Demographics of South Africa

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Demographics of South Africa
South-africa-demography.svg
Population of South Africa, 1961–2008
Population52,981,991 (July 2013 est.)[1]
Growth rate1.34%[1]
Birth rate19.61 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate16.99 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy49.2 years (2010 est.)
 • male50.08 years (2010 est.)
 • female48.29 years (2010 est.)
Fertility rate2.33 children born/woman (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate43.78 deaths/1,000
Age structure
0–14 years28.9% (male 7,093,328/female 7,061,579)
15–64 years65.8% (male 16,275,424/female 15,984,181)
65 and over5.4% (male 1,075,117/female 1,562,860) (2010 est.)
Sex ratio
Total0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
At birth1.02 male(s)/female
Under 151 male(s)/female
15–64 years1.02 male(s)/female
65 and over0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalitySouth African
Language
OfficialSee Languages of South Africa
 
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Demographics of South Africa
South-africa-demography.svg
Population of South Africa, 1961–2008
Population52,981,991 (July 2013 est.)[1]
Growth rate1.34%[1]
Birth rate19.61 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate16.99 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy49.2 years (2010 est.)
 • male50.08 years (2010 est.)
 • female48.29 years (2010 est.)
Fertility rate2.33 children born/woman (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate43.78 deaths/1,000
Age structure
0–14 years28.9% (male 7,093,328/female 7,061,579)
15–64 years65.8% (male 16,275,424/female 15,984,181)
65 and over5.4% (male 1,075,117/female 1,562,860) (2010 est.)
Sex ratio
Total0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
At birth1.02 male(s)/female
Under 151 male(s)/female
15–64 years1.02 male(s)/female
65 and over0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalitySouth African
Language
OfficialSee Languages of South Africa

The demographics of South Africa encompasses about 52 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2011 and the next will be taken anywhere from 2016–2021.

South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans.[2][3][4] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008.[5][6]

Population[edit]

Historical population: 1904 to 2011[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19045,175,463—    
19115,972,757+15.4%
19216,927,403+16.0%
19369,587,863+38.4%
194611,415,925+19.1%
195112,671,452+11.0%
196015,994,181+26.2%
197021,402,470+33.8%
199640,585,568+89.6%
200144,819,777+10.4%
2007 (est.)48,502,063+8.2%
201151,770,560+6.7%
[7][8][9][10]

U.N. population projections: 2010 to 2040[edit]

Population projections
YearPop.±%
201553,491,000—    
202055,131,000+3.1%
202556,666,000+2.8%
203058,096,000+2.5%
203559,527,000+2.5%
204060,938,000+2.4%
Source: United Nations Secretariat[11]

Age and population estimates: 1950 to 2010[edit]

According to the 2010 revision of the United Nations Secretariat's World Population Prospects, South Africa's total population was 50,133,000 in 2010, compared to only 13,683,000 in 1950. In 2010, 30.1% of the people were children under the age of 15, 65.2% were between 15 and 64 years of age, and 4.6% were 65 or older.[12] All population estimates are rounded to the nearest thousand.

YearTotal populationPercentage
under 15
years old
Percentage
15 to 64
years old
Percentage
at least 65
years old
195013,683,00038.657.83.6
195515,385,00039.956.43.8
196017,396,00040.955.23.9
196519,814,00041.954.23.9
197022,502,00042.154.53.4
197525,699,00041.954.93.2
198029,077,00041.555.33.1
198532,983,00040.556.43.1
199036,794,00038.957.93.2
199541,402,00036.060.63.4
200044,760,00033.762.63.7
200547,793,00031.764.24.1
201050,133,00030.165.24.6

Historical censuses[edit]

1904 Census[edit]

South African Population Figures for the 1904 Census. Source:[7]

ColonyCape ColonyNatalTransvaalOrange River
Colony
TotalPercent
Black 1,424,787904,041937,127225,1013,491,05667.5%
White579,74197,109297,277142,6791,116,80521.6%
Coloured395,0346,68624,22619,282445,2288.6%
Asiatic10,242100,91811,321253122,7342.4%
Total2,409,8041,108,7541,269,951387,3155,175,463100.0%
% of S. Africa46.6%21.4%24.5%7.5%100%

1960 Census[edit]

Sources: Statesman's Year-Book 1967–1968;[13] Europa Year Book 1969 [14]

ProvinceCape of
Good Hope
NatalTransvaalOrange
Free State
TotalPercent
Bantu People3,011,0802,199,9204,633,3781,083,88610,928,26468.3%
White1,003,207340,2351,468,305276,7453,088,49219.3%
Coloured1,330,08945,253108,00725,9091,509,2589.4%
Asiatic18,477394,85463,7877477,1253.0%
Total5,362,8532,980,2626,273,4771,386,54716,003,139100.0%
% of S. Africa33.5%18.6%39.2%8.7%100.0%

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in South Africa has improved considerably during the past decade, but still not considered to be complete for black South Africans. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[12] (Natural increase or decrease over a time period is the difference between that period's live births and deaths, before accounting for inward or outward migration.)

United Nations estimates, 2010

PeriodLive births per yearDeaths per yearNatural Increase per yearCrude Birth Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Crude Death Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Natural Increase
(per 1,000 per year)
Total Fertility Rate (over av'ge woman's life)Infant Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births)
1950–1955629 000295 000+ 334 00043.320.3+ 23.06.5096
1955–1960697 000297 000+ 400 00042.518.1+ 24.46.5091
1960–1965774 000310 000+ 464 00041.616.7+ 25.06.3087
1965–1970808 000312 000+ 496 00038.214.7+ 23.55.7084
1970–1975909 000317 000+ 592 00037.713.1+ 24.65.4777
1975–1980980 000319 000+ 661 00035.811.7+ 24.15.0071
1980–19851 052 000307 000+ 745 00033.9 9.9+ 24.04.5661
1985–19901 086 000299 000+ 787 00031.1 8.6+ 22.54.0053
1990–19951 073 000332 000+ 742 00027.5 8.5+ 19.03.3451
1995–20001 082 000450 000+ 632 00025.110.4+ 14.72.9556
2000–20051 111 000645 000+ 466 00024.013.9+ 10.12.8059
2005–20101 074 000746 000+ 328 00021.915.2+  6.72.5555
Total Fertility Rate = average number of children over a woman's lifetime; Infant Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births
YearLive birthsDeathsNatural increaseCrude birth rate
(per 1,000)
Crude death rate
(per 1,000)
Natural increase
(per 1,000)
Fertility rates
(per woman)
Average population
20021 117 731636 416481 31524,513,910,62,71
20031 119 820674 281445 53924,214,69,62,68
20041 105 534703 651401 88323,615,08,62,61
20051 095 999722 075373 92423,115,27,92,56
20061 092 768701 001391 76722,814,68,22,53
20071 098 959657 051441 90822,613,59,12,53
20081 107 603618 324489 27922,512,69,92,52
20091 114 301591 135523 16622,311,810,52,51
20101 123 409580 673542 73622,211,510,72,5
20111 109 926579 371530 55521,611,310,32,44
20121 095 669572 600523 06921,011,010,02,39
20131 084 397559 631524 76620,510,69,92,3452 982 000
2002–2013 population estimates rounded to the nearest thousand

Age and sex distribution[edit]

South African National Census of 2011

Population pyramid, 2005
Age
group
MaleFemale
 %
FemaleTotal % of
S.A.
under 52,867,58549.6%2,817,8675,685,45211.0%
5–92,425,18149.7%2,394,5704,819,7519.3%
10–142,344,27549.0%2,250,6114,594,8868.9%
15–192,498,57250.1%2,504,9055,003,4779.7%
20–242,694,64649.9%2,679,8965,374,54210.4%
25–292,542,68249.7%2,516,6355,059,3179.8%
30–342,036,20649.5%1,992,8044,029,0107.8%
35–391,709,34750.7%1,758,4203,467,7676.7%
40–441,402,32852.4%1,546,2912,948,6195.7%
45–491,195,74054.4%1,424,5432,620,2835.1%
50–541,011,34954.4%1,206,9402,218,2894.3%
55–59811,95054.8%985,4581,797,4083.5%
60–64612,36455.8%773,4041,385,7682.7%
65–69401,54858.1%556,256957,8041.9%
70–74293,49860.8%454,832748,3301.4%
75–79165,28365.7%315,984481,2670.9%
80–84100,69468.8%222,222322,9160.6%
85-plus75,54370.5%180,130255,6730.5%
TOTAL25,188,79151.3%26,581,76951,770,560100%
Number of children 0–14Number of women 15–49ProportionFertility Rate
15.812.26413.866.4891,142,35
Age groupPopulationMaleFemalePercent
0–1415.812.2687.969.8807.842.38831,26
15–6432.235.53415.538.93416.696.60063,72
65+2.538.9551.006.2221.532.7335,02

Age and race distribution[edit]

South African National Census of 2011

Age distribution within each racial group[edit]

By generation[edit]
Age groupAll races% of AllBlack African% of BlacksColoured% of Col'dWhite% of WhitesIndian or Asian% of AsiansOthers% of others
0–1415,100,08929.2%12,702,32431.0%1,311,81128.4%771,18716.8%258,60220.1%56,16420.0%
15–6433,904,47965.5%26,502,32964.6%3,085,68466.9%3,165,96568.9%939,37973.0%211,12675.3%
65-plus2,765,9925.3%1,796,2854.4%217,9064.7%649,68614.2%88,9496.9%13,1644.7%
All ages51,770,560100%41,000,938(100%)4,615,401(100%)4,586,838(100%)1,286,930(100%)280,454(100%)
% of SA100%79.20%8.92%8.86%2.49%0.54%
By five-year cohorts[edit]
Age groupAll races% of AllBlack African% of BlacksColoured% of Col'dWhite% of WhitesIndian or Asian% of AsiansOthers% of others
under 55,685,45211.0%4,830,44211.8%470,09010.2%268,2675.8%90,7957.1%25,8579.2%
5 to 94,819,7519.3%4,054,0199.9%421,0389.1%245,5675.4%82,5846.4%16,5435.9%
10 to 144,594,8868.9%3,817,8639.3%420,6839.1%257,3535.6%85,2236.6%13,7644.9%
15 to 195,003,4779.7%4,171,45010.2%431,2639.3%284,8966.2%98,5567.7%17,3126.2%
20 to 245,374,54210.4%4,479,84810.9%428,1599.3%313,6166.8%115,9499.0%36,97013.2%
25 to 295,059,3179.8%4,156,75910.1%385,7508.4%336,3557.3%125,5219.8%44,93216.0%
30 to 344,029,0107.8%3,237,6777.9%326,8037.1%318,3296.9%113,3988.8%32,80211.7%
35 to 393,467,7676.7%2,674,1546.5%319,2316.9%342,3167.5%108,1208.4%23,9458.5%
40 to 442,948,6185.7%2,164,7385.3%319,2796.9%351,4737.7%95,9047.5%17,2256.1%
45 to 492,620,2835.1%1,902,1334.6%294,4676.4%325,1857.1%85,6216.7%12,8774.6%
50 to 542,218,2894.3%1,559,9263.8%247,5355.4%324,5397.1%75,7835.9%10,5063.7%
55 to 591,797,4083.5%1,242,2013.0%186,1484.0%295,5966.4%65,3325.1%8,1322.9%
60 to 641,385,7682.7%913,4412.2%137,0503.0%273,6576.0%55,1944.3%6,4252.3%
65 to 69957,8051.9%601,0601.5%86,2851.9%227,3085.0%38,2773.0%4,8751.7%
70 to 74748,3311.4%485,8521.2%60,3111.3%173,4343.8%25,0841.9%3,6491.3%
75 to 79481,2670.9%310,7080.8%37,4410.8%116,9222.5%13,9541.1%2,2420.8%
80 to 84322,9160.6%218,1450.5%19,2780.4%77,0731.7%7,1550.6%1,2650.5%
85-plus255,6730.5%180,5200.4%14,5910.3%54,9491.2%4,4790.3%1,1330.4%
All ages51,770,560100%41,000,938(100%)4,615,401(100%)4,586,838(100%)1,286,930(100%)280,454(100%)
% of SA100%79.20%8.92%8.86%2.49%0.54%

Racial composition of each age group[edit]

Note that while over one-fifth (20%) of each age group over 65 is white, whites form less than one-twentieth (5%) of South Africans under 5 years of age. Similarly, while the Coloured population is now about equal to the white population (about 4.6 million each or 8.9% of the total), the nearly 2.9 million Coloured under 35 outnumber just over 2 million whites under 35 in every age group below 35, but the 1.7 million Coloured over 35 are less numerous than their 2.5 million white contemporaries in every age group above 35.

Age groupAll racesBlack African% of age grpColoured% of age grpWhite% of age grpIndian or Asian% of age grpOther% of age grp
under 55,685,4524,830,44285.0%470,0908.3%268,2674.7%90,7951.6%25,8570.5%
5 to 94,819,7514,054,01984.1%421,0388.7%245,5675.1%82,5841.7%16,5430.5%
10 to 144,594,8863,817,86383.1%420,6839,1%257,3535.6%85,2231.9%13,7640.3%
15 to 195,003,4774,171,45083.4%431,2638.6%284,8965.7%98,5562.0%17,3120.3%
20 to 245,374,5424,479,84883.4%428,1598.0%313,6165.8%115,9492.2%36,9700.7%
25 to 295,059,3174,156,75982.2%385,7507.6%336,3556.6%125,5212.5%44,9320.9%
30 to 344,029,0103,237,67780.4%326,8038.1%318,3297.9%113,3982.8%32,8020.8%
35 to 393,467,7672,674,15477.1%319,2319.2%342,3169.9%108,1203.1%23,9450.7%
40 to 442,948,6182,164,73873.4%319,27910.8%351,47311.9%95,9043.3%17,2250.6%
45 to 492,620,2831,902,13372.6%294,46711.2%325,18512.4%85,6213.3%12,8770.5%
50 to 542,218,2891,559,92670.3%247,53511.2%324,53914.6%75,7833.4%10,5060.5%
55 to 591,797,4081,242,20169.1%186,14810.4%295,59616.4%65,3323.6%8,1320.5%
60 to 641,385,768913,44165.9%137,0509.9%273,65719.7%55,1944.0%6,4250.5%
65 to 69957,805601,06062.8%86,2859.0%227,30823.7%38,2774.0%4,8750.5%
70 to 74748,331485,85264.9%60,3118.1%173,43423.2%25,0843.4%3,6490.5%
75 to 79481,267310,70864.6%37,4417.8%116,92224.3%13,9542.9%2,2420.5%
80 to 84322,916218,14567.6%19,2786.0%77,07323.9%7,1552.2%1,2650.4%
85-plus255,673180,52070.6%14,5915.7%54,94921.5%4,4791.8%1,1330.4%
All ages51,770,56041,000,93879.20%4,615,4018.92%4,586,8388.86%1,286,9302.49%280,4540.54%

Racial groups[edit]

Population density in South Africa
Dominant population groups in South Africa.
  Black African
  Coloured
  Indian or Asian
  White
  None dominant

Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.[15] The 2011 census figures for these groups were Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured at 8.9%, Indian or Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%.[16]:21 The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980,[17] and 8.9% in 2011.[16]:21

Languages[edit]

South Africa has eleven official languages:[18] Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%).[16]:23–25 Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it ranked fourth, and was spoken by only 9.6% of South Africans as a first language in 2011.[16]:23–25

The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[19] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition.

Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.

Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Asians and Indians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. French is still widely spoken by French South Africans especially in places like Franschhoek, where many South Africans are of French origin. South African French is spoken by fewer than 10,000 individuals. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants.

The primary sign language of Deaf South Africans is South African Sign Language. Other sign languages among indigenous peoples are also used.

By ethnicity[edit]

In 2011, the first language was Zulu for 28.1% of Black residents, Xhosa for 19.8%, Northern Sotho for 11.2%, Tswana for 9.7%, Sesotho for 9.3%, Tsonga for 5.5%, Swati for 3.1%, Venda for 2.9%, English for 2.8%, Southern Ndebele for 2.6%, Afrikaans for 1.5%, while 3.4% had another first language.[20]

Among whites, Afrikaans was the first language for 59.1% of the population, compared to 35.0% for English. Other language accounted for the remaining 5.9%.[20]

Religion[edit]

According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (6.7%), Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus about 1.3%, and Jews 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were classified as other and 1.4% were unspecified.[21][22][23]

African Indigenous Churches made up the largest of the Christian groups. Some believe that many people claiming no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many people have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[24]

Muslims are largely found among the Coloured and Indian ethnic groups. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as immigrants from other parts of Africa.[25] South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12 000 in 1991 to 74 700 in 2004[25][26]

The Hindu population has its roots in the British colonial period, but later waves of immigration from India have also contributed to it. Most Hindus are ethnically South Asian but there are many who come from mixed racial stock. Some are converts due to the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON.

Other minority religions in South Africa are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.[22]

By ethnicity[edit]

87.9% of Black residents are Christian, 9.5% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 0.0% are Jewish, 0.0% are Hindu and 2.3% have other or undetermined beliefs.

71.8% of White residents are Christian, 23.8% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 1.4% are Jewish, and 0.0% are Hindu. 2.7% have other or undetermined beliefs.

Immigration[edit]

COB data South Africa.PNG

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[27] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[27] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[27] Many refugees have now also started to work and live in rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

Statistics SA assumes in some of their calculations that there are less than 2 million immigrants in South Africa.[28] Other institutions, like the police and Médecins Sans Frontières place estimate the figure at 4 million.[29][30][31][32][33]

Largest municipalities[edit]

Graphs and maps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Mid-year population estimates, 2013". Statistics South Africa. 
  2. ^ "Anti-immigrant violence spreads in South Africa, with attacks reported in Cape Town". 
  3. ^ "Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Exodus". 
  4. ^ "More illegals set to flood SA". 
  5. ^ "South African mob kills migrants". BBC. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008. 
  6. ^ Barry Bearak (23 May 2008). "Immigrants Fleeing Fury of South African Mobs". New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  7. ^ a b Smuts I: The Sanguine Years 1870–1919, W.K. Hancock, Cambridge University Press, 1962, pg 219
  8. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book 1977–1978 (ed. John Paxton), St. Martin's Press, New York (& Macmillan, London), 1977, page 1296
  9. ^ [1], City of Cape Town / Isixeko Sasekapa, Stad Kaapstad: Metropolitan Municipality & Main Places – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  10. ^ [2], South Africa: Provinces & Major Urban Areas – Statistics & Maps on City Population
  11. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". UN. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  13. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book, 1967–1968 (104th annual edition), edited by S.H. Steinberg, Macmillan, London; St. Martin's Press, New York, 1967, pages 1405–1424
  14. ^ The Europa Year Book 1969, Volume II: Africa, The Americas, Asia, Australasia, Europa Publications, London, 1969, page 1286
  15. ^ Lehohla, Pali (5 May 2005). "Debate over race and censuses not peculiar to SA". Business Report. Retrieved 25 August 2013. "Others pointed out that the repeal of the Population Registration Act in 1991 removed any legal basis for specifying 'race'. The Identification Act of 1997 makes no mention of race. On the other hand, the Employment Equity Act speaks of 'designated groups' being 'black people, women and people with disabilities'. The Act defines 'black' as referring to 'Africans, coloureds and Indians'. Apartheid and the racial identification which underpinned it explicitly linked race with differential access to resources and power. If the post-apartheid order was committed to remedying this, race would have to be included in surveys and censuses, so that progress in eradicating the consequences of apartheid could be measured and monitored. This was the reasoning that led to a 'self-identifying' question about 'race' or 'population group' in both the 1996 and 2001 population censuses, and in Statistics SA's household survey programme." 
  16. ^ a b c d Census 2011: Census in brief. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. 
  17. ^ Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa (U.S.) (1981). South Africa: time running out : the report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-520-04547-5. 
  18. ^ "Constitution of South Africa, Chapter 1, Section 6". Fs.gov.za. Retrieved 30 May 2010. [dead link]
  19. ^ "The languages of South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. 4 February 1997. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  20. ^ a b "Community profiles > Census 2011". Statistics South Africa Superweb. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  21. ^ South Africa entry at The World Factbook
  22. ^ a b "South Africa – Section I. Religious Demography". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
  23. ^ For a discussion of church membership statistics in South Africa please refer to Forster, D. "God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:97–98)
  24. ^ Department of State, USA.
  25. ^ a b "In South Africa, many blacks convert to Islam". 
  26. ^ "Muslims say their faith growing fast in Africa". Religionnewsblog.com. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  27. ^ a b c "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008. 
  28. ^ "P03022009_6". Statssa.gov.za. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  29. ^ So where are Zimbabweans going?, BBC News. 8 November 2005.
  30. ^ SA population may be much larger than previously thought Beeld 1 June 2009.
  31. ^ Reference to 1996 HSRC study
  32. ^ South African Police Service 2009 Annual Report page 9 indicating the number exceeds 3 million
  33. ^ [3][dead link]

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