Demographics of Thailand

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Life in Thailand

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Thailand, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Ethnicity[edit]

An ethnological map of Thailand (1974).

Thailand's ethnic Thais make up the majority of the population with 75 percent of all inhabitants. Thai Chinese make up 14 percent with the remaining 11 percent made up of various other groups.[1]

The language of the central Thai population is the educational and administrative language. Several other small Thai groups include the Shan, Lue, and Phu Thai.

Malay and Yawi-speaking Muslim's language of the south comprise another significant minority group (2.3%). Other groups include the Khmer; the Mon, who are substantially assimilated with the Thai; and the Vietnamese. Smaller mountain-dwelling tribes, such as the Hmong and Mien, as well as the Karen, number about 788,024. Some 300,000 Hmong, who ironically have lived this area for more generations than the Thais themselves, are to receive citizenship by 2010.[citation needed]

Thailand is also home to more than 200,000 foreigners from, for example, Europe (specifically United Kingdom) and North America.[2] Increasing numbers of migrants from Burma, Laos, and Cambodia as well as nations such as Nepal, India, along with those from the West and Japan had pushed the total number of non-nationals residing in Thailand to around 3.5 million by the end of 2009, up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in the year 2000. A rising awareness of minorities is slowly changing attitudes in a country where non-nationals, some having resided in what is now Thailand longer than the Thais themselves, are barred from numerous privileges ranging from healthcare, ownership of property, or schooling in their own language.

Population distribution[edit]

The population is mostly rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. However, as Thailand continues to industrialize, its urban population - 45.7% (in 2010, according to NESDB) of the total population, principally in the Bangkok area - is growing.

Thailand's highly successful government-sponsored family planning program has resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1% in 1960 to around 0.4% today. The Worldbank forecasts a contraction of the population in ten years time. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the figure was down to 3.2. Even though Thailand has one of the best social insurance systems in Asia, the increasing group of elderly people is a challenge for the country. [3]

Life expectancy also has risen, a positive reflection of Thailand's efforts in executing public health policies. However, the AIDS epidemic has had a major impact on the Thai population.

Today, over 700,000 Thais are HIV or AIDS positive - approximately 2% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. Every year, 30,000-50,000 Thais die from HIV or AIDS-related causes. Ninety percent of them aged 20–24, the youngest range of the workforce. The situation could have been worse; an aggressive public education campaign in the early 1990s reduced the number of new HIV infections from 150,000 to 25,000 annually.

The 1997 constitution mandated 12 years of free education, however, this is not provided universally. Education accounts for 19% of total government expenditures.

Religion[edit]

Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Thailand and is officially the religion of about 97% of its people. Muslims are some 10% and 5% other religions including Christianity, Hinduism, especially among immigrants. In addition to Malay and Yawi speaking Thais and other southerners who are Muslim, the Cham of Cambodia in recent years begun a large scale influx into Thailand. The government permits religious diversity, and other major religions are represented, though there is much social tension, especially in the South. Spirit worship and animism are widely practiced.

Demographics of Thailand, Data of Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision

Languages[edit]

Population of Thailand above the age of 5 by language (UN statistics 2000)[4]
LanguageLanguage familyNo. of speakers
ThaiTai-Kadai52,325,037
KhmerAustroasiatic1,291,024
MalayAustronesian1,202,911
KarenSino-Tibetan317,968
ChineseSino-Tibetan231,350
MiaoHmong-Mien112,686
LahuSino-Tibetan70,058
BurmeseSino-Tibetan67,061
AkhaSino-Tibetan54,241
EnglishIndo-European48,202
TaiTai-Kadai44,004
JapaneseJaponic38,565
LawaAustroasiatic31,583
LisuJaponic25,037
VietnameseAustroasiatic24,476
YaoHmong-Mien21,238
KhmuAustroasiatic6,246
IndianIndo-European5,598
Haw YunnaneseSino-Tibetan3,247
HtinAustroasiatic2,317
Others33,481
Unknown325,134
Total56,281,538


Vital statistics[edit]

Births and deaths [5][edit]

PeriodLive births per yearDeaths per yearNatural change per yearCBR1CDR1NC1TFR1IMR1
1950-1955940 000344 000596 00042.515.627.06.14130.3
1955-19601 093 000348 000745 00043.013.729.36.14108.7
1960-19651 249 000353 000896 00042.312.030.36.1390.5
1965-19701 386 000362 0001 025 00040.410.529.85.9975.5
1970-19751 371 000355 0001 016 00034.68.925.65.0563.2
1975-19801 297 000338 000959 00028.97.521.33.9250.4
1980-19851 201 000300 000901 00024.16.018.12.9538.9
1985-19901 113 000266 000848 00020.44.915.52.3029.1
1990-19951 050 000313 000737 00018.05.412.61.9922.6
1995-2000955 000373 000582 00015.66.19.51.7718.6
2000-2005914 000426 000488 00014.16.67.51.6815.1
2005-2010872 000486 000386 00012.97.25.71.6312.4
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Data | The World Bank[edit]

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total: 74 years (2011)
male: 71 years(2011)
female: 77 years (2011)

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)[edit]

11 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)[edit]

12 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

The population of Thailand is approximately 67.5 million people, with an annual growth rate of about 0.3 percent. In addition to Thai, it includes ethnic Chinese, Malay, Lao,Burma, Cambodia, and Indians, among others. According to 2010 decennial census, it revealed a population of 65,981,600 (up from 60,916,441 in 2000) and post-censal adjustments are being carried out to see if there was any reporting error.

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 21.2% (male 7,104,776/female 6,781,453)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 22,763,274/female 23,304,793)
65 years and over: 8.5% (male 2,516,721/female 3,022,281) (2008 est.)
0-14 years: 19.9% (male 6,779,723/female 6,466,625)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 23,410,091/female 23,913,499)
65 years and over: 9.2% (male 2,778,012/female 3,372,203) (2011 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

Net migration rate[edit]

0 migrants/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.06 males/female
under 15 years: 1.05 males/female
15-64 years: 0.98 males/female
65 years and over: 0.83 males/female
total population: 0.98 males/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 73.6 years
male: 71.24 years
female: 76.08 years (2011 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups[edit]

ethnic Thai 75%, Thai Chinese 14%, other 11%

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 94.9%
female: 90.5% (2002 est.)

References[edit]