Demographics of the United States

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Leading population centers (see complete list)
RankCore city (cities)Metro area populationMetropolitan Statistical AreaRegion[49]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Chicago
Chicago
1New York City19,015,900New York–New Jersey–Connecticut–Pennsylvania, NY–NJ–CT–PA MSANortheast
2Los Angeles12,944,801Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, CA MSAWest
3Chicago9,504,753Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSAMidwest
4Dallas–Fort Worth6,526,548Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSASouth
5Houston6,086,538Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSASouth
6Philadelphia5,992,414Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSANortheast
7Washington, D.C.5,703,948Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSANortheast
8Miami5,670,125Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, FL MSASouth
9Atlanta5,359,205Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta, GA MSASouth
10Boston4,591,112Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSANortheast
11San Francisco4,391,037San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSAWest
12San Bernardino-Riverside4,304,997San Bernandino–Riverside–Ontario, CA MSAWest
13Detroit4,285,832Detroit–Warren–Livonia, MI MSAMidwest
14Phoenix4,263,236Phoenix–Mesa–Glendale, AZ MSAWest
15Seattle3,500,026Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSAWest
16Minneapolis–St. Paul3,318,486Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSAMidwest
17San Diego3,140,069San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSAWest
18Tampa–St. Petersburg2,824,724Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSASouth
19St. Louis2,817,355St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL MSAMidwest
20Baltimore2,729,110Baltimore–Towson, MD MSANortheast
based upon 2011 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[50]
 
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Largest ancestry groups by county, 2000.

As of January 10, 2014, the United States has a total resident population of 317,440,000,[1] making it the third-most populous country in the world.[2] It is very urbanized, with 82% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2011 (the worldwide urban rate is 52%).[3] Much of the country is nearly uninhabited.[4] California and Texas are the most populous states,[5] as the mean center of U.S. population has consistently shifted westward and southward.[6] New York City is the most populous city in the United States.[7]

The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2012 is 1.88 children per woman,[9] which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. Compared to other Western countries, in 2011, U.S. fertility rate was lower than that of France (2.02) and the United Kingdom (1.97).[10] However, U.S. population growth is among the highest in industrialized countries,[11] because the differences in fertility rates are less than the differences in immigration levels, which are higher in the U.S.[12][13] The United States Census Bureau shows population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%.[11]


There were over 178.6 million females in the United States in 2009. The number of males was 151.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were more than twice as many women as men. People under 20 years of age made up over a quarter of the U.S. population (27.3%), and people age 65 and over made up one-eighth (12.8%) in 2009.[14] The national median age was 36.8 years.[14] The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who reported "White" or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish."[15] Whites constitute the majority of the U.S. population, with a total of 223,553,265 or 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. There are 63.7% Whites when Hispanics who describe themselves as "white" are taken out of the calculation. Despite major changes due to illegal and legal immigration since the 1960s and the higher birth-rates of nonwhites, the overall current majority of American citizens are still white, and English-speaking, though regional differences exist.

The American population almost quadrupled during the 20th century — at a growth rate of about 1.3% a year — from about 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000. It reached the 200 million mark in 1968, and the 300 million mark on October 17, 2006.[16][17] Population growth is fastest among minorities as a whole, and according to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2012, 50.4% of American children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[18]

Hispanic and Latino Americans accounted for 69% of the national population growth of 2.9 million between July 1, 2005, and July 1, 2006.[19] Immigrants and their U.S.-born descendants are expected to provide most of the U.S. population gains in the decades ahead.[20]

The Census Bureau projects a U.S. population of 439 million in 2050, which is a 46% increase from 2007 (301.3 million).[21] However, the United Nations projects a U.S. population of 402 million in 2050, an increase of 32% from 2007 (the UN projects a gain of 38% for the world at large).[22] In either case, such growth is unlike most European countries, especially Germany, Russia, and Greece, or Asian countries such as Japan or South Korea, whose populations are slowly declining, and whose fertility rates are below replacement. Official census report, reported that 54.4% (2,150,926 out of 3,953,593) of births in 2010, were non-Hispanic white. An increase of 0.34% compared to the previous year, which was 54.06%.[23]

Historical populations
CensusPop.
17903,929,214
18005,236,63133.3%
18107,239,88138.3%
18209,638,45333.1%
183012,866,02033.5%
184017,069,45332.7%
185023,191,87635.9%
186031,443,32135.6%
187038,558,37122.6%
188049,371,34028.0%
189062,979,76627.6%
190076,212,16821.0%
191092,228,53121.0%
1920106,021,56815.0%
1930123,202,66016.2%
1940132,165,1297.3%
1950151,325,79814.5%
1960179,323,17518.5%
1970203,211,92613.3%
1980226,545,80511.5%
1990248,709,8739.8%
2000281,421,90613.2%
2010308,745,5319.7%
Est. 2013316,364,0002.5%
Sources: United States Census Bureau[24][25][26]

History[edit]

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were 66.8 million Whites in the United States, representing 88% of the total population,[27] 8.8 million African Americans, with about 90% of them still living in Southern states,[28] and slightly more than 500,000 Hispanics.[29]

Under the law, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965,[30] the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled,[31] from 9.6 million in 1970 to about 38 million in 2007.[32] During the 1950s, 250,000 legal immigrants entered the country annually; by the 1990s, the number was almost one million, and the vast majority of new immigrants have come from Latin America and Asia. In 2009, 37% of immigrants originated in Asia, 42% in the Americas, and 11% in Africa.[33] Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities in 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.[34] In 2006, non-Hispanic whites were the minority in thirty-five of the fifty largest cities.[35] The Census Bureau reported that minorities accounted for 50.4% of the children born in the U.S. between July 2010 and July 2011,[36] compared to 37% in 1990.[37]

In 2010 the state with the lowest fertility rate was Rhode Island, with 1,630.5 children per thousand women, while Utah had the greatest rate with 2,449.0 children per thousand women.[38] This correlates with the ages of the states' populations: Rhode Island has the ninth-oldest median age in the US — 39.2 — while Utah has the youngest — 29.0.[39]

Vital statistics[edit]

The population growth of each U.S. state between 1970 and 2010. Click on this map to see the scale/key for this map.

Source: National Vital statistics report based on 2010 US Census data[23]

The U.S. total fertility rate as of 2010 is 1.931:

Other:

(Note that ~95% of Hispanics are included as "white Hispanics" by CDC, which does not recognize the Census' "Some other race" category and counts people in that category as white.)

The U.S. total fertility rate for 2012 is Decrease 1.881:[40]

Average population (x 1,000)[41]Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1,000)Crude death rate (per 1,000)[42]Natural change (per 1,000)Total fertility rate
1935127,3622,377,0001,392,752984,24818.710.97.72.19
1936128,1812,355,0001,479,228875,77218.411.56.82.15
1937128,9612,413,0001,450,427962,57318.711.27.52.17
1938129,9692,496,0001,381,3911,114,60919.210.68.62.22
1939131,0282,466,0001,387,8971,078,10318.810.68.22.17
1940132,1652,559,0001,417,2691,142,00019.410.88.62.23
1941133,0022,703,0001,397,6421,305,35820.310.59.82.33
1942134,4642,989,0001,385,1871,603,81322.210.311.92.55
1943136,0033,104,0001,459,5441,644,30622.810.712.12.64
1944138,0832,939,0001,411,3381,644,45621.210.211.02.49
1945139,9942,858,0001,401,7191,456,28120.410.010.42.42
1946140,0083,411,0001,395,6172,015,38324.110.014.12.86
1947145,0233,817,0001,445,3702,371,63026.610.016.63.18
1948148,0133,637,0001,444,3372,192,66324.99.815.13.03
1949149,3363,649,0001,443,6072,205,39324.59.714.83.04
1950151,8613,632,0001,452,4542,180,00024.19.614.53.03
1951154,0563,823,0001,482,0992,340,90124.89.615.23.20
1952156,4313,913,0001,496,8382,416,16225.09.615.43.30
1953159,0473,965,0001,447,4592,142,00025.29.116.13.36
1954161,9484,078,0001,481,0912,596,90924.89.315.53.48
1955163,4764,097,0001,528,7172,568,28325.09.314.33.52
1956166,5784,218,0001,564,4762,653,52425.19.315.83.63
1957169,6374,308,0001,633,1282,666,87225.39.515.83.71
1958172,6684,255,0001,647,8862,607,11424.49.514.93.65
1959175,6424,244,7961,656,8142,587,98224.09.414.73.66
1960179,9794,257,8501,711,9822,545,86823.79.514.13.65
1961182,9924,268,3261,701,5222,566,80423.39.314.03.62
1962185,7714,167,3621,756,7202,410,64222.49.512.93.46
1963188,4834,098,0201,813,5492,284,47121.79.612.13.32
1964191,1414,027,4901,798,0512,229,43921.19.411.73.19
1965193,5263,760,3581,828,1361,932,22219.49.59.92.91
1966195,5763,606,2741,863,1491,743,12518.49.58.92.72
1967197,4573,520,9591,851,3231,669,63617.89.48.42.56
1968199,3993,501,5641,930,0821,571,48217.69.77.92.46
1969201,3853,600,2061,921,9901,678,21617.99.58.42.46
1970203,9843,731,3861,921,0311,810,35518.49.49.02.480
1971206,8273,555,9701,927,5421,628,42817.29.37.92.266
1972209,2843,258,4111,963,9441,294,46715.69.46.22.010
1973211,3573,136,9651,973,0031,163,96214.89.55.31.879
1974213,3423,159,9581,934,3881,225,57014.89.15.71.835
1975215,4653,144,1981,892,8791,251,31914.68.85.81.774
1976217,5633,167,7881,909,4401,258,34814.68.85.81.738
1977219,7603,326,6321,899,5971,427,03515.18.66.51.789
1978222,0953,333,2791,927,7881,405,49115.08.76.31.760
1979224,5673,494,3981,913,8411,580,55715.68.57.11.808
1980227,2253,612,2581,989,8411,622,41715.98.87.11.839
1981229,4663,629,2381,977,9811,651,25715.88.67.21.812
1982231,6643,680,5371,974,7971,705,74015.98.57.41.827
1983233,7923,638,9332,019,2011,619,73215.68.66.91.799
1984235,8253,669,1412,039,3691,629,77215.68.66.91.806
1985237,9243,760,5612,086,4401,674,12115.88.87.01.844
1986240,1333,756,5472,105,3611,651,18615.68.86.91.837
1987242,2893,809,3942,123,3231,686,07115.78.87.01.872
1988244,4993,909,5102,167,9991,741,51116.08.97.11.934
1989246,8194,040,9582,150,4661,890,49216.48.77.72.014
1990249,6234,158,2122,148,4632,009,74916.78.68.12.081
1991252,9814,110,9072,169,5181,941,38916.28.67.72.062
1992256,5144,065,0142,175,6131,889,40115.88.57.42.046
1993259,9194,000,2402,268,5531,731,68715.48.76.72.019
1994263,1263,952,7672,278,9941,673,77315.08.76.42.001
1995266,2783,899,5892,312,1321,587,45714.68.76.01.978
1996269,3943,891,4942,314,6901,576,80414.48.65.91.976
1997272,6473,880,8942,314,2451,566,64914.28.55.71.971
1998275,8543,941,5532,337,2561,604,29714.38.55.81.999
1999279,0403,959,4172,391,3991,568,01814.28.65.62.007
2000282,1724,058,8142,403,3511,655,46314.48.55.92.056
2001285,0824,025,9332,416,4251,609,50814.18.55.62.030
2002287,8044,021,7262,443,3871,578,33914.08.55.52.020
2003290,3264,089,9502,448,2881,641,66214.18.45.52.047
2004293,0464,112,0522,397,6151,714,43714.08.25.92.051
2005295,7534,138,3492,448,0171,690,33214.08.35.72.057
2006298,5934,265,5552,426,2641,839,29114.38.16.22.108
2007301,5804,316,2332,423,7121,892,52114.38.06.32.120
2008304,3754,247,6942,471,9841,775,71014.08.15.92.072
2009307,0074,130,6652,437,1631,693,50213.57.95.62.002
2010309,3303,999,3862,465,9361,534,34313.08.05.01.931
20113,953,5932,513,1711,440,42212.78.14.61.894
2012 [43]3,952,9372,539,0001,413,93712.68.14.51.880

Population density[edit]

Map of states showing population density by county (2010)


The most densely populated state is New Jersey (1,121/mi2 or 433/km2). See List of U.S. states by population density for maps and complete statistics.

The United States Census Bureau publishes a popular "dot" or "nighttime" map showing population distribution at a resolution of 7,500 people,[44] as well as complete listings of population density by place name. [45]

Cities[edit]

The United States has dozens of major cities, including 9 of the 66 "global cities"[46] of all types, with 10 in the "alpha" group of global cities: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, DC, Boston, San Francisco, Miami, Atlanta, Dallas, and Philadelphia.[47] As of 2011, the United States had 51 metropolitan areas with a population of over 1,000,000 people each. (See Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas.)

As of 2011, about 250 million Americans live in or around urban areas. That means more than three-quarters of the U.S. population shares just about three percent of the U.S. land area.[48]

The following table shows the populations of the top twenty metropolitan areas, at the time of the 2010 Census.

Leading population centers (see complete list)
RankCore city (cities)Metro area populationMetropolitan Statistical AreaRegion[49]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Chicago
Chicago
1New York City19,015,900New York–New Jersey–Connecticut–Pennsylvania, NY–NJ–CT–PA MSANortheast
2Los Angeles12,944,801Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, CA MSAWest
3Chicago9,504,753Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSAMidwest
4Dallas–Fort Worth6,526,548Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSASouth
5Houston6,086,538Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSASouth
6Philadelphia5,992,414Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSANortheast
7Washington, D.C.5,703,948Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSANortheast
8Miami5,670,125Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, FL MSASouth
9Atlanta5,359,205Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta, GA MSASouth
10Boston4,591,112Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSANortheast
11San Francisco4,391,037San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSAWest
12San Bernardino-Riverside4,304,997San Bernandino–Riverside–Ontario, CA MSAWest
13Detroit4,285,832Detroit–Warren–Livonia, MI MSAMidwest
14Phoenix4,263,236Phoenix–Mesa–Glendale, AZ MSAWest
15Seattle3,500,026Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSAWest
16Minneapolis–St. Paul3,318,486Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSAMidwest
17San Diego3,140,069San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSAWest
18Tampa–St. Petersburg2,824,724Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSASouth
19St. Louis2,817,355St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL MSAMidwest
20Baltimore2,729,110Baltimore–Towson, MD MSANortheast
based upon 2011 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[50]

Race and ethnicity[edit]

Top ancestries in 2000.

The U.S. population's distribution by race and ethnicity in 2010 was as follows; due to rounding, figures may not add up to the totals shown.[51]

Race / EthnicityNumberPercentage of
U.S. population
Americans308,745,538100.0 %
White223,553,26572.4 %
African American38,929,31912.6 %
Asian American14,674,2524.8 %
American Indian or Alaska Native2,932,2480.9 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander540,0130.2 %
Some other race19,107,3686.2 %
Two or more races9,009,0732.9 %
Not Hispanic nor Latino258,267,94483.6 %
Non-Hispanic White or European American196,817,55263.7 %
Non-Hispanic Black or African American37,685,84812.2 %
Non-Hispanic Asian14,465,1244.7 %
Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native2,247,0980.7 %
Non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander481,5760.2 %
Non-Hispanic some other race604,2650.2 %
Non-Hispanic two or more races5,966,4811.9 %
Hispanic or Latino50,477,59416.4 %
White or European American Hispanic26,735,7138.7 %
Black or African American Hispanic1,243,4710.4 %
American Indian or Alaska Native Hispanic685,1500.2 %
Asian Hispanic209,1280.1 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Hispanic58,4370.0 %
Some other race Hispanic18,503,1036.0 %
Two or more races Hispanic3,042,5921.0 %
Total308,745,538100.0%

Hispanic or Latino origin[edit]

CensusViewer US 2010 Census Latino Population as a heatmap by census tract.

Each of the racial categories includes people who identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino.[52] U.S. federal law defines Hispanic or Latino as "those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican", "Puerto Rican", or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.""[53]

Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

The total population of Hispanic and Latino Americans comprised 50.5 million or 16.3% of the national total in 2010.

Breakdown by state[edit]

[clarification needed]

State or DistrictPopulationNon-Hispanic WhiteHispanic/LatinoBlackAmerican Indian or Alaskan NativeAsianNative Hawaiian or Pacific IslanderMixed race
Alabama4,822,02367.03.926.20.61.101.5
Alaska731,44964.15.53.314.85.41.07.3
Arizona6,553,25557.829.64.14.62.80.23.4
Arkansas2,949,13174.56.415.40.81.20.22.0
California38,041,43040.137.66.21.013.00.44.9
Colorado5,187,58270.020.74.01.12.80.13.4
Connecticut3,590,34771.213.410.10.33.802.6
Delaware917,09265.38.221.40.53.202.7
District of Columbia632,32335.59.950.10.63.80.22.5
Florida19,317,56857.922.516.00.42.40.12.5
Georgia9,919,94555.98.830.50.33.20.12.1
Hawaii1,392,31322.78.91.60.338.610.023.6
Idaho1,595,72884.011.20.61.41.20.12.5
Illinois12,875,25563.715.814.50.34.602.3
Indiana6,537,33481.56.09.10.31.602.0
Iowa3,074,18688.75.02.90.41.70.11.8
Kansas2,885,90578.210.55.91.02.40.13.0
Kentucky4,380,41586.33.17.80.21.10.11.7
Louisiana4,601,89360.34.232.00.71.501.6
Maine1,329,19294.41.31.20.61.001.6
Maryland5,884,56354.78.229.40.45.50.12.9
Massachusetts6,646,14476.19.66.60.35.30.02.6
Michigan9,883,36076.64.414.20.62.402.3
Minnesota5,379,13983.14.75.21.14.002.4
Mississippi2,984,92658.02.737.00.50.901.1
Missouri6,021,98881.03.511.60.51.60.12.1
Montana1,005,14187.82.90.46.30.60.12.5
Nebraska1,855,52582.19.24.51.01.80.12.2
Nevada2,758,93154.126.58.11.27.20.24.7
New Hampshire1,320,71892.32.81.10.22.201.6
New Jersey8,864,59059.317.713.70.38.302.7
New Mexico2,085,53840.546.32.19.41.40.13.7
New York19,570,26158.317.615.90.67.303.0
North Carolina9,656,40165.38.421.51.32.20.12.2
North Dakota699,62888.92.01.25.41.001.8
Ohio11,544,22581.13.112.20.21.702.1
Oklahoma3,814,82068.78.97.48.61.70.15.9
Oregon3,899,35378.511.71.81.43.70.33.8
Pennsylvania12,763,53679.55.710.80.22.701.9
Rhode Island1,050,29276.412.45.70.62.90.13.3
South Carolina4,723,72364.15.127.90.41.30.11.7
South Dakota833,35484.72.71.38.80.902.1
Tennessee6,456,24375.64.616.70.31.40.11.7
Texas26,059,20345.337.611.80.73.80.12.7
Utah2,855,28780.413.01.11.22.00.92.7
Vermont626,01194.31.51.00.41.301.7
Virginia8,185,86764.87.919.40.45.50.12.9
Washington6,897,01272.511.23.61.57.20.64.7
West Virginia1,855,41393.21.23.40.20.701.5
Wisconsin5,726,38683.35.96.31.02.301.8
Wyoming576,41285.98.90.82.40.80.12.2
All Data from 2010 U.S. Census Bureau[54]

Other groups[edit]

There were 22.1 million veterans in 2009.[55]

In 2010, the Washington Post estimated that there were 11 million illegal immigrants in the country.[56]

There were about 2 million people in prison in 2010.[57]

The 2000 U.S. Census counted same-sex couples in an oblique way; asking the sex and the relationship to the "main householder", whose sex was also asked. One organization specializing in analyzing gay demographic data reported, based on this count in the 2000 census and in the 2000 supplementary survey, that same-sex couples comprised between 0.99% and 1.13% of U.S. couples in 2000.[58] A 2006 report issued by The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation concluded that the number of same-sex couples in the U.S. grew from 2000 to 2005, from nearly 600,000 couples in 2000 to almost 777,000 in 2005. 4.1% of Americans aged 18–45 identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual[59]

A 2011 report by the Institute estimated that 4 million adults identify as gay or lesbian, representing 1.7% of the population over 18. A spokesperson said that, until recently, few studies have tried to eliminate people who had occasionally undertaken homosexual behavior or entertained homosexual thoughts, from people who identified as lesbian or gay.[60] (Older estimates have varied depending on methodology and timing; see Demographics of sexual orientation for a list of studies.) The American Community Survey from the 2000 U.S. Census estimated 776,943 same-sex couple households in the country as a whole, representing about 0.5% of the population.[59]

Less than 1% of Americans serve in the Armed Forces.[61]

Projections[edit]

U.S. Census Population projections (2012)[62]
20152060
Whites177.4%68.9%
Non-Hispanic Whites61.8%42.6%
African Americans213.2%14.7%
Asian Americans25.3%8.2%
Multiracial Americans22.6%6.4%
Hispanics/Latinos (of any race)17.8%30.6%
Non-Hispanics/Latinos (of any race)82.2%69.4%
1 Including Hispanics and Some other race
2 Including Hispanics

A report by the U.S. Census Bureau projects a decrease in the ratio of Whites between 2010 and 2050, from 79.5% to 74.0%.[63] At the same time, Non-Hispanic Whites are projected to no longer make up the strong majority of the population by 2042, but will remain the largest single white ethnic group. In 2050 they will compose 46.3% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites made up 85% of the population in 1960.[64]

The report foresees the Hispanic or Latino population rising from 16% today to 30% by 2050, the African American percentage barely rising from 12.9% to 13.0%, and Asian Americans upping their 4.6% share to 7.8%. The U.S. had a population of 310 million people in October 2010, and is projected to reach 400 million by 2039 and 439 million in 2050.[21][65][66][67] It is further projected that 82% of the increase in population from 2005 to 2050 will be due to immigrants and their children.[68]

Of the nation's children in 2050, 62% are expected to be of a minority ethnicity, up from 44% today. Approximately 39% are projected to be Hispanic or Latino (up from 22% in 2008), and 38% are projected to be single-race, non-Hispanic Whites (down from 56% in 2008).[69]

In 2008, the U.S. Census Bureau projected future censuses as follows:[21]

YearProjectionActual result
2010310,232,863308,745,538
2020341,386,665
2030373,503,674
2040405,655,295
2050439,010,253

Religion[edit]

Membership[edit]

Major religions by overall percentage (2007).

The table below is based mainly on selected data as reported to the United States Census Bureau. It only includes the voluntary self-reported membership of religious bodies with 750,000 or more. The definition of a member is determined by each religious body.[70] In 2004, the US census bureau reported that about 13% of the population did not identify itself as a member of any religion.[71][clarification needed]

Religious bodyYear reportedPlaces of worship reportedMembership
(thousands)
Number of clergy
!a0000-9999-9999-9999
African Methodist Episcopal Church1999no data25007741
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church2002322614313252
American Baptist Association199817602751740
Amish, Old Order19938982273592
American Baptist Churches USA1998380015074145
Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America199822065263
Armenian Apostolic Church20101531000200
Armenian Catholic Church201036
Assemblies of God200912371291434504
Baptist Bible Fellowship International199745001200no data
Baptist General Conference1998876141no data
Baptist Missionary Association of America199913342351525
Buddhism2001no data1082no data
Christian and Missionary Alliance, The199819643461629
Christian Brethren (Plymouth Brethren)19971150100no data
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)199738188793419
Christian churches and churches of Christ1998557910725525
Christian Congregation, Inc., The199814381171436
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church19832340719no data
Christian Reformed Church in North America1998733199655
Church of God in Christ199115300550028988
Church of God of Prophecy19971908772000
Church of God (Anderson, IN)199823532343034
Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee)199560607533121
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints membership statistics200512753569138259
Church of the Brethren19971095141827
Church of the Nazarene199851016274598
Churches of Christ199915000150014500
Conservative Baptist Association of America19981200200no data
Community of Christ1998123614019319
Coptic Orthodox Church20032001000200
Cumberland Presbyterian Church199877487634
Episcopal Church1996739023658131
Evangelical Covenant Church, The199862897607
Evangelical Free Church of America, The199512242431936
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America19981086251789646
Evangelical Presbyterian Church199818761262
Free Methodist Church of North America199899073no data
Full Gospel Fellowship19998962752070
General Association of General Baptists1997790721085
General Association of Regular Baptist Churches19981415102no data
U.S. Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches199636882590
Grace Gospel Fellowship199212860160
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America19985231955596
Hinduism2001no data766no data
Independent Fundamental Churches of America199965962no data
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel199818512384900
International Council of Community Churches1998150250182
International Pentecostal Holiness Church199817161771507
Islam2011no data2600no data
Jainismno datano data50no data
Jehovah's Witnesses2011118761200no data
Judaism200637276588no data
Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The1998621825945227
Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric20101950no data
Mennonite Church USA2005943114no data
National Association of Congregational Christian Churches199841667534
National Association of Free Will Baptists199822972102800
National Baptist Convention of America, Inc.1987250035008000
National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.199233000820032832
National Missionary Baptist Convention of America1992no data2500no data
Orthodox Church in America19986251000700
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc.1998175015004500
Pentecostal Church of God19981237104no data
Pentecostal Church International, United200828351403722881
Presbyterian Church in America199713402801642
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)19981126035759390
Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc.199520002500no data
Reformed Church in America1998902296915
Religious Society of Friends19941200104no data
Roman Catholic Church2002194846640450,017 (1997)[72]
Romanian Orthodox Episcopate1996376537
Salvation Army, The199813884712920
Scientology2005130055[73]1
Serbian Orthodox Church1986686760
Seventh-day Adventist Church199844058402454
Sikhism199924480no data
Southern Baptist Convention1998408701650071520
Unitarian Universalism2001no data629no data
United Church of Christ1998601714214317
United House of Prayer For All Peopleno data10025no data
United Methodist Church, The1998361708400no data
Wesleyan Church, The199815901201806
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod199712404111222
~z9999999999999999999999999999
Religions of the United States
Plurality religion by state, 2001. Data is unavailable for Alaska and Hawaii. 
Religious affiliation within each state that has the largest deviation compared to the national average, 2001. 
Percentage of state populations that identify with a religion rather than "no religion", 2001. 

Religions of American adults[edit]

The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. The survey below, the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008, was a random digit-dialed telephone survey of 54,461 American residential households in the contiguous United States. The 1990 sample size was 113,723; 2001 sample size was 50,281.

Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?". Interviewers did not prompt or offer a suggested list of potential answers. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. If the initial answer was "Protestant" or "Christian" further questions were asked to probe which particular denomination. About one-third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions.

Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. Adult Population: 1990, 2001, 2008[74]
Figures are not adjusted for refusals to reply; investigators suspect refusals are possibly more representative of "no religion" than any other group.

Source:ARIS 2008[74]
Group
1990
adults
× 1,000
2001
adults
× 1,000
2008
adults
× 1,000

Numerical
Change
1990–
2008
as %
of 1990
1990
% of
adults
2001
% of
adults
2008
% of
adults
change
in % of
total
adults
1990–
2008
Adult population, total175,440207,983228,18230.1%
Adult population, Responded171,409196,683216,36726.2%97.7%94.6%94.8%–2.9%
Total Christian151,225159,514173,40214.7%86.2%76.7%76.0%–10.2%
Catholic46,00450,87357,19924.3%26.2%24.5%25.1%–1.2%
non-Catholic Christian105,221108,641116,20310.4%60.0%52.2%50.9%–9.0%
Baptist33,96433,82036,1486.4%19.4%16.3%15.8%–3.5%
Mainline Christian32,78435,78829,375–10.4%18.7%17.2%12.9%–5.8%
Methodist14,17414,03911,366–19.8%8.1%6.8%5.0%–3.1%
Lutheran9,1109,5808,674–4.8%5.2%4.6%3.8%–1.4%
Presbyterian4,9855,5964,723–5.3%2.8%2.7%2.1%–0.8%
Episcopalian/Anglican3,0433,4512,405–21.0%1.7%1.7%1.1%–0.7%
United Church of Christ4381,37873668.0%0.2%0.7%0.3%0.1%
Christian Generic25,98022,54632,44124.9%14.8%10.8%14.2%–0.6%
Jehovah's Witness1,3811,3311,91438.6%0.8%0.6%0.8%0.1%
Christian Unspecified8,07314,19016,384102.9%4.6%6.8%7.2%2.6%
Non-denominational Christian1942,4898,0324040.2%0.1%1.2%3.5%3.4%
Protestant - Unspecified17,2144,6475,187–69.9%9.8%2.2%2.3%–7.5%
Evangelical/Born Again5461,0882,154294.5%0.3%0.5%0.9%0.6%
Pentecostal/Charismatic5,6477,8317,94840.7%3.2%3.8%3.5%0.3%
Pentecostal - Unspecified3,1164,4075,41673.8%1.8%2.1%2.4%0.6%
Assemblies of God6171,10581031.3%0.4%0.5%0.4%0.0%
Church of God59094366312.4%0.3%0.5%0.3%0.0%
Other Protestant Denomination4,6305,9497,13154.0%2.6%2.9%3.1%0.5%
Seventh-Day Adventist66872493840.4%0.4%0.3%0.4%0.0%
Churches of Christ1,7692,5931,9218.6%1.0%1.2%0.8%–0.2%
Mormon/Latter-Day Saints2,4872,6973,15827.0%1.4%1.3%1.4%0.0%
Total non-Christian religions5,8537,7408,79650.3%3.3%3.7%3.9%0.5%
Jewish3,1372,8372,680–14.6%1.8%1.4%1.2%–0.6%
Eastern Religions6872,0201,961185.4%0.4%1.0%0.9%0.5%
Buddhist4041,0821,189194.3%0.2%0.5%0.5%0.3%
Muslim5271,1041,349156.0%0.3%0.5%0.6%0.3%
New Religious Movements & Others1,2961,7702,804116.4%0.7%0.9%1.2%0.5%
None/ No religion, total14,33129,48134,169138.4%8.2%14.2%15.0%6.8%
Agnostic+Atheist1,1861,8933,606204.0%0.7%0.9%1.6%0.9%
Did Not Know/ Refused to reply4,03111,30011,815193.1%2.3%5.4%5.2%2.9%

Marriage[edit]

In 2010, the median age for marriage for men was 27; for women, 26.[75]

Income[edit]

In 2006, the median household income in the United States was around $46,326. Household and personal income depends on variables such as race, number of income earners, educational attainment and marital status. In the US, the income of African Americans was about $22,100, with 47% of all black people being on the welfare program.

Median income levels
HouseholdsPersons, age 25 or older with earningsHousehold income by race
All householdsDual earner
households
Per household
member
MalesFemalesBoth sexesAsianWhite,
non-hispanic
HispanicBlack
$46,326$67,348$23,535$39,403$26,507$32,140$57,518$48,977$34,241$30,134
Median personal income by educational attainment
MeasureSome High SchoolHigh school graduateSome collegeAssociate's degreeBachelor's degree or higherBachelor's degreeMaster's degreeProfessional degreeDoctorate degree
Persons, age 25+ w/ earnings$20,321$26,505$31,054$35,009$49,303$43,143$52,390$82,473$70,853
Male, age 25+ w/ earnings$24,192$32,085$39,150$42,382$60,493$52,265$67,123$100,000$78,324
Female, age 25+ w/ earnings$15,073$21,117$25,185$29,510$40,483$36,532$45,730$66,055$54,666
Persons, age 25+, employed full-time$25,039$31,539$37,135$40,588$56,078$50,944$61,273$100,000$79,401
Household$22,718$36,835$45,854$51,970$73,446$68,728$78,541$100,000$96,830
Household income distribution
Bottom 10%Bottom 20%Bottom 25%Middle 33%Middle 20%Top 25%Top 20%Top 5%Top 1.5%Top 1%
$0 to $10,500$0 to $18,500$0 to $22,500$30,000 to $62,500$35,000 to $55,000$77,500 and up$92,000 and up$167,000 and up$250,000 and up$350,000 and up
Source: US Census Bureau, 2006; income statistics for the year 2005

Social class[edit]

Social classes in the United States lack distinct boundaries and may overlap. Even their existence (when distinguished from economic strata) is controversial. The following table provides a summary of some prominent academic theories on the stratification of American society:

Academic Class Models
Dennis Gilbert, 2002William Thompson & Joseph Hickey, 2005Leonard Beeghley, 2004
ClassTypical characteristicsClassTypical characteristicsClassTypical characteristics
Capitalist class (1%)Top-level executives, high-rung politicians, heirs. Ivy League education common.Upper class (1%)Top-level executives, celebrities, heirs; income of $500,000+ common. Ivy league education common.The super-rich (0.9%)Multi-millionaires whose incomes commonly exceed $350,000; includes celebrities and powerful executives/politicians. Ivy League education common.
Upper middle class[1] (15%)Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees), most commonly salaried, professionals and middle management with large work autonomy.Upper middle class[1] (15%)Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees) professionals & managers with household incomes varying from the high 5-figure range to commonly above $100,000.The Rich (5%)Households with net worth of $1 million or more; largely in the form of home equity. Generally have college degrees.
Middle class (plurality/
majority?; ca. 46%)
College-educated workers with considerably higher-than-average incomes and compensation; a man making $57,000 and a woman making $40,000 may be typical.
Lower middle class (30%)Semi-professionals and craftsmen with a roughly average standard of living. Most have some college education and are white-collar.Lower middle class (32%)Semi-professionals and craftsmen with some work autonomy; household incomes commonly range from $35,000 to $75,000. Typically, some college education.
Working class (30%)Clerical and most blue-collar workers whose work is highly routinized. Standard of living varies depending on number of income earners, but is commonly just adequate. High school education.
Working class (32%)Clerical, pink- and blue-collar workers with often low job security; common household incomes range from $16,000 to $30,000. High school education.Working class
(ca. 40% - 45%)
Blue-collar workers and those whose jobs are highly routinized with low economic security; a man making $40,000 and a woman making $26,000 may be typical. High school education.
Working poor (13%)Service, low-rung clerical and some blue-collar workers. High economic insecurity and risk of poverty. Some high school education.
Lower class (ca. 14% - 20%)Those who occupy poorly-paid positions or rely on government transfers. Some high school education.
Underclass (12%)Those with limited or no participation in the labor force. Reliant on government transfers. Some high school education.The poor (ca. 12%)Those living below the poverty line with limited to no participation in the labor force; a household income of $18,000 may be typical. Some high school education.
References: Gilbert, D. (2002) The American Class Structure: In An Age of Growing Inequality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; Thompson, W. & Hickey, J. (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon; Beeghley, L. (2004). The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
1 The upper middle class may also be referred to as "Professional class" Ehrenreich, B. (1989). The Inner Life of the Middle Class. NY, NY: Harper-Colins.


Health[edit]

In 2010, the average man weighed 194.7 pounds (88.3 kg); the average woman 164.7 pounds (74.7 kg).[76][dead link] The height of an American man was 5 feet 9 inches (1.75 m)[77] and woman 5 feet 3.8 inches (1.621 m)[78] The average BMI is 27.3 for males (overweight) and 28.5 for females (overweight).[79]

As of 2012, an estimated 26% of the population is obese,[80] 21% smoke,[81] and 11% have diabetes.[82]

A nationwide study in 2010 indicated that 19.5% of teens, aged 12–19, have developed "slight" hearing loss. "Slight" was defined as an inability to hear at 16 to 24 decibels.[83]

In 2011, an estimated 1.2 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in the United States.[84]

Generational cohorts[edit]

A study by William Strauss and Neil Howe, in their books Generations and Fourth Turning, looked at generational similarities and differences going back to the 15th century and concluded that over 80 year spans, generations proceed through 4 stages of about 20 years each.

A definitive recent study of US generational cohorts was done by Schuman and Scott (2012) in which a broad sample of adults of all ages were asked, "What world events are especially important to you?"[85] They found that 33 events were mentioned with great frequency. When the ages of the respondents were correlated with the expressed importance rankings, seven (some put 8 or 9) distinct cohorts became evident.

Today the following descriptors are frequently used for these cohorts (Alive in 2000–10):

U.S. Demographic birth cohorts[edit]

Birth rate has dropped since 1957

Subdivided groups are present when peak boom years or inverted peak bust years are present, and may be represented by a normal or inverted bell-shaped curve (rather than a straight curve). The boom subdivided cohorts may be considered as "pre-peak" (including peak year) and "post-peak". The year 1957 was the baby boom peak with 4.3 million births and 122.7 fertility rate. Although post-peak births (such as trailing edge boomers) are in decline, and sometimes referred to as a "bust", there are still a relative large number of births. The dearth-in-birth bust cohorts include those up to the valley birth year, and those including and beyond, leading up to the subsequent normal birth rate. The Baby boom began around 1943 to 1946.[citation needed]

From the decline in U.S. birth rates starting in 1958 and the introduction of the birth control pill in 1960, the Baby Boomer normal distribution curve is negatively skewed. The trend in birth rates from 1958 to 1961 show a tendency to end late in the decade at approximately 1969, thus returning to pre-WWII levels, with 12 years of rising and 12 years of declining birth rates. Pre-war birth rates were defined as anywhere between 1939 and 1941 by demographers such as the Taeuber's, Philip M. Hauser and William Fielding Ogburn.[98]

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[99]

A population pyramid that shows the age of the population by sex in 2010.

Median age[edit]

36.8 years (male: 35.5 years, female: 38.1 years, 2010 est.)

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 20.2% (male 31,639,127/female 30,305,704)
15–64 years: 67% (male 102,665,043/female 103,129,321)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 16,901,232/female 22,571,696) (2010 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

0.739% (2013-2010 average US Census estimates)

Birth rate[edit]

Live Births in the United States 1934-2004.
13.5 births/1,000 population (2010 est.). This is the lowest in a century. There were 4,136,000 births in 2009.[100]
13.9 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2008)
14.3 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2007)[101]

In 2009, Time magazine reported that 40% of births were to unmarried women.[102] The following is a breakdown by race for unwed births: 17% Asian, 29% White, 53% Hispanics, 66% Native Americans, and 72% African American.[103]

The drop in the birth rate from 2007 to 2009 is believed to be associated with the Late-2000s recession.[104]

A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that more than half (51 percent) of live hospital births in 2008 and 2011 were male.[105]

Death rate[edit]

8.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)[citation needed]

Immigration[edit]

Inflow of New Legal Permanent Residents, Top Five Sending Countries, 2011[106]
Country2011Region2011
Mexico143,446Asia451,593
China87,016Americas419,996
India69,013Africa100,336
Philippines57,011Europe83,635
Dominican Rep.46,019All Immigrants1,062,040
13% of the population was foreign-born in 2009,[107]including 11.2 million illegal aliens,[108] 80% of which come from Latin America.[109] Hence, Latin America is the largest region-of-birth group, accounting for over half (53%) of all foreign born population in US,[110] and thus is also the largest source of both legal and illegal immigration to US.[111] In 2011, there are 18.1 million naturalized citizens in USA, accounting for 45% of the foreign-born population (40.4 million) and 6 percent of the total US population at the time,[112] and around 680,000 legal immigrants are naturalized annually.[113]

Net migration rate[edit]

4.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)

Sex ratios[edit]

at birth: 1.048 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 78.11 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 80.69 years (2010 est.)
US unemployment by state in September 2009 (official, or U3 rate).[114]
  ≤4.5%
  ≤5.5%
  ≤6.5%
  ≤7.5%
  ≤8.5%
  ≤9.5%
  ≤10.5%
  ≤11.5%
  >11.5%

Total fertility rate[edit]

1.88 children born/woman (2012).
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Vital Statistics System.

Unemployment rate[edit]

As of November 2013, the U.S. unemployment rate was 7.0 percent (U3 Rate).[115]

As of July 2012, the U6 unemployment rate is 15 percent.[116] The U6 unemployment rate counts not only people without work seeking full-time employment (the more familiar U-3 rate), but also counts "marginally attached workers and those working part-time for economic reasons." Note that some of these part-time workers counted as employed by U-3 could be working as little as an hour a week. And the "marginally attached workers" include those who have gotten discouraged and stopped looking, but still want to work. The age considered for this calculation is 16 years and over.[117]

Nationality[edit]

See also[edit]

Lists:

Income:

Population:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to The U.S. Census Bureau's Population Clock.
  2. ^ "U.S. & World Population Clocks". Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-08. 
  3. ^ World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision
  4. ^ "CIA World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  5. ^ "Table 13. State Population - Rank, Percent Change, and Population Density" (Excel). U.S. Census Bureau. 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  6. ^ "Mean Center of Population for the United States: 1790 to 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  7. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places over 110,000, Ranked by July 1, 2009 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (SUB-EST2009-01)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  8. ^ "Births: Preliminary Data for 2012". National Vital Statistics System (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). September 6, 2013. 
  9. ^ In September 2013, the National Vital Statistics System reported that 2012 preliminary total fertility rate (TFR) in 2012 was 1,880.5 births per 100,000 women.[8]
  10. ^ "Demography: Virility symbols". Economist.com. 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2013-05-08. 
  11. ^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Population growth rate". CIA. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  12. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - Total fertility rate". CIA. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  13. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - Net migration rate". CIA. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  14. ^ a b "United States - Age and Sex". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  15. ^ "The White Population: 2000". United States Census Bureau. August 2001. Retrieved 10 March 2011. 
  16. ^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 
  17. ^ "U.S. population hits 300 million mark". MSNBC (Associated Press). 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  18. ^ Morello, Carol and Mellnik, Ted. "Census: Minority Babies Are Now Majority in United States." Washington Post. May 17, 2012. Accessed 2012-05-17.
  19. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau: Minority Population Tops 100 Million". Archived from the original on 2008-04-20. 
  20. ^ "U.S. Population Projections: 2005-2050 - Pew Hispanic Center". Pewhispanic.org. Retrieved 2011-09-19. 
  21. ^ a b c "Projected Population by Single Year of Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2050". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-12-08. 
  22. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Highlights, Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.202; Table A.2" (PDF). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2007). Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  23. ^ a b http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_01.pdf
  24. ^ 2-11-Z-COLONIAL & PRE-FEDERAL.pdf. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2013-06-16.
  25. ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". www.census.gov. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  26. ^ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990.... U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
  27. ^ "Demographics Trends in the 20th Century". U.S. Census Bureau.
  28. ^ "We the Americans: Blacks". Census.gov.
  29. ^ "Latinos and the Changing Face of America - Population Reference Bureau"
  30. ^ "Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States". Nancy Foner, George M. Fredrickson (2005). p.120. ISBN 0-87154-270-6
  31. ^ "Immigrants in the United States and the Current Economic Crisis", Demetrios G. Papademetriou and Aaron Terrazas, Migration Policy Institute, April 2009.
  32. ^ "Immigration Worldwide: Policies, Practices, and Trends". Uma A. Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas (2010). Oxford University Press US. p.32. ISBN 0-19-538813-5
  33. ^ "CBO: 748,000 Foreign Nationals Granted U.S. Permanent Residency Status in 2009 Because They Had Immediate Family Legally Living in America". CNSnews.com. January 11, 2011
  34. ^ ""The First Measured Century: An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America, 1900–2000"". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
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