Demographics of the United States

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Leading population centers (see complete list)
RankCore city (cities)Metro area populationMetropolitan Statistical AreaRegion[50]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles

1New York City19,949,502New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSAMid-Atlantic
2Los Angeles13,131,431Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, CA MSAWest
3Chicago9,537,289Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSAMidwest
4Dallas–Fort Worth6,810,913Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSASouth
5Houston6,313,158Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSASouth
6Philadelphia6,034,678Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSAMid-Atlantic
7Washington, D.C.5,949,859Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSAMid-Atlantic
8Miami5,828,191Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, FL MSASouth
9Atlanta5,522,942Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta, GA MSASouth
10Boston4,684,299Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSANortheast
11San Francisco4,516,276San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSAWest
12Phoenix4,398,762Phoenix–Mesa–Glendale, AZ MSAWest
13San Bernardino-Riverside4,380,878San Bernandino–Riverside–Ontario, CA MSAWest
14Detroit4,294,983Detroit–Warren–Livonia, MI MSAMidwest
15Seattle3,610,105Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSAWest
16Minneapolis–St. Paul3,459,146Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSAMidwest
17San Diego3,211,252San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSAWest
18Tampa–St. Petersburg2,870,569Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSASouth
19St. Louis2,810,056St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL MSAMidwest
20Baltimore2,770,738Baltimore–Towson, MD MSAMid-Atlantic
based upon 2013 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[51]
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Largest ancestry groups by county, 2000.

As of November 29, 2014, the United States has a total resident population of 319,168,000,[1] making it the third-most populous country in the world.[2] It is very urbanized, with 81% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2014 (the worldwide urban rate is 54%).[3] California and Texas are the most populous states,[4] as the mean center of U.S. population has consistently shifted westward and southward.[5] New York City is the most populous city in the United States.[6]

The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2013 is 1.87 children per woman,[7] which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. Compared to other Western countries, in 2012, U.S. fertility rate was lower than that of France (2.01),[8] Australia (1.93) and the United Kingdom (1.92).[9] However, U.S. population growth is among the highest in industrialized countries,[10] because the differences in fertility rates are less than the differences in immigration levels, which are higher in the U.S.[11][12] The United States Census Bureau shows population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%.[10]

There were over 158.6 million females in the United States in 2009. The number of males was 151.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were more than twice as many women as men. People under 20 years of age made up over a quarter of the U.S. population (27.3%), and people age 65 and over made up one-eighth (12.8%) in 2009.[13] The national median age was 36.8 years.[13]

The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who reported "White" or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish."[14] Whites constitute the majority of the U.S. population, with a total of about 245,532,000 or 77.7% of the population as of 2013. There are 62.6% Whites when Hispanics who describe themselves as "white" are taken out of the calculation. Despite major changes due to illegal and legal immigration since the 1960s and the higher birth-rates of nonwhites, the overall current majority of American citizens are still white, and English-speaking, though regional differences exist.

The American population almost quadrupled during the 20th century—at a growth rate of about 1.3% a year—from about 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000. It reached the 200 million mark in 1968, and the 300 million mark on October 17, 2006.[15][16] Population growth is fastest among minorities as a whole, and according to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2012, 50.4% of American children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[17]

Hispanic and Latino Americans accounted for 48% of the national population growth of 2.9 million between July 1, 2005, and July 1, 2006.[18] Immigrants and their U.S.-born descendants are expected to provide most of the U.S. population gains in the decades ahead.[19]

The Census Bureau projects a U.S. population of 439 million in 2050, which is a 46% increase from 2007 (301.3 million).[20] However, the United Nations projects a U.S. population of 402 million in 2050, an increase of 32% from 2007 .[21] In either case, such growth is unlike most European countries, especially Germany, and Greece, or Asian countries such as Japan or South Korea, whose populations are slowly declining, and whose fertility rates are below replacement. Official census report, reported that 54.4% (2,150,926 out of 3,953,593) of births in 2010, were non-Hispanic white. This represents an increase of 0.34% compared to the previous year, which was 54.06%.[22]

Historical population
Est. 2014319,106,0003.4%
Sources: United States Census Bureau[23][24][25]


Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were 66.8 million Whites in the United States, representing 88% of the total population,[26] 8.8 million African Americans, with about 90% of them still living in Southern states,[27] and slightly more than 500,000 Hispanics.[28]

Under the law, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965,[29] the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has increased,[30] from 9.6 million in 1970 to about 38 million in 2007.[31] Around a million people legally immigrated to the United States per year in the 1990s, up from 250,000 per year in the 1950s.[32] In 2009, 37% of immigrants originated in Asia, 42% in North America, and 11% in Africa.[33]

In 1900, non-Hispanic whites comprised almost 97% of the population of the 10 largest American cities.[34] By 2006, non-Hispanic whites had dwindled to a minority in 35 of the nation's 50 largest cities.[35] The Census Bureau reported that minorities made up 50.4% of the children born in the U.S. between July 2010 and July 2011,[36] compared to 37% in 1990.[37]

In 2010 the state with the lowest fertility rate was Rhode Island, with 1,630.5 children per thousand women, while Utah had the greatest rate with 2,449.0 children per thousand women.[38] This correlates with the ages of the states' populations: Rhode Island has the ninth-oldest median age in the US—39.2—while Utah has the youngest—29.0.[39]

Vital statistics[edit]

The population growth of each U.S. state between 1970 and 2010. Click on this map to see the scale/key for this map.

The U.S. total fertility rate as of 2010 census is 1.931:


(Note that ~95% of Hispanics are included as "white Hispanics" by CDC, which does not recognize the Census' "Some other race" category and counts people in that category as white.)

Source: National Vital statistics report based on 2010 US Census data[22]

2012 birth data, by races[edit]

The U.S. total fertility rate for 2012 is 1.881:[40][41]


Age groupUSA 100% (percent of the population)White alone 72.41% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)Black alone 12.61% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)Mixed 9.11% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)Asian alone 4.75% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)American Indian and Alaska Native alone 0.95% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 0.17% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)
Population308 745 538223 553 26538 929 31928 116 44114 674 2522 932 248540 013
0-420 201 362 (6.5%)12 795 675 (5.7%/63.34%)2 902 590 (7.5%/14.37%)3 315 480 (11.8%/16.41%)898 011 (6.1%/4.45%)244 615 (8.3%/1.21%)44 991 (8.3%/0.22%)
5-920 348 657 (6.6%)13 293 799 (5.9%/65.33%)2 882 597 (7.4%/14.17%)2 957 487 (10.5%/14.53%)928 248 (6.3%/4.56%)243 259 (8.3%/1.20%)43 267 (8.0%/0.21%)
10-1420 677 194 (6.7%)13 737 332 (6.1%/66.44%)3 034 266 (7.8%/14.67%)2 736 570 (9.7%/13.23%)881 590 (6.0%/4.26%)245 049 (8.4%/1.19%)42 387 (7.8%/0.20%)
15-1922 040 343 (7.1%)14 620 638 (6.5%/66.35%)3 448 051 (8.9%/15.64%)2 704 571 (9.6%/12.27%)956 028 (6.5%/4.34%)263 805 (9.0%/1.20%)47 250 (8.7%/0.21%)
20-2421 585 999 (7.0%)14 535 947 (6.5%/67.34%)3 111 397 (8.0%/14.41%)2 538 967 (9.0%/11.76%)1 106 222 (7.5%/5.12%)240 716 (8.2%/1.12%)52 750 (9.8%/0.24%)
25-2921 101 849 (6.8%)14 345 364 (6.4%/67.98%)2 786 254 (7.2%/13.20%)2 464 343 (8.8%/11.68%)1 234 322 (8.4%/5.85%)221 654 (7.6%/1.05%)49 912 (9.2%/0.24%)
30-3419 962 099 (6.5%)13 573 270 (6.1%/68.00%)2 627 925 (6.8%/13.16%)2 273 322 (8.1%/11.39%)1 240 906 (8.5%/6.22%)202 928 (6.9%/1.02%)43 748 (8.1%/0.22%)
35-3920 179 642 (6.5%)13 996 797 (6.3%/69.36%)2 613 389 (6.7%/12.95%)2 038 408 (7.2%/10.10%)1 296 301 (8.8%/6.42%)196 017 (6.7%/0.97%)38 730 (7.2%/0.19%)
40-4420 890 964 (6.8%)15 052 798 (6.7%/72.05%)2 669 034 (6.9%/12.78%)1 782 463 (6.3%/8.53%)1 155 565 (7.9%/5.53%)194 713 (6.6%/0.93%)36 391 (6.7%/0.17%)
45-4922 708 591 (7.4%)17 028 255 (7.6%/74.99%)2 828 657 (7.3%/12,46%)1 532 117 (5.4%/6.75%)1 076 060 (7.3%/4.74%)207 857 (7.1%/0.92%)35 645 (6.6%/0.16%)
50-5422 298 125 (7.2%)17 178 632 (7.7%/77.04%)2 694 247 (6.9%/12.08%)1 222 175 (4.3%/5.48%)980 282 (6.7%/4.40%)191 893 (6.5%/0.86%)30 896 (5.7%/0.14%)
55-5919 664 805 (6.4%)15 562 187 (7.0%/79.14%)2 205 820 (5.7%/11.22%)873 943 (3.1%/4.44%)844 490 (5.8%/4.29%)154 320 (5.3%/0.78%)24 045 (4.5%/0.12%)
60-6416 817 924 (5.4%)13 693 334 (6.1%/81.42%)1 686 695 (4.3%/10.03%)611 144 (2.2%/3.63%)689 601 (4.7%/4.10%)118 362 (4.0%/0.70%)18 788 (3.5%/0.11%)
65-6912 435 263 (4.0%)10 313 002 (4.6%/82.93%)1 162 577 (3.0%/9.35%)394 208 (1.4%/3.17%)474 327 (3.2%/3.81%)79 079 (2.7%/0.64%)12 070 (2.2%/0.10%)
70-749 278 166 (3.0%)7 740 932 (3.5%/83.43%)852 317 (2.2%/9.19%)268 574 (1.0%/2.89%)354 268 (2.4%/3.82%)53 926 (1.8%/0.58%)8 149 (1.5%/0.09%)
75-797 317 795 (2.4%)6 224 569 (2.8%/85.06%)616 789 (1.6%/8.43%)184 596 (0.7%/2.52%)251 210 (1.7%/3.43%)35 268 (1.2%/0.48%)5 363 (1.0%/0.07%)
80-845 743 327 (1.9%)5 002 427 (2.2%/87.10%)424 592 (1.1%/7.39%)122 249 (0.4%/2.13%)168 879 (1.2%/2.94%)21 963 (0.7%/0.38%)3 217 (0.6%/0.06%)
85+5 493 433 (1.8%)4 858 307 (2.2%/88.44%)382 122 (1.0%/6.96%)95 824 (0.3%/1.74%)137 942 (0.9%/2.51%)16 824 (0.6%/0.31%)2 414 (0.4%/0.04%)
Average population (x 1,000)[42]Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1,000)Crude death rate (per 1,000)[43]Natural change (per 1,000)Total fertility rate
2012 [44]3,952,9372,539,0001,413,93712.

Population density[edit]

Map of states showing population density by county (2010)

The most densely populated state is New Jersey (1,121/mi2 or 433/km2). See List of U.S. states by population density for maps and complete statistics.

The United States Census Bureau publishes a popular "dot" or "nighttime" map showing population distribution at a resolution of 7,500 people,[45] as well as complete listings of population density by place name.[46]


The United States has dozens of major cities, including 9 of the 66 "global cities"[47] of all types, with 10 in the "alpha" group of global cities: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, DC, Boston, San Francisco, Miami, Atlanta, Dallas, and Philadelphia.[48] As of 2011, the United States had 51 metropolitan areas with a population of over 1,000,000 people each. (See Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas.)

As of 2011, about 250 million Americans live in or around urban areas. That means more than three-quarters of the U.S. population shares just about three percent of the U.S. land area.[49]

The following table shows the populations of the top twenty metropolitan areas, at the time of the 2010 Census.

Leading population centers (see complete list)
RankCore city (cities)Metro area populationMetropolitan Statistical AreaRegion[50]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles

1New York City19,949,502New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSAMid-Atlantic
2Los Angeles13,131,431Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, CA MSAWest
3Chicago9,537,289Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSAMidwest
4Dallas–Fort Worth6,810,913Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSASouth
5Houston6,313,158Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSASouth
6Philadelphia6,034,678Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSAMid-Atlantic
7Washington, D.C.5,949,859Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSAMid-Atlantic
8Miami5,828,191Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, FL MSASouth
9Atlanta5,522,942Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta, GA MSASouth
10Boston4,684,299Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSANortheast
11San Francisco4,516,276San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSAWest
12Phoenix4,398,762Phoenix–Mesa–Glendale, AZ MSAWest
13San Bernardino-Riverside4,380,878San Bernandino–Riverside–Ontario, CA MSAWest
14Detroit4,294,983Detroit–Warren–Livonia, MI MSAMidwest
15Seattle3,610,105Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSAWest
16Minneapolis–St. Paul3,459,146Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSAMidwest
17San Diego3,211,252San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSAWest
18Tampa–St. Petersburg2,870,569Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSASouth
19St. Louis2,810,056St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL MSAMidwest
20Baltimore2,770,738Baltimore–Towson, MD MSAMid-Atlantic
based upon 2013 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[51]

Race and ethnicity[edit]

Top ancestries in 2000.

The U.S. population's distribution by race and ethnicity in 2010 was as follows; due to rounding, figures may not add up to the totals shown.[52]

Race / EthnicityNumberPercentage of
U.S. population
Americans308,745,538100.0 %
White223,553,26572.4 %
African American38,929,31912.6 %
Asian American14,674,2524.8 %
Native Americans or Alaska Native2,932,2480.9 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander540,0130.2 %
Some other race19,107,3686.2 %
Two or more races9,009,0732.9 %
Not Hispanic nor Latino258,267,94483.6 %
Non-Hispanic White196,817,55263.7 %
Non-Hispanic Black or African American37,685,84812.2 %
Non-Hispanic Asian14,465,1244.7 %
Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native2,247,0980.7 %
Non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander481,5760.2 %
Non-Hispanic some other race604,2650.2 %
Non-Hispanic two or more races5,966,4811.9 %
Hispanic or Latino50,477,59416.4 %
White Hispanic26,735,7138.7 %
Black or African American Hispanic1,243,4710.4 %
American Indian or Alaska Native Hispanic685,1500.2 %
Asian Hispanic209,1280.1 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Hispanic58,4370.0 %
Some other race Hispanic18,503,1036.0 %
Two or more races Hispanic3,042,5921.0 %

Hispanic or Latino origin[edit]

CensusViewer US 2010 Census Latino Population as a heatmap by census tract.

Each of the racial categories includes people who identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino.[53] U.S. federal law defines Hispanic or Latino as "those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire"—Mexican", "Puerto Rican", or "Cuban"—as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.""[54]

Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

The total population of Hispanic and Latino Americans comprised 50.5 million or 16.3% of the national total in 2010.

Breakdown by state[edit]

[clarification needed]

State or DistrictPopulationNon-Hispanic WhiteHispanic/LatinoBlackAmerican Indian or Alaskan NativeAsianNative Hawaiian or Pacific IslanderMixed race
District of Columbia632,32335.59.950.
New Hampshire1,320,71892.
New Jersey8,864,59059.317.713.70.38.302.7
New Mexico2,085,53840.546.
New York19,570,26158.317.615.90.67.303.0
North Carolina9,656,40165.38.421.
North Dakota699,62888.
Rhode Island1,050,29276.412.
South Carolina4,723,72364.
South Dakota833,35484.
West Virginia1,855,41393.
All Data from 2010 U.S. Census Bureau[55]

Other groups[edit]

There were 22.1 million veterans in 2009.[56]

In 2010, the Washington Post estimated that there were 11 million illegal immigrants in the country.[57]

There were about 2 million people in prison in 2010.[58]

The 2000 U.S. Census counted same-sex couples in an oblique way; asking the sex and the relationship to the "main householder", whose sex was also asked. One organization specializing in analyzing gay demographic data reported, based on this count in the 2000 census and in the 2000 supplementary survey, that same-sex couples comprised between 0.99% and 1.13% of U.S. couples in 2000.[59] A 2006 report issued by The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation concluded that the number of same-sex couples in the U.S. grew from 2000 to 2005, from nearly 600,000 couples in 2000 to almost 777,000 in 2005. 4.1% of Americans aged 18–45 identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual[60]

A 2011 report by the Institute estimated that 4 million adults identify as gay or lesbian, representing 1.7% of the population over 18. A spokesperson said that, until recently, few studies have tried to eliminate people who had occasionally undertaken homosexual behavior or entertained homosexual thoughts, from people who identified as lesbian or gay.[61] (Older estimates have varied depending on methodology and timing; see Demographics of sexual orientation for a list of studies.) The American Community Survey from the 2000 U.S. Census estimated 776,943 same-sex couple households in the country as a whole, representing about 0.5% of the population.[60]

Less than 1% of Americans serve in the Armed Forces.[62]


U.S. Census Population projections (2012)[63]
Non-Hispanic Whites61.8%42.6%
African Americans213.2%14.7%
Asian Americans25.3%8.2%
Multiracial Americans22.6%6.4%
Hispanics/Latinos (of any race)17.8%30.6%
Non-Hispanics/Latinos (of any race)82.2%69.4%
1 Including Hispanics and Some other race
2 Including Hispanics

A report by the U.S. Census Bureau projects a decrease in the ratio of Whites between 2010 and 2050, from 79.5% to 74.0%.[64] At the same time, Non-Hispanic Whites are projected to no longer make up a majority of the population by 2042, but will remain the largest single ethnic group. In 2050 they will compose 46.3% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites made up 85% of the population in 1960.[65]

The report foresees the Hispanic or Latino population rising from 16% today to 30% by 2050, the African American percentage barely rising from 12.9% to 13.1%, and Asian Americans upping their 4.6% share to 7.8%. The United States had a population of 310 million people in October 2010, and is projected to reach 400 million by 2039 and 439 million in 2050.[20][66][67][68] It is further projected that 82% of the increase in population from 2005 to 2050 will be due to immigrants and their children.[69]

Of the nation's children in 2050, 62% are expected to be of a minority ethnicity, up from 44% today. Approximately 39% are projected to be Hispanic or Latino (up from 22% in 2008), and 38% are projected to be single-race, non-Hispanic Whites (down from 56% in 2008).[70]

In 2008, the U.S. Census Bureau projected future censuses as follows:[20]

YearProjectionActual result



Major religions by overall percentage (2007).

The table below is based mainly on selected data as reported to the United States Census Bureau. It only includes the voluntary self-reported membership of religious bodies with 750,000 or more. The definition of a member is determined by each religious body.[71] In 2004, the US census bureau reported that about 13% of the population did not identify itself as a member of any religion.[72][clarification needed]

Religious bodyYear reportedPlaces of worship reportedMembership
Number of clergy
African Methodist Episcopal Church1999no data2,5007,741
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church20023,2261,4313,252
American Baptist Association19981,7602751,740
Amish, Old Order19938982273,592
American Baptist Churches USA19983,8001,5074,145
Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America199822065263
Armenian Apostolic Church20101531,000200
Armenian Catholic Church201036
Assemblies of God200912,3712,91434,504
Baptist Bible Fellowship International19974,5001,200no data
Baptist General Conference1998876141no data
Baptist Missionary Association of America19991,3342351,525
Buddhism2001no data1,082no data
Christian and Missionary Alliance, The19981,9643461,629
Christian Brethren (Plymouth Brethren)19971,150100no data
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)19973,8188793,419
Christian churches and churches of Christ19985,5791,0725,525
Christian Congregation, Inc., The19981,4381171,436
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church19832,340719no data
Christian Reformed Church in North America1998733199655
Church of God in Christ199115,3005,50028,988
Church of God of Prophecy19971,908772,000
Church of God (Anderson, IN)19982,3532343,034
Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee)19956,0607533,121
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints200512,7535,69138,259
Church of the Brethren19971,095141827
Church of the Nazarene19985,1016274,598
Churches of Christ199915,0001,50014,500
Conservative Baptist Association of America19981,200200no data
Community of Christ19981,23614019,319
Coptic Orthodox Church20032001,000200
Cumberland Presbyterian Church199877487634
Episcopal Church19967,3902,3658,131
Evangelical Covenant Church, The199862897607
Evangelical Free Church of America, The19951,2242431,936
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America199810,8625,1789,646
Evangelical Presbyterian Church199818761262
Free Methodist Church of North America199899073no data
Full Gospel Fellowship19998962752,070
General Association of General Baptists1997790721,085
General Association of Regular Baptist Churches19981,415102no data
U.S. Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches199636882590
Grace Gospel Fellowship199212860160
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America19985231,955596
Hinduism2001no data766no data
Independent Fundamental Churches of America199965962no data
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel19981,8512384,900
International Council of Community Churches1998150250182
International Pentecostal Holiness Church19981,7161771507
Islam2011no data2,600no data
Jainismno datano data50no data
Jehovah's Witnesses201111,8761,200no data
Judaism20063,7276,588no data
Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The19986,2182,5945,227
Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric20101950no data
Mennonite Church USA2005943114no data
National Association of Congregational Christian Churches199841667534
National Association of Free Will Baptists19982,2972102,800
National Baptist Convention of America, Inc.19872,5003,5008,000
National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.199233,0008,20032,832
National Missionary Baptist Convention of America1992no data2,500no data
Orthodox Church in America19986251,000700
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc.19981,7501,5004,500
Pentecostal Church of God19981,237104no data
Pentecostal Church International, United200828,3514,03722,881
Presbyterian Church in America19971,3402801,642
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)199811,2603,5759,390
Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc.19952,0002,500no data
Reformed Church in America1998902296915
Religious Society of Friends19941,200104no data
Roman Catholic Church200219,48466,40450,017 (1997)[73]
Romanian Orthodox Episcopate1996376537
Salvation Army, The19981,3884712,920
Serbian Orthodox Church1986686760
Seventh-day Adventist Church19984,4058402,454
Sikhism199924480no data
Southern Baptist Convention199840,87016,50071,520
Unitarian Universalism2001no data629no data
United Church of Christ19986,0171,4214,317
United House of Prayer For All Peopleno data10025no data
United Methodist Church, The199836,1708,400no data
Wesleyan Church, The19981,5901201,806
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod19971,2404111,222

Religions of American adults[edit]

The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. The survey below, the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008, was a random digit-dialed telephone survey of 54,461 American residential households in the contiguous United States. The 1990 sample size was 113,723; 2001 sample size was 50,281.

Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?". Interviewers did not prompt or offer a suggested list of potential answers. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. If the initial answer was "Protestant" or "Christian" further questions were asked to probe which particular denomination. About one-third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions.

Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. Adult Population: 1990, 2001, 2008[75]
Figures are not adjusted for refusals to reply; investigators suspect refusals are possibly more representative of "no religion" than any other group.

Source:ARIS 2008[75]
× 1,000
× 1,000
× 1,000

as %
of 1990
% of
% of
% of
in % of
Adult population, total175,440207,983228,18230.1%
Adult population, Responded171,409196,683216,36726.2%97.7%94.6%94.8%–2.9%
Total Christian151,225159,514173,40214.7%86.2%76.7%76.0%–10.2%
non-Catholic Christian105,221108,641116,20310.4%60.0%52.2%50.9%–9.0%
Mainline Protestant32,78435,78829,375–10.4%18.7%17.2%12.9%–5.8%
United Church of Christ4381,37873668.0%0.2%0.7%0.3%0.1%
Christian Generic25,98022,54632,44124.9%14.8%10.8%14.2%–0.6%
Jehovah's Witness1,3811,3311,91438.6%0.8%0.6%0.8%0.1%
Christian Unspecified8,07314,19016,384102.9%4.6%6.8%7.2%2.6%
Non-denominational Christian1942,4898,0324040.2%0.1%1.2%3.5%3.4%
Protestant - Unspecified17,2144,6475,187–69.9%9.8%2.2%2.3%–7.5%
Evangelical/Born Again5461,0882,154294.5%0.3%0.5%0.9%0.6%
Pentecostal - Unspecified3,1164,4075,41673.8%1.8%2.1%2.4%0.6%
Assemblies of God6171,10581031.3%0.4%0.5%0.4%0.0%
Church of God59094366312.4%0.3%0.5%0.3%0.0%
Other Protestant Denomination4,6305,9497,13154.0%2.6%2.9%3.1%0.5%
Seventh-Day Adventist66872493840.4%0.4%0.3%0.4%0.0%
Churches of Christ1,7692,5931,9218.6%1.0%1.2%0.8%–0.2%
Mormon/Latter-Day Saints2,4872,6973,15827.0%1.4%1.3%1.4%0.0%
Total non-Christian religions5,8537,7408,79650.3%3.3%3.7%3.9%0.5%
Eastern Religions6872,0201,961185.4%0.4%1.0%0.9%0.5%
New Religious Movements & Others1,2961,7702,804116.4%0.7%0.9%1.2%0.5%
None/ No religion, total14,33129,48134,169138.4%8.2%14.2%15.0%6.8%
Did Not Know/ Refused to reply4,03111,30011,815193.1%2.3%5.4%5.2%2.9%


In 2010, the median age for marriage for men was 27; for women, 26.[76]


In 2006, the median household income in the United States was around $46,326. Household and personal income depends on variables such as race, number of income earners, educational attainment and marital status.

Median income levels
HouseholdsPersons, age 25 or older with earningsHousehold income by race or ethnicity
All householdsDual earner
Per household
MalesFemalesBoth sexesAsianNon-Hispanic WhiteHispanic
(of any race)
Median personal income by educational attainment
MeasureSome High SchoolHigh school graduateSome collegeAssociate's degreeBachelor's degree or higherBachelor's degreeMaster's degreeProfessional degreeDoctorate degree
Persons, age 25+ w/ earnings$20,321$26,505$31,054$35,009$49,303$43,143$52,390$82,473$70,853
Male, age 25+ w/ earnings$24,192$32,085$39,150$42,382$60,493$52,265$67,123$100,000$78,324
Female, age 25+ w/ earnings$15,073$21,117$25,185$29,510$40,483$36,532$45,730$66,055$54,666
Persons, age 25+, employed full-time$25,039$31,539$37,135$40,588$56,078$50,944$61,273$100,000$79,401
Household income distribution
Bottom 10%Bottom 20%Bottom 25%Middle 33%Middle 20%Top 25%Top 20%Top 5%Top 1.5%Top 1%
$0 to $10,500$0 to $18,500$0 to $22,500$30,000 to $62,500$35,000 to $55,000$77,500 and up$92,000 and up$167,000 and up$250,000 and up$350,000 and up
Source: US Census Bureau, 2006; income statistics for the year 2005

Social class[edit]

Social classes in the United States lack distinct boundaries and may overlap. Even their existence (when distinguished from economic strata) is controversial. The following table provides a summary of some prominent academic theories on the stratification of American society:

Academic Class Models
Dennis Gilbert, 2002William Thompson & Joseph Hickey, 2005Leonard Beeghley, 2004
ClassTypical characteristicsClassTypical characteristicsClassTypical characteristics
Capitalist class (1%)Top-level executives, high-rung politicians, heirs. Ivy League education common.Upper class (1%)Top-level executives, celebrities, heirs; income of $500,000+ common. Ivy league education common.The super-rich (0.9%)Multi-millionaires whose incomes commonly exceed $350,000; includes celebrities and powerful executives/politicians. Ivy League education common.
Upper middle class[1] (15%)Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees), most commonly salaried, professionals and middle management with large work autonomy.Upper middle class[1] (15%)Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees) professionals & managers with household incomes varying from the high 5-figure range to commonly above $100,000.The Rich (5%)Households with net worth of $1 million or more; largely in the form of home equity. Generally have college degrees.
Middle class (plurality/
majority?; ca. 46%)
College-educated workers with considerably higher-than-average incomes and compensation; a man making $57,000 and a woman making $40,000 may be typical.
Lower middle class (30%)Semi-professionals and craftsmen with a roughly average standard of living. Most have some college education and are white-collar.Lower middle class (32%)Semi-professionals and craftsmen with some work autonomy; household incomes commonly range from $35,000 to $75,000. Typically, some college education.
Working class (30%)Clerical and most blue-collar workers whose work is highly routinized. Standard of living varies depending on number of income earners, but is commonly just adequate. High school education.
Working class (32%)Clerical, pink- and blue-collar workers with often low job security; common household incomes range from $16,000 to $30,000. High school education.Working class
(ca. 40–45%)
Blue-collar workers and those whose jobs are highly routinized with low economic security; a man making $40,000 and a woman making $26,000 may be typical. High school education.
Working poor (13%)Service, low-rung clerical and some blue-collar workers. High economic insecurity and risk of poverty. Some high school education.
Lower class (ca. 14–20%)Those who occupy poorly-paid positions or rely on government transfers. Some high school education.
Underclass (12%)Those with limited or no participation in the labor force. Reliant on government transfers. Some high school education.The poor (ca. 12%)Those living below the poverty line with limited to no participation in the labor force; a household income of $18,000 may be typical. Some high school education.
References: Gilbert, D. (2002) The American Class Structure: In An Age of Growing Inequality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; Thompson, W. & Hickey, J. (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon; Beeghley, L. (2004). The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
1 The upper middle class may also be referred to as "Professional class" Ehrenreich, B. (1989). The Inner Life of the Middle Class. NY, NY: Harper-Colins.


In 2010, the average man weighed 194.7 pounds (88.3 kg); the average woman 164.7 pounds (74.7 kg).[77] The height of an American man was 5 feet 9 inches (1.75 m)[78] and woman 5 feet 3.8 inches (1.621 m)[79] The average BMI is 27.3 for males (overweight) and 28.5 for females (overweight).[80]

As of 2012, an estimated 26% of the population is obese,[81] 21% smoke,[82] and 11% have diabetes.[83]

A nationwide study in 2010 indicated that 19.5% of teens, aged 12–19, have developed "slight" hearing loss. "Slight" was defined as an inability to hear at 16 to 24 decibels.[84]

In 2011, an estimated 1.2 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in the United States.[85]

Generational cohorts[edit]

A study by William Strauss and Neil Howe, in their books Generations and Fourth Turning, looked at generational similarities and differences going back to the 15th century and concluded that over 80-year spans, generations proceed through four stages of about 20 years each.

A definitive recent study of US generational cohorts was done by Schuman and Scott (2012) in which a broad sample of adults of all ages was asked, "What world events are especially important to you?"[86] They found that 33 events were mentioned with great frequency. When the ages of the respondents were correlated with the expressed importance rankings, seven (some put 8 or 9) distinct cohorts became evident.

Today the following descriptors are frequently used for these cohorts (alive in 2000–10):

U.S. demographic birth cohorts[edit]

Birth rate has dropped since 1957

Subdivided groups are present when peak boom years or inverted peak bust years are present, and may be represented by a normal or inverted bell-shaped curve (rather than a straight curve). The boom subdivided cohorts may be considered as "pre-peak" (including peak year) and "post-peak". The year 1957 was the baby boom peak with 4.3 million births and 122.7 fertility rate. Although post-peak births (such as trailing edge boomers) are in decline, and sometimes referred to as a "bust", there are still a relatively large number of births. The dearth-in-birth bust cohorts include those up to the valley birth year, and those including and beyond, leading up to the subsequent normal birth rate. The Baby boom began around 1943 to 1946.[citation needed]

From the decline in U.S. birth rates starting in 1958 and the introduction of the birth-control pill in 1960, the Baby Boomer normal distribution curve is negatively skewed. The trend in birth rates from 1958 to 1961 show a tendency to end late in the decade at approximately 1969, thus returning to pre-WWII levels, with 12 years of rising and 12 years of declining birth rates. Pre-war birth rates were defined as anywhere between 1939 and 1941 by demographers such as the Taeuber's, Philip M. Hauser and William Fielding Ogburn.[99]

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[100]

A population pyramid that shows the age of the population by sex in 2010.
Population of the USA by age and sex (demographic pyramid) as on 01 June, 2014


Median ages are 36.8 years; males are 35.5 years; females are 38.1 years estimated as of 2010.

As of 2010, people are distributed by age as follows:

Birth, growth, and death rates[edit]

The growth rate is 0.739% as estimated from 2013-2010 by the US Census

Live Births in the United States, 1934–2004.

The birth rate is 13.5 births/1,000 population, estimated as of 2010. This was the lowest in a century. There were 4,136,000 births in 2009.[101]

13.9 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2008)
14.3 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2007)[102]

In 2009, Time magazine reported that 40% of births were to unmarried women.[103] The following is a breakdown by race for unwed births: 17% Asian, 29% White, 53% Hispanics, 66% Native Americans, and 72% African American.[104]

The drop in the birth rate from 2007 to 2009 is believed to be associated with the Late-2000s recession.[105]

A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that more than half (51 percent) of live hospital births in 2008 and 2011 were male.[106]

Death rate[edit]

As of July 2010, it was estimated that there were 8.38 deaths/1,000 population.[citation needed]

Immigration and emigration[edit]

Inflow of New Legal Permanent Residents, Top Five Sending Countries, 2011[107]
Dominican Rep.46,019All immigrants1,062,040

13% of the population was foreign-born in 2009,[108]including 11.2 million undocumented aliens,[109] 80% of whom come from Latin America.[110] Latin America is the largest region-of-birth group, accounting for over half (53%) of all foreign born population in US,[111] and thus is also the largest source of both legal and illegal immigration to US.[112] In 2011, there are 18.1 million naturalized citizens in USA, accounting for 45% of the foreign-born population (40.4 million) and 6 percent of the total US population at the time,[113] and around 680,000 legal immigrants are naturalized annually.[114]

4.32 people migrate per 1,000 population, estimated in 2010.[citation needed]

Sex ratios[edit]

at birth: 1.048 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 78.11 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 80.69 years (2010 est.)
US unemployment by state in September 2009 (official, or U3 rate).[115]

Total fertility rate[edit]

1.87 children born/woman (2013).
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Vital Statistics System.

Unemployment rate[edit]

As of July 2014, the U.S. unemployment rate was 6.2 percent (U3 Rate).[116]

As of February 2014, the U6 unemployment rate is 14.9 percent.[117] The U6 unemployment rate counts not only people without work seeking full-time employment (the more familiar U-3 rate), but also counts "marginally attached workers and those working part-time for economic reasons." Note that some of these part-time workers counted as employed by U-3 could be working as little as an hour a week. And the "marginally attached workers" include those who have gotten discouraged and stopped looking, but still want to work. The age considered for this calculation is 16 years and over.[118]


In 2013, about 15% of Americans moved. Most of these, 67%, moved within the same county. Of the 33% who moved beyond local county boundaries, 13% of those moved more than 200 miles (320 km).[119]

See also[edit]





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