and Diana (symbolizing commerce) as building decoration.

Beaux Arts architecture and garden design (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used classic references in a modernized form. Two of the most popular of the period were of Pomona (goddess of orchards) as a metaphor for Agriculture, and Diana, representing Commerce, which is a perpetual hunt for advantage and profits.

In film[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
  2. ^ G.Dumézil La religion Romaine archaique Paris, 1974, part 3, chap. 1.
  3. ^ H. F. Pairault below cites three. Contrary G. Rousseau.
  4. ^ G. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaique Paris 1974, part 3, chap.1.
  5. ^ Mircea Eliade Traite' d'histoire des religions Paris, 1954.
  6. ^ a b Ovid Fasti III, 262-271.
  7. ^ Titus Livius Ab urbe condita 1:31-1:60.
  8. ^ J. Frazer The golden bough 1922, chaps. 1, 12, 16.
  9. ^ J.G. Frazer Dying gods, 1912; Geza Roheim Animism, magic and the divine king Routledge, London, 1972, part 3, (in particular chapter "The king of May").
  10. ^ "Artemis". Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  11. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/35900939/Latin-Oration
  12. ^ The date coincides with the founding dates celebrated at Aricium. Arthur E. Gordon, "On the Origin of Diana", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 63 (1932, pp. 177-192) p 178.
  13. ^ Her cult at Aricia was first attested in Latin literature by Cato the Elder, in a surviving quote by the late grammarian Priscian. Supposed Greek origins for the Aricia cult are strictly a literary topos. (Gordon 1932:178 note, and p. 181).
  14. ^ commune Latinorum Dianae templum in Varro, Lingua Latina V.43; the cult there was of antiqua religione in Pliny's Natural History, xliv. 91, 242 and Ovid's Fasti III 327-331.
  15. ^ The Potnia Theron aspect of Hellenic Artemis is represented in Capua and Signia, Greek cities of Magna Graecia, in the 5th century BC.
  16. ^ Gordon 1932:179.
  17. ^ covenofthegoddess. "Goddess Diana." Coven of the Goddess. [1] (accessed November 27, 2012).
  18. ^ as quoted by Dumézil La religion romaine archaique Paris, 1974,part 3, chap. 1.
  19. ^ "Diana Nemorensis, déesse latine, déesse hellénisée" in Mélanges d' archéologie et d'histoire 81 1969 p. 425-471.
  20. ^ The historicity of this character is questioned by Dumézil as the name Egerius looks suspect to him.
  21. ^ Livy II 14, 5-9; Dionysius Halicarnasseus V 36, 1-4.
  22. ^ Pliny Naturalis Historia III 5 68-70.
  23. ^ Servius ad Aeneidem II 116; VI 136; Hyginus Fabulae 261.
  24. ^ Ovid Metamorphoses XIV 331-2 Scythicae regnum nemorale Dianae; Lucanus Pharsalia III 86 "qua sublime nemus Scythicae qua regna Dianae". Silius Italicus Punica IV 367; VIII 362; Valerius Flaccus Argonauticae II 305.
  25. ^ Jean Bayet "Les origines de l'Arcadisme romain" p.135; M. P. Nilson Griechische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1955 p. 485 ff.
  26. ^ Strabo V 249: αφιδρύματα της ταυροπόλου.
  27. ^ Suidas s.v. :η Άρτεμις εν Ταύροις της Σκυθίας τιμωμένη; η από μέρους, των ποιμνίων επστάσις. η ότι η αυτη τη σελήνη εστι καί εποχειται ταύροις. Darehnberg -Saglio-Pottier Dictionnaire des antiquités s.v. Diana fig.. 2357.
  28. ^ Hesichius s.v. Tauropolai; Scholiasta ad Aristophanem Lysistrata 447; Suidas above; Photius Lexicon s.v. Tuaropolos; N. Yalouris Athena als Herrin der Pferde in Museum Helveticum 7 1950 p. 99; E. Abel Orphica, Hymni I in Hecaten 7. Hymni magici V in Selenen 4.
  29. ^ Servius ad Aeneidem VI 136.
  30. ^ Aeneis VI 35; F. H. Pairault p. 448 citing Jean Bayet Origines de l' Hercule romain p. 280 n. 4.
  31. ^ Hesiod Catalogueedited by Augusto Traversa, Naples 1951 p. 76 text 82; R. Merkelbach, M. L. West Fragmenta Hesiodea Oxonii 1967, fragment 23.
  32. ^ Orestia cited by Philodemos Περι εύσεβείας 24 Gomperz II 52: fragment 38 B; Pausanias I 43, 1; II 22, 7.
  33. ^ A. Alföldi"Diana Nemorensis" in American journal of Archaeology 64 1960 p. 137-144.
  34. ^ Excavation of 1791 by cardinal Despuig not mentioned in the report: cf. P. Riis who cites E. Lucidi Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia e delle sue colonie Genzano e Nemi Rome 1796 p. 97 ff. finds at Valle Giardino.
  35. ^ NSA 1931 p. 259-261 platesVI a-b.
  36. ^ CIL X 3795.
  37. ^ Dionysius Hal. VII 6, 4: the people of Aricia help Aristdemos in bringing home the Etruscan booty.
  38. ^ Servius Ad Aeneidem IV 511; Ennius apud Varro De Lingua Latina VII 16; Catullus 34, 15.
  39. ^ Cato Origins fr. 62: "Lucum Dianum In nemore Aricino Egerius Baebius (some scholars prefer to read Laevius) Tusculanus dedicavit dictator Latinus. Hi populi communiter: Tusculanus, Aricinus, Laurens, Coranus, Tiburtis, Pometius, Ardeatis, Rutulus."
  40. ^ Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI, 242.
  41. ^ CIL, 975; CIL XIV,2633.
  42. ^ Hifler, Joyce. "The Goddess Diana . " Witches Of The Craft. [2] (accessed November 27, 2012).
  43. ^ Horace, Carmina I 21, 5-6; Carmen Saeculare.
  44. ^ CIL XIV,2112.
  45. ^ CIL, 3537.
  46. ^ Livy Ab urbe condita XXVII 4.
  47. ^ Roy Merle Peterson The cults of Campania Rome, Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome, 1919, pp. 322-328.
  48. ^ Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. From The Witches Voice. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
  49. ^ "TRADITIONAL WICCA - CLASS 8". Blue Moon Wicca. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
  50. ^ Charles G. Leland, Aradia: The Gospel of Witches, Theophania Publishing, US, 2010
  51. ^ Zânǎ in DEX '98 and NODEX
  52. ^ Cross, Wilbur L. (1993). The Yale Shakespeare: the complete works. United States of America: Barnes & Noble. pp. 365–399. ISBN 1-56619-104-1. 
  53. ^ "DIANA Mayer & Grammelspacher GmbH & Co.KG - THE DIANA TRADEMARK." COMPANY | THE DIANA TRADEMARK. [3] (accessed November 27, 2012).
  54. ^ F-16.net

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]