Demographics of Sweden

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The demographics of Sweden is about the demographic features of the population of Sweden, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. In addition to the ethnic Swedish majority, Sweden has historically had smaller minorities of Sami people in the northernmost parts of the country while Finns (at 5% of the total population) are most prominent in the Mälardalen and in the north of Sweden.

The demographic profile of Sweden has changed significantly as a result of immigration since the 1970s.

Population statistics[edit]

Population of Sweden, 1961 to 2003. The population increased from 7.5 to 8.3 million during the 1960s to 1970s. After a phase of steadiness during the early 1980s, the population grew further from 8.3 to 8.8 million during 1987 to 1997, followed by another phase of stagnation (followed by another growth phase from 8.8 to 9.3 million over 2004 to 2010).

At the housing and population census 1990 the Swedish population stood at 8 587 353 out of which 4 242 351 male and 4 345 002 female. According to the 1990 census there were 788 767 foreign born within the country.[1]

Within Sweden's current borders, the historic population has been estimated to the following values:[2]

At the end of yearPopulationAnnual growth
TotalPer thousand
1570900,000--
16501,225,0004,0633.86
17001,485,0005,2003.86
17201,350,000- 6,750- 4.75
17551,878,00015,0869.48
18152,465,0009,7834.54
18654,099,00032,68010.22
19005,140,00029,7436.48
19908,562,000
20059,002,000[3]
20109,348,000[4][5]91,5529.7
20119 475 954[6]128,000
20129 555 893[7]80,039

Sweden census 2005[edit]

The 2005 Swedish census showed an increase of 475,322 compared to the 1990 census, an average increase of 31,680 annually. During the 1990s, birth rate increased by more than 100,000 children per year while death rates fell and immigration surged. In the early 2000s, birth rate declined as immigration increased further, with the context of unrest in the Middle East, upholding steady population growth.[8]

Ethnicity[edit]

Beside the Swedes, the Sweden-Finns are the largest ethnic minority comprising approximately 50,000 along the Swedish-Finnish border, and 450,000 first and second generation immigrated ethnic Finns. Also in the farthest North a small population of Samis live.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

For the latest statistics, see this country's entry in the CIA World Factbook
Age structure
Sex ratio
Infant mortality rate
Total fertility rate
Literacy

Vital statistics since 1900[edit]

Data according to Statistics Sweden, which collects the official statistics for Sweden.[10]

Estimated birth rate (blue) and death rate in Sweden for the period of 1735 to 2000. The graph indicates strong population growth for the period of 1800 to 1970, and a beginning population decline from the 1980s.

Aver-
age popu-
lation (x 1000)
Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates
19005 117138 13986 14651 99327.016.810.24,02
19015 156139 37082 77256 59827.016.111.04,04
19025 187137 36479 72257 64226.515.411.13,95
19035 210133 89678 61055 28625.715.110.63,82
19045 241134 95280 15254 80025.715.310.53,83
19055 278135 40982 44352 96625.715.610.03,83
19065 316136 62076 36660 25425.714.411.33,81
19075 357136 79378 14958 64425.514.610.93,77
19085 404138 87480 56858 30625.714.910.83,79
19095 453139 50574 53864 96725.613.711.93,71
19105 499135 62577 21258 41324.714.010.63,60
19115 542132 97776 46256 51524.013.810.23,49
19125 583132 86879 24153 62723.814.29.63,44
19135 621130 20076 72453 47623.213.69.53,32
19145 659129 45878 31151 14722.913.89.03,29
19155 696122 99783 58739 41021.614.76.93,06
19165 735121 67977 77143 90821.213.67.72,99
19175 779120 85577 38543 47020.913.47.52,93
19185 807117 955104 59413 36120.318.02.32,83
19195 830115 19384 28930 90419.814.55.32,72
19205 876138 75378 12860 62523.613.310.33,22
19215 929127 72373 53654 18721.512.49.12,93
19225 971116 94676 34340 60319.612.86.82,66
19235 997113 43568 42445 01118.911.47.52,55
19246 021109 05572 00137 05418.112.06.22,43
19256 045106 29270 91835 37417.611.75.92,34
19266 064102 00771 34430 66316.811.85.12,22
19276 08197 99477 21920 77516.112.73.42,11
19286 09797 86873 26724 60116.112.04.02,08
19296 11392 86174 53818 32315.212.23.01,95
19306 13194 22071 79022 43015.411.73.71,96
19316 15291 07477 12113 95314.812.52.31,88
19326 17689 77971 45918 32014.511.63.01,83
19336 20185 02069 60715 41313.711.22.51,72
19346 22285 09269 92115 17113.711.22.41,67
19356 24285 90672 81313 09313.811.72.11,70
19366 25988 93874 83614 10214.212.02.31,75
19376 27690 37375 39214 98114.412.02.41,77
19386 29793 94672 69321 25314.911.53.41,84
19396 32697 38072 87624 50415.411.53.91,90
19406 35695 77872 74823 03015.111.43.61,86
19416 38999 72771 91027 81715.611.34.41,92
19426 432113 96163 74150 22017.79.97.82,19
19436 491125 39266 10559 28719.310.29.12,41
19446 560134 99172 28462 70720.611.09.62,61
19456 636135 37371 90163 47220.410.89.62,63
19466 719132 59770 63561 96219.710.59.22,57
19476 803128 77973 57955 20018.910.88.12,50
19486 883126 68367 69358 99018.49.88.62,47
19496 956121 27269 53751 73517.410.07.42,39
19507 014115 41470 29645 11816.510.06.42,28
19517 073110 16869 79940 36915.69.95.72,20
19527 125110 19268 27041 92215.59.65.92,22
19537 171110 14469 55340 59115.49.75.72,25
19547 213105 09669 03036 06614.69.65.02,18
19557 262107 30568 63438 67114.89.55.32,25
19567 315107 96070 20537 75514.89.65.22,29
19577 364107 16873 13234 03614.69.94.62,29
19587 409105 50271 06534 43714.29.64.62,26
19597 446104 74370 88933 85414.19.54.52,29
19607 480102 21975 09327 12613.710.03.62,17
19617 520104 50173 55530 94613.99.84.12,21
19627 562107 28476 79130 49314.210.24.02,25
19637 604112 90376 46036 44314.810.14.82,33
19647 661122 66476 66146 00316.010.06.02,47
19657 734122 80678 19444 61215.910.15.82,39
19667 808123 35478 44044 91415.810.05.82,37
19677 868121 36079 78341 57715.410.15.32,28
19687 914113 08782 47630 61114.310.43.92,07
19697 968107 62283 35224 27013.510.53.01,94
19708 043110 15080 02630 12413.79.93.71,94
19718 098114 48482 71731 76714.110.23.91,98
19728 122112 27384 05128 22213.810.33.51,93
19738 137109 66385 64024 02313.510.53.01,88
19748 161109 87486 31623 55813.510.62.91,91
19758 193103 63288 20815 42412.610.81.91,78
19768 22298 34590 6777 66812.011.00.91,70
19778 25296 05788 2027 85511.610.71.01,64
19788 27693 24889 6813 56711.310.80.41,61
19798 29496 25591 0745 18111.611.00.61,66
19808 31097 06491 8005 26411.711.00.61,69
19818 32094 06592 0342 03111.311.10.21,63
19828 32592 74890 6712 07711.110.90.21,60
19838 32991 78090 79198911.010.90.11,61
19848 33793 88990 4833 40611.310.90.41,66
19858 35098 46394 0324 43111.811.30.51,74
19868 370101 95093 2958 65512.211.11.01,79
19878 398104 69993 30711 39212.511.11.41,84
19888 437112 08096 74315 33713.311.51.81,96
19898 493116 02392 11023 91313.710.82.82,02
19908 559123 93895 16128 77714.511.13.42,14
19918 617123 73795 20228 53514.411.03.32,12
19928 668122 84894 71028 13814.210.93.22,09
19938 719117 99897 00820 99013.511.12.42,00
19948 781112 25791 84420 41312.810.52.31,90
19958 831103 32696 9106 41611.711.00.71,74
19968 84395 29794 1331 16410.810.60.11,61
19978 84689 17192 674-3 50310.110.5-0.41,52
19988 85188 38492 891-4 50710.010.5-0.51,51
19998 85888 17394 726-6 55310.010.7-0.71,50
20008 87290 44193 285-2 84410.210.5-0.31,54
20018 89691 46693 752-2 28610.310.5-0.31,57
20028 92595 81595 00980610.710.60.11,65
20038 95899 15792 9616 19611.110.40.71,71
20048 994100 92890 53210 39611.210.11.21,75
20059 030101 34691 7109 63611.210.21.11,77
20069 081105 91391 17714 73611.710.01.61,85
20079 148107 42191 72915 69211.710.01.71,88
20089 220109 30191 44917 85211.99.91.91,91
20099 299111 80190 08021 72112.09.72.31,94
20109 379115 64190 48725 15412.39.62.71,99
20119 483111 77089 93821 83211.89.52.31,90
20129 555113 17791 93821 23911.99.62.31,92

Current vital statistics[edit]

Number of births from January to June 2012 = Increase 57,428

Number of births from January to June 2013 = Increase 57,950

Number of deaths from January to June 2012 = negative increase 47,476

Number of deaths from January to June 2013 = positive decrease 47,129

Natural increase from January to June 2012 = Decrease 9,952

Natural increase from January to June 2013 = Increase 10,821

Migration[edit]

Immigration[edit]

COB data Sweden.PNG

As of 2011, Statistics Sweden reported that around 19.6% or 1.858.000 inhabitants of Sweden had foreign background, defined as born abroad or born in Sweden by two parents born abroad.[11]

Demographics[edit]

According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 1.33 million foreign-born residents in Sweden, corresponding to 14.3% of the total population. Of these, 859,000 (9.2%) were born outside the EU and 477,000 (5.1%) were born in another EU Member State.[12][13] The largest groups were:[14]

  1. Finland Finland (163,867)
  2. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Former Yugoslavia (157,350)
  3. Iraq Iraq (127,860)
  4. Iran Iran (65,649)
  5. Poland Poland (49,518)
  6. Germany Germany (48,731)
  7. Turkey Turkey (45,085)
  8. Denmark Denmark (44,209)
  9. Somalia Somalia (43,966)
  10. Norway Norway (42,884)

The number of Assyrians in Sweden is about 100,000 – 120,000.[15][16]

The fastest growing groups of foreign-born residents in Sweden between 2011 and 2012 were the following nationalities:

  1. Syria Syria (+5,153)
  2. Afghanistan Afghanistan (+3,995)
  3. Somalia Somalia (+3,801)
  4. Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia & Herzegovina (+2,458)
  5. Iraq Iraq (+2,361)
  6. Thailand Thailand (+1,941)
  7. Iran Iran (+1,821)
  8. Eritrea Eritrea (+1,741)
  9. Turkey Turkey (+1,176)
  10. China China (+1,161)

In 2012, the number of migrants coming from Syria to Sweden comprised 4,730 persons, which is a tripling compared to the previous year. Apart from remigrating Swedish citizens, this was the fastest growing migrant group of 2012.[7] During the same year, the number of asylum seekers from Syria soared to 7,814 from merely 640 the year before.[17]

History[edit]

World War II

Immigration increased markedly with World War II. Historically, the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway.[citation needed] In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland, of which 15,000 remained in Sweden. Also, many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there.[citation needed]

A sizable community from the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) arrived during the Second World War.[18]

1945 to 1967

During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of immigrant labor was an important factor of immigration. The Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries, especially from Finland to Scandinavia, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now charactreristic of Scandinavia.[citation needed] This continued until 1967, when the labour market became saturated, and Sweden introduced new immigration controls.

On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968 respectively.

Contemporary immigration[edit]

Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[19]

The first group of Assyrians/Syriacs moved to Sweden from Lebanon in 1967. Many of them live in Södertälje (Stockholm).[20][21] There are also around 40,000 Roma in Sweden.[22]

Immigration of Iraqis increased dramatically during the Iraq War, during 2003 to 2007. A total of 8,951 Iraqis came to Sweden in 2006, accounting for 45% of the entire Iraqi migration to Europe. By 2007, the community of Iraqis in Sweden numbered above 70,000. In 2008, Sweden introduced tighter rules on asylum seekers.[23]

Emigration[edit]

In the 19th century, Sweden's yearly population growth rate peaked at 1.2% (i.e. it doubled in less than 60 years), compared to 1% today (migration excluded). This considerable population growth rate led, before the Industrial Revolution, to a pauperization of the rural population, for each generation inherited smaller and smaller shares. Due to years of crop failure in the 1840s and 1860s, the U.S. Homestead Act of 1862, and to a lesser extent religious persecution, emigration started and grew. Between 1850 and 1930 1,050,000 Swedes emigrated (re-migration excluded), chiefly to Canada, U.S. and to Denmark. If they had not left, Sweden's population would have been about 2,000,000 higher today, assuming famine and civil war would not have resulted from their staying. (After 1929 the net-migration has been directed towards Sweden.)

The re-migration of Swedish nationals from the U.S. was culturally more important than the absolute figures reveal. The re-migrants often re-settled in their native parish, where their relative wealth and foreign experience ensured a prestigious position in the community. U.S. views, values and not the least world-view followed the re-migrants, ensuring a popular perception of closeness to U.S., contrary to the situation in for instance neighbouring Denmark or Finland (and contrary to the Swedish elite's closeness to Germany and Continental Europe).

Language[edit]

The Swedish language is by far the dominating language in Sweden, and is used by the government administration.

Since 1999 Sweden has five officially recognized minority languages: Sami, Meänkieli, Standard-Finnish, Romani chib and Yiddish.

The Sami language, spoken by about 7,000 people in Sweden, may be used in government agencies, courts, preschools and nursing homes in the municipalities of Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Kiruna and its immediate neighbourhood.

Similarly, Finnish and Meänkieli can be used in the municipalities of Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala and Övertorneå and its immediate neighbourhood. Finnish is also official language, along with Swedish, in the city of Eskilstuna[citation needed].

During the mid to late 20th century, immigrant communities brought other languages, among others being Turkish, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Neo-Aramaic.[24]

Religion[edit]

Although only one fifth of Swedes in one investigation chose to describe themselves as believing in a god,[25] the majority (65.5%) of the population belongs to the Church of Sweden, the Lutheran church that was disestablished in 2000. This is because until 1996, those who had family members in the church automatically became members at birth.[citation needed] Other Christian denominations in Sweden include the Roman Catholic Church (see Catholic Church of Sweden), several Orthodox churches in diaspora, Baptist, Pentecostal, Neo-pietistic (nyevangeliska) and other evangelical Christian churches (frikyrkor = "free churches"). Shamanism persisted among the Sami people up until the 18th century, but no longer exists in its traditional form as most Sami today belong to the Lutheran church.

Jews were permitted to practice their religion in five Swedish cities in 1782, and enjoy full rights as citizens since 1870. The new Freedom of Religion Bill was passed in 1951, and former obstacles against Non-Lutherans working in schools and hospitals were removed. Further, that bill made it legal to leave any religious denomination, without entering another. There are also a number of Muslims, Buddhists, and Bahá'í in Sweden, mainly from immigration.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.scb.se/Grupp/Hitta_statistik/Historisk_statistik/_Dokument/SOS/Folk_o_bostadsrakningen_1990_2.pdf
  2. ^ Gustav Sundbärg, Sveriges land och folk (1901), page 90.
  3. ^ According to Statistiska centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden), Sweden's population reached 9,000,000 As of 12 August 2004 (2004-08-12). See the Swedish population web counter.
  4. ^ The 2010 estimate from Statistiska Centralbyrån suggested that population to 9,347,899. This estimate represents an increase by 91,552 since 2009 years estimate, a record increase since 1946. [1][http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1
  5. ^ "Sveriges folkmängd den 31 december 2009, preliminära uppgifter: - Statistiska centralbyrån". Scb.se. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  (Swedish)
  6. ^ "Befolkningsstatistik - Statistiska centralbyrån". Scb.se. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  (Swedish)
  7. ^ a b "Befolkningsstatistik 2012 - befolkningsförändringar - Statistiska centralbyrån". Scb.se. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  (Swedish)
  8. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/censuskb/article.aspx?id=10161[dead link] http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/meetings/egm/Symposium2001/docs/symposium_13.htm Note Second link is as accessed November 2011: Only a paper "The 2005 population and housing census in Sweden will be totally register-based" on how the census was done, no information on results.
  9. ^ http://www.scb.se/
  10. ^ Statistics Sweden
  11. ^ http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____26041.aspx Foreign background include foreign-born and Swedish-born with two foreign-born parents
  12. ^ 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
  13. ^ http://www.ssd.scb.se/databaser/makro/SaveShow.asp
  14. ^ Befolkning efter födelseland och ursprungsland 31 december 2012 (in Swedish), SCB
  15. ^ "Sweden National Institutions for Language". Eurfedling.org. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  16. ^ "History of Assyrians". Aina.org. 2007-04-01. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  17. ^ Asylum seekers in 2012 and 2011, by citizenship and sex, SCB
  18. ^ The Swedish Integration Board (2006). Pocket Facts: Statistics on Integration. Integrationsverket, 2006. ISBN 91-89609-30-1. Available online in pdf format. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  19. ^ Sweden: Restrictive Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism, Migration Policy Institute, 2006.
  20. ^ Assyrians/Syriacs in Sweden (Swedish)
  21. ^ K. Nordgren, Who Does History Belong To? History as Consciousness, Culture and Action in Multicultural Sweden, Karlstad University, Sweden, 2006. (Swedish)
  22. ^ Romani people in Sweden
  23. ^ "Sweden tightens rules on Iraqi asylum seekers". reuters.com. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  24. ^ "Sweden". Ethnologue. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  25. ^ Sifo, Din egen livsåskådning

External links[edit]