Demographics of France

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With a total fertility rate of 2.01 (in 2012),[1] France is the most fertile country in the European Union, on par with the Republic of Ireland.[2]
Population density in the French Republic at the 1999 census. All territories are shown at the same geographic scale.

The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) and the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE). On 1 January 2013, 66,394,000 people lived in the French Republic.[3] 63,702,000 of these lived in Metropolitan France,[4] whereas 2,692,000 lived in the French overseas departments and territories.

France was historically Europe's most populous nation. During the Middle Ages, more than one quarter of Europe's total population was French; by the 17th century, this had decreased slightly to one fifth. By the beginning of the 20th century, other European nations, such as Germany and Russia, had caught up with and overtaken it. However, the country's population sharply increased with the baby boom following World War II.

According to INSEE, since 2004, 200,000 immigrants entered annually in the territory. One out of two was born in Europe and one in three in Africa. Between 2009 and 2012, the number of Europeans entering France increases sharply (+ 12% per year on average).[5]

The national birth rate, after continuing to drop for a time, began to rebound in the 1990s and currently the country's fertility rate is close to the replacement level. According to an INSEE 2006 study, "The natural increase is close to 300,000 persons, a level that has not been reached in more than thirty years."[6]

Among the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France in 2010, 80.1% had two French parents, 13.3% had one French parent, and 6.6% had two non French parents.[7][8] For the same year, 27.3% of newborn in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and 23.9% had at least one parent born outside of Europe (parents born in overseas territories are considered as born in France).[7][9] Between 2006 and 2008, about 40% of newborns in France had one foreign-born grandparent (11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb and 12% born in another region of the world).[10]

Historical population of metropolitan France[edit]

Please note:

50 BC2,500,000180629,648,000189640,158,000
180129,361,000189139,946,000201363,702,200 (*)[4]

(*) Note:


Source: [7] Figures are for metropolitan France only.


Historical overview[edit]

1800 to 20th century[edit]

Two centuries of population growth

France was historically the largest nation of Europe. During the Middle Ages more than one quarter of Europe's population was French; during the 17th century it was still one fifth. Starting around 1800, the historical evolution of the population in France has been extremely atypical in the Western World. Unlike the rest of Europe, there was no strong population growth in France in the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. The birth rate in France diminished much earlier than in the rest of Europe. Thus population growth was quite slow in the 19th century, and the nadir was reached in the first half of the 20th century when France, surrounded by the rapidly growing populations of Germany and the United Kingdom, had virtually zero growth. The slow growth of France's population in the 19th century was reflected in the country's very low emigration rate. While millions of people from all other parts of Europe migrated to the Americas, few French did so. Most people of French extraction in the United States are descended from immigrants from French Canada, whose population was rapidly growing at this time.

The French population only grew by 8.6% between 1871 and 1911, while Germany's grew by 60% and Britain's by 54%.[11] Ferdinand Foch joked that the only way for France to permanently improve its relationship with Germany was to castrate 20 million Germans.[12] If the population of France had grown between 1815 and 2000 at the same rate as that of Germany during the same time period, France's population would have been 110 million in 2000; Germany grew at a much faster rate despite its very substantial emigration to the Americas, and its larger military and civilian losses during the World Wars than France. If France's population had grown at the same rate as that of England and Wales (which was also siphoned off by emigration to the Americas, Australia and New Zealand), France's population could have been as much as 150 million in 2000. Should one start the comparison at the time of King Louis XIV, then France would now have approximately the same population as the United States. While France was Europe's leading military power at the time of Louis XIV and then Napoleon, the country lost this advantage due to its relative demographic decline after 1800.

French concerns about the country's slow population growth began after its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. For four years in the 1890s, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births. The National Alliance for the Growth of the French Population (ANAPF) was formed in 1896, and the Cognacq-Jay and other prizes were created for the parents of large families. Émile Zola's 1899 novel Fécondité is representative of contemporary concerns about the birthrate. The 1.3 million French deaths in World War I, along with even more births forgone by potential fathers being off at war, caused a drop of 3 million in the French population, and helped make Dénatalité a national obsession; by 1920 ANAPF had 40,000 members. The society proposed that parents of large families receive extra votes, and the belief that women's suffrage in other countries caused birth rates to decline helped defeat proposals before World War II to permit women to vote. Concern further increased during the "hollow years" of the 1930s, when the number of new conscripts declined because of the lack of births during World War I. Even the French Communist Party ended its opposition to anti-birth control and anti-abortion laws in 1936, and its leader Maurice Thorez advocated for the "protection of family and childhood". Already existing financial incentives for large families increased in 1939, enough double the income of a family with six children.[11]

After World War II[edit]

France experienced a baby boom after 1945; it reversed a long-term record of low birth rates.[13] The sense that the population was too small, especially in regard to more powerful Germany, was a common theme in the early twentieth century . Put in a list policies were proposed in the 1930s, and implemented in the 1940s.[14][15]

After 1945, France suddenly underwent a demographic recovery. In the 1930s the French government, alarmed by the decline of France's population, had passed laws to boost the birth rate, giving state benefits to families with children. Nonetheless, nobody can explain this sudden recovery, which was often portrayed inside France as a "miracle". It was also atypical of the Western world: although there was a baby boom in other Western countries after the war, the baby boom in France was much stronger, and lasted longer than in most other Western countries (the United States was one of the few exceptions). In the 1950s and 1960s France's population grew at 1% per year: the highest growth in the history of France, higher even than the best periods of the 18th or 19th centuries.

Since 1975, France's population growth rate has significantly diminished, but it still remains slightly faster than that of the rest of Europe, and much faster than at the end of the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century. In the first decade of the third millennium, population growth in France is the fastest of Europe, matched only by Ireland, which has also historically undergone stagnant growth and even decline relative to the rest of Europe until recently. However, it is slower than in the United States, largely because of the higher net migration rate to the USA.

Historical summary[edit]

The following list shows the past, present, and future weight of France's population in Europe and in the world (based on the 2011 borders):

In the above list, Turkey is a European country. Turkey was less populous than metropolitan France until 1992, and has been more populous since then.[18]

Vital statistics[19][edit]

Evolution of Marriage (blue) and Civil Union (red) in France (INSEE).
France population by age and sex (population pyramid) as of January 1, 2014

The vital statistics below refer to France Métropolitaine and do not include the overseas departments.

Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Total fertility rateInfant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)Life expectancy at birth (males)Life expectancy at birth (females)
190140 710917 075825 31591 76022.520.32.32.9028
190240 810904 434801 379103 05522.
190340 910884 498794 56689 93221.619.42.22.7840
190441 000877 091802 53674 55521.419.61.82.7483
190541 050865 604812 33853 26621.
190641 100864 745820 05144 69421.
190741 100829 632830 871-1 23920.
190841 190848 982784 41564 56720.619.01.62.6363
190941 240824 739792 79831 94120.
191041 350828 140737 87790 26320.
191141 420793 506813 653-20 14719.219.6-0.52.4620
191241 530801 642726 84874 79419.317.51.82.4853
191341 620795 851736 93758 91419.
191441 630757 931774 931-17 00018.218.6-0.42.3354
191540 620482 968747 968-265 00011.918.4-6.51.5194
191640 020384 676697 676-313 0009.617.4-7.81.2304
191739 420412 744712 744-300 00010.518.1-7.61.3419
191838 670472 816867 816-395 00012.222.4-10.21.5593
191938 600506 960739 901-232 94113.119.2-6.01.5907
192038 900838 137675 676162 46121.517.44.22.6946
192139 140816 555697 904118 65120.917.83.02.6014
192239 310764 373692 32272 05119.417.61.82.4230
192339 750765 888670 32695 56219.316.92.42.4067
192440 170757 873683 29674 57718.917.01.92.3561
192540 460774 455712 21162 24419.
192640 710771 690716 96654 72419.
192740 770748 102679 80968 29318.316.71.72.2895
192840 880753 570678 26975 30118.416.61.82.3052
192941 020734 140742 732-8 59217.918.1-0.22.2412
193041 340754 020652 953101 06718.
193141 550737 611682 81654 79517.816.41.32.2470
193241 510726 299663 70562 59417.516.01.52.2258
193341 520682 394664 13318 26116.416.00.42.1110
193441 570681 518637 71343 80516.415.31.12.1406
193541 550643 870661 722-17 85215.515.9-0.42.0696
193641 500634 344645 844-11 50015.315.6-0.32.0919
193741 530621 453632 896-11 44315.015.2-0.32.0989
193841 560615 582650 832-35 25014.815.7-0.82.1276
193941 510615 599645 677-30 07814.815.6-0.72.1662
194040 690561 281740 281-179 00013.818.2-4.42.0025
194139 420522 261675 261-153 00013.217.1-3.91.8535
194239 220575 261656 261-81 00014.716.7-2.12.0425
194338 860615 780626 780-11 00015.816.1-0.32.1864
194438 770629 878666 878-37 00016.217.2-1.02.2494
194539 660645 899643 8992 00016.316.20.12.3102
194640 287843 904545 880298 02420.913.57.42.997977.859.965.2
194740 679870 472538 157332 31521.413.28.23.036671.161.266.7
194841 112870 836513 210357 62621.
194941 480872 661573 598299 06321.
195041 829862 310534 480327 83020.612.87.82.946652.06.469.2
195142 156826 722565 829260 89319.613.46.22.805650.863.168.9
195242 460822 204524 831297 37319.412.47.02.777245.264.470.2
195342 752804 696556 983247 71318.813.05.82.703841.964.370.3
195443 057810 754518 892291 86218.812.16.82.714240.765.071.2
195543 428805 917526 322279 59518.612.16.42.683538.665.271.5
195643 843806 916545 700261 21618.412.46.02.673536.265.271.7
195744 311816 467532 107284 36018.412.06.42.694733.865.572.2
195844 789812 215500 596311 61918.
195945 240829 249509 114320 13518.311.37.12.752129.666.873.2
196045 684819 819520 960298 85917.911.46.52.739627.467.073.6
196146 163838 633500 289338 34418.
196246 998832 353541 147291 20617.711.56.22.795725.767.073.9
196347 816868 876557 852311 02418.
196448 310877 804520 033357 77118.
196548 758865 688543 696321 99217.811.26.62.849221.967.574.7
196649 164863 527528 782334 74517.610.86.82.800821.767.875.2
196749 548840 568543 033297 53517.
196849 915835 796553 441282 35516.711.15.72.588020.467.875.2
196950 318842 245573 335268 91016.711.45.32.534319.667.475.1
197050 772850 381542 277308 10416.710.76.12.480318.268.475.9
197151 251881 284554 151327 13317.
197251 701877 506549 900327 60617.
197352 118857 186558 782298 40416.410.75.72.308615.468.776.3
197452 460801 218552 551248 66715.310.54.72.112314.668.976.7
197552 699745 065560 353184 71214.
197652 909720 395557 114163 28113.610.53.11.829012.569.277.2
197753 145744 744536 221208 52314.
197853 376737 062546 916190 14613.810.23.61.821510.769.877.9
197953 606757 354541 805215 54914.
198053 880800 376547 107253 26914.910.24.71.945010.070.278.4
198154 182805 483554 823250 66014.910.24.61.94559.770.478.5
198254 492797 223543 104254 11914.610.04.71.91239.570.778.9
198354 772748 525559 655188 87013.710.23.41.78449.170.778.8
198455 026759 939542 490217 44913.
198555 284768 431552 496215 93513.910.03.91.818.371.379.4
198655 577778 468546 926231 54214.
198755 824767 828527 466240 36213.
198856 118771 268524 600246 66813.
198956 423765 473529 283236 19013.
199056 709762 407526 201236 20613.
199156 976759 056524 685234 37113.
199257 240743 658521 530222 12813.
199357 467711 610532 263179 34712.
199457 659710 993519 965191 02812.
199557 844729 609531 618197 99112.
199658 026734 338535 775198 56312.
199758 207726 768530 319196 44912.
199858 398738 080534 005204 07512.
199958 661744 791537 661207 13012.
200059 049774 782530 864243 91813.
200159 477770 945531 073239 87213.
200259 894761 630535 144226 48612.
200360 304761 464552 339209 12512.
200460 734767 816509 429258 38712.
200561 182774 355527 533246 82212.
200661 598796 896516 416280 48012.
200761 965785 985521 016264 96912.
200862 301796 044532 131263 91312.
200962 616793 420538 166255 25412.
201062 918802 224540 469261 75512.
201163 294823 394544 000289 39412.
201263 514 p790 290559 227231 06312.
201363 786 p781 621558 408223 21312.
201464 062 p820 000544 000239 00012.



France has a high fertility rate by European standards; this rate has increased after reaching a historic low in the early 1990s.

The table below gives the average number of children according to the place of birth of women. An immigrant woman is a woman who was born outside of France and who did not have French citizenship at birth.[22]

Average number of children in France
Average number of children in country of origin
All women living in metropolitan France1.74
Women born in Metropolitan France1.70
Immigrant women2.16
Women born in overseas France1.86
Immigrant women (country of birth)
Other EU1.661.44
Other Europe1.681.41
Other Africa2.865.89
Asia (Mostly China)1.772.85
The Americas and Oceania2.002.54

Births by country of birth or citizenship of the parents[edit]

Births by country of birth of the parents[edit]

About 40% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 had one foreign-born grandparent (11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb and 12% born in another region of the world).[10]

In 2010, 27.3% of newborn in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and 23.9% had at least one parent born outside of Europe (parents born in overseas territories are considered as born in France).[7][9]

The table below gives the number of children born in metropolitan France according to the place of birth of both parents.

Birth country of parents19981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102010%
Both parents born in France566 447576 537601 268595 286580 999575 985574 687575 659590 163579 515585 427578 052583 60072.7%
One parent born in France, other foreign-born101 51198 687101 498102 013103 930106 677110 258114 090119 159119 587121 845125 058129 02516.1%
Father born in EU27, mother born in France13 19412 85813 06012 44711 73211 44210 81110 66710 45510 1889 9759 5269 5491.2%
Father not born in EU27, mother born in France44 89143 80745 61246 45947 69549 79052 24454 17656 88656 62657 95560 36262 4787.8%
Father born in France, Mother born in Eu2713 02012 64712 41111 88111 43911 11910 93010 82710 79410 57510 56210 58510 4181.3%
Father born in France, Mother not born in Eu2730 40629 37530 41531 22633 06434 32636 27338 42041 02442 19843 35344 58546 5805.8%
Both parents foreign-born70 12269 56772 01673 64676 70178 80282 87184 60687 57486 88388 77290 31089 59911.2%
Both parents born in Eu276 6816 1575 7805 5245 1595 3695 4265 3725 7785 8916 2766 4426 6940.8%
Both parents not born in Eu2760 28160 63663 29965 40668 78870 55274 53776 34878 70078 02079 40580 64179 6989.9%
Father born in EU27, Mother not born in Eu271 1881 0471 1161 0351 0381 0751 1501 1001 2561 1901 2261 2681 2580.2%
Father not born in EU27, Mother born in Eu271 9721 7271 8211 6811 7161 8061 7581 7861 8401 7821 8651 9591 9490.2%
Total of newborns738 080744 791774 782770 945761 630761 464767 816774 355796 896785 985796 044793 420802 224100%

Births by citizenship of the parents[edit]

In 2010, 80.1% of newborn in metropolitan France had two French parents, 13.3% had one French parent, and 6,6% had two non French parents.[7][23]

The table below gives the number of children born in metropolitan France according to the citizenship of both parents.

Citizenship of parents1998199920002000%20012002200320042005200620072008200920102010%
Both French parents630 995633 788657 57684.9%648 506633 294629 014628 062630 481645 879635 082640 596634 153642 81680.1%
One French parent, other non French57 89761 57766 6368.6%69 95474 59078 31884 01388 96594 88896 314100 464103 704106 62213.3%
French Mother, Father with European citizenship,9 1469 1759 5541.2%9 3978 8669 0198 7498 5038 5718 5098 3498 1978 8291.1%
French Mother, Father with non European citizenship,25 11726 72029 5923.8%31 46333 82035 75638 92341 06143 69843 60345 57946 75346 4565.8%
French Father, Mother with European citizenship7 5357 5517 4091.0%7 2357 3597 0977 1727 3247 3957 4207 6427 8627 8741.0%
French Father, Mother with non European citizenship16 09918 13120 0812.6%21 85924 54526 44629 16932 07735 22436 78238 89440 89243 4635.4%
Both non French parents49 18849 42650 5706.5%52 48553 74654 13255 74154 90956 12954 58954 98455 56352 7866.6%
Both parents with European citizenship6 7156 3596 1660.8%5 8085 5075 5895 6705 6676 0856 2146 6236 8036 9580.9%
Both parents with non European citizenship41 26841 84542 9855.5%45 26546 80746 92148 36447 44048 09146 30146 16746 43543 4545.4%
Father with European citizenship, Mother with non European citizenship4405025650.1%5895716857337979379671 0621 1411 2350.2%
Father with non European citizenship, Mother with European citizenship7657208540.1%8238619379741 0051 0161 1071 1321 1841 1390.2%
Total of newborns738 080744 791774 782100%770 945761 630761 464767 816774 355796 896785 985796 044793 420802 224100%

Ethnic groups[edit]

People in metropolitan France according to INSEE (2010)[24]
French (by acquisition)

As of 2004, French conservative think-tank Institut Montaigne estimated that there were 51 million (85%) white people of European origin, 6 million (10%) North African people, 2 million (3.5%) Black people and 1 million (1.5%) people of Asian origin in Metropolitan France, including all generations of immigrant descendants.[25]

The modern ethnic French are the descendants of Celts, Iberians, Ligurians, Italic peoples (including Romans) and Greeks in southern France,[26][27] later mixed with large group of Germanic peoples arriving at the end of the Roman Empire such as the Franks the Burgundians, Alamanni and Goths,[28] very small portions of Moors and Saracens in the south,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35] and Scandinavians, Vikings who became, by mixing with the local population, the Normans and settled mostly in Normandy in the 9th century.[36][37]

Due to a law dating from 1872, the French Republic prohibits performing census by making distinction between its citizens regarding their race or their beliefs.[38]

Some organizations, such as the Representative Council of Black Associations of France (French: Conseil représentatif des associations noires de France, CRAN), have argued in favour of the introduction of data collection on minority groups but this has been resisted by other organizations and ruling politicians,[39][40] often on the grounds that collecting such statistics goes against France's secular principles and harks back to Vichy-era identity documents.[41] During the 2007 presidential election, however, Nicolas Sarkozy was polled on the issue and stated that he favoured the collection of data on ethnicity.[42] Part of a parliamentary bill which would have permitted the collection of data for the purpose of measuring discrimination was rejected by the Conseil Constitutionnel in November 2007.[38]

However, that law does not concern surveys and polls, which are free to ask those questions if they wish. The law also allows for an exception for public institutions such as the INED or the INSEE whose job it is to collect data on demographics, social trends and other related subjects, on condition that the collection of such data has been authorized by the National Commission for Computer-stocked data and Freedom (CNIL) and the National Council of Statistical Information (CNIS).[43]

Of European ethnic groups not indigenous to France, the most numerous are people of Italian family origin and it is estimated that about 5 million citizens (8% of the population) are at least partly of Italian origin if their parentage is retraced over three generations.[44] This is due to waves of Italian immigration, notably during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Other large European groups of non-native origin are Spaniards, Portuguese, Polish, and Greeks. Also, due to more recent immigration, between five and six million people of Maghrebi origin[45] and approximately 800,000 Turks inhabit France.[46][47] An influx of North African Jews immigrated to France in the 1950s and after the Algerian War due to the decline of the French empire. Subsequent waves of immigration followed the Six-Day War, when some Moroccan and Tunisian Jews settled in France. Hence, by 1968, North African Jews were about 500,000 and the majority in France. As these new immigrants were already culturally French they needed little time to adjust to French society. Black people come from both the French overseas territories (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion, and former colony Haiti) and Sub-Saharan Africa (especially Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal). France has the largest black population in Europe.

Solis, a marketing company, recently estimated the numbers for ethnic minorities (immigrants and 2nd generation) in France in 2009 as 3.26 million Maghrebis (5.23%), 1.83 million Black people (2.94%, 1.08 million Sub-Saharan Africans and 757,000 French from French West Indies) and 250,000 Turkish (0.71%) .[48][49]


Main article: Immigration to France

Since the 19th century, France has continued being a country of immigration. During the Trente Glorieuses (1945–1974), the country's reconstruction and steady economic growth led to the labor-immigration of the 1960s, when many employers found manpower in villages located in Southern Europe and North Africa. In 2008, the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that 11.8 million foreign-born immigrants and their direct descendants (second generation) lived in France representing 19% of the country's population. About 5.5 million are of European origin and 4 million of Maghrebi origin.[50][51]

Before World War II[edit]

In the 20th century, France experienced a high rate of immigration from other countries. The immigration rate was particularly high during the 1920s and 1930s. France was the European country which suffered the most from World War I, with respect to the size of its population, losing 1.4 million young men out of a total population of 40 million. France was also at the time the European country with the lowest fertility rate, which meant that the country had a very hard time recovering from the heavy losses of the war. France had to open its doors to immigration, which was the only way to prevent population decline between the two world wars.[52]

At the time France was the only European country to permit mass immigration. The other major European powers, such as the UK or Germany, still had high fertility rates, so immigration was seen as unnecessary while it was also undesirable to the vast majority of their populations. Armenians immigrated to France after the Armenian Genocide of 1915.[53] The majority of immigrants in the 1920s and 1930s came from southern Europe: Greeks, Italians, Yugoslavs, Portuguese and Spaniards, but also Eastern Europeans: Poles, Russians, Hungarians and Czechoslovaks; and Belgians (nationality, but composed of both French and Fleming-Dutch elements) and the first wave of colonial French subjects from Africa and Asia. By the end of the Spanish Civil War, some half-million Spanish Republican refugees had crossed the border into France.[54] At this time, Judaism was the second most populous religion in France, as it had been for centuries. However, this would soon change.

Local populations often opposed immigrant manpower, leading to occasional outbursts of violence. The most violent of these, was a pogrom against Italian workers who worked in the salt evaporation ponds of Peccais, erupted in Aigues-Mortes in 1893, killing at least nine and injuring hundreds on the Italian side.[55]

After World War II[edit]

After World War II, the French fertility rate rebounded considerably, as noted above, but economic growth in France was so high that new immigrants had to be brought into the country. This time the majority of immigrants were Portuguese as well as Arabs and Berbers from North Africa. The first wave arrived in the 1950s, but the major arrivals happened in the 1960s and 1970s. More than one million people from the Maghreb immigrated in the 1960s and early 1970s from North Africa, especially Algeria (following the end of French rule there)[citation needed]. One million European pieds noirs also migrated from Algeria in 1962 and the following years, due to the chaotic independence of Algeria.[56] This is a focal point of the current turbulent relationship of France and over three million French of Algerian descent, a small percentage of whom are third-or fourth-generation French.

French law facilitated the immigration of thousands of French settlers (colons in French language), ethnic or national French from former colonies of North and West Africa, India and Indochina, to mainland France. 1.6 million European pieds noirs settlers migrated from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco.[57] In the 1970s, over 30,000 French settlers left Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge regime as the Pol Pot government confiscated their farms and land properties. However, after the 1973 energy crisis, laws limiting immigration were passed. In addition, the country's birth rate dropped significantly during this time.

Between 1956 and 1967, about 235.000 Sephardic North African Jews from Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco also immigrated to France due to the decline of the French empire and following the Six-Day War. Hence, by 1968, Sephardic North African Jews were the majority of the Jews in France. As these new immigrants were already culturally French they needed little time to adjust to French society.[58]

In the late 1970s, due to the end of high economic growth in France, immigration policies were considerably tightened, starting with the Pasqua laws passed in 1986 and 1993. New immigrants were allowed only through the family reunion schemes (wives and children moving to France to live with their husband or father already living in France), or as asylum seekers. Illegal immigration thus developed as immigration policy became more rigid. In 2006, The French Ministry of the Interior estimated clandestine immigrants in France amounted to anywhere between 200.000 and 400.000, also expecting between 80.000 and 100.000 people to enter the country illegally each year.[59]

The Pasqua laws are a significant landmark in the shift in France's immigration policy through the course of the 20th century. They are a sign of the securitization aspect of immigration, giving more power to the police, allowing them to perform random identity checks and deport immigrants without legal papers. The rise in anti-immigration sentiments was reinforced by a series of terrorist bombs in Paris in 1986 which were linked to Muslim immigrants in France.[60]

Tightening immigration laws such as these, as well as notions of "zero immigration", reflected national views that arose within the discussion around immigrant family reunification and national identity. Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI) immigration expert, Mr. Christophe Bertossi, states that "stigmatized as both a challenge to social cohesion and a "burden" for the French economy, family immigration is increasingly restricted and constructed as a racial issue. The "immigration choisie" policy strives consequently to select migrants according to their profile, skills and–though still indirectly–origins.[61][62]

Nonetheless, immigration rates in the 1980s and 1990s were much lower than in the 1960s and 1970s, especially compared to other European countries. The regions of emigrations also widened, with new immigrants now coming from sub-saharan Africa and Asia. And in the 1970s, a small but well publicized wave of Chilean and Argentine political refugees (see Chilean coup of 1973) found asylum in France.

Ethnic Vietnamese started to become a visible segment of society after the massive influx of refugees after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. The expulsions of ethnic Chinese from Vietnam in the 1970s led to a wave of immigration and the settlement of the high-rise neighbourhood near the Porte d'Italie, where the Chinatown of Paris is located. Located in the 13th arrondissement, the area contains many ethnic Chinese inhabitants.[63]

The large-scale immigration from Islamic countries has sparked controversy in France. Nevertherless, according to Justin Vaïsse, in spite of obstacles and spectacular failures like the riots in November 2005, in Parisian suburbs, where many immigrants live secluded from society with very few capabilities to live in better conditions, the integration of Muslim immigrants is happening as part of a background evolution[64] and recent studies confirmed the results of their assimilation, showing that "North Africans seem to be characterized by a high degree of cultural integration reflected in a relatively high propensity to exogamy" with rates ranging from 20% to 50%.[65] According to Emmanuel Todd the relatively high exogamy among French Algerians can be explained by the colonial link between France and Algeria.[66][67] One illustration of this growing resentment and job insecurity can be drawn from related events, such as the 2005 riots, which ensued in former President Chirac declaring a state of emergency.[68] Massive demonstrations to express frustration over unemployment took place in March 2009.[69] The importance of integration was brought to the forefront of the political agenda in President Sarkozy's 2007 presidential campaign. Upon being elected, he symbolically created the French Ministry of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Codevelopment. Integration is one of the pillars of its political aims.[70]


French residency by country of nationality 1999.PNG

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE, for its acronym in French) published a study on Thursday, according to which has doubled the number of Spanish immigrants, Portuguese and Italians in France between 2009 and 2012. According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.[5] Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, i.e. in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people.[5][71] Of the total of 229,000 foreigners were in France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, about 5 percent, Spanish; 5%, UK; 4%, Italians; 4% Germans; 3%, and 3% Romanians, Belgians.[5][72]

With the increase of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian in France, the weight of European immigrants arrived in 2012 to 46 percent, while this percentage for African reached 30%, with a presence in Morocco (7%), Algeria (7%) and Tunisia (3%). Meanwhile, 14 percent of all immigrants who settled in France that year were from Asian countries - 3% of China and 2% in Turkey, while in America and Oceania constitute 10% of Americans and Brazilians accounted for higher percentage, 2 percent each.[5][72]

As of 2008, the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that 11.8 million foreign-born immigrants and their direct descendants (limited to 2nd generation born in France) lived in France representing 19% of the country's population. More than 5.5 million are of European origin and about 4 million of Maghrebi origin (20% of Algerian origin and 15% of Moroccan or Tunisian origin). Immigrants age 18–50 count for 2.7 million (10% of population age 18–50) and 5 million for all ages (8% of population). The second generation age 18–50 make up 3.1 million (12% of 18–50) and 6.5 million for all ages (11% of population).[50][51] Without considering citizenship at birth, people not born in metropolitan France and their direct descendants made up 30% of the population aged 18–50 in metropolitan France as of 2008.[73]

The region with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Île-de-France (Greater Paris), where 40% of immigrants live. Other important regions are Rhône-Alpes (Lyon) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Marseille). The most important individual countries of origin as of 2007 were Algeria (702,000), Morocco (645,000), Portugal (576,000), Italy (323,000), Spain (262,000) and Turkey (234,000). However, immigration from Asia (especially China), as well as from sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal, Mali) is gaining in importance.

42% of the immigrants are from Africa (30% from Maghreb and 12% from Sub-Saharan Africa), 38% from Europe (mainly from Portugal, Turkey, Italy and Spain), 14% from Asia and 5% from America and Oceania.[51] Outside Europe and North Africa, the highest rate of immigration is from Vietnam, Cambodia and Senegal.

The following table shows immigrants and 2nd generation immigrants by origin as of 2008 according to a study published by Insee in 2012. 3rd generation immigrants, illegal immigrants, as well as ethnic minorities like Black people from the French overseas territories residing in metropolitan France (800,000), Roms (500,000) or people born in Maghreb with French citizenship at birth (1 million Maghrebi Jews, Harkis and Pied-Noir) and their descendants, who are French by birth and not considered as immigrants or immigrant descendants are not taken into account.[74]

Immigrants by origin (2008) in thousandsImmigrants2nd generationTotal %
Italy3179201 23710.4%
Portugal5816601 24110.4%
Other countries from EU276539201 57313.2%
Other European countries2242104343.6%
Europe Total2 0323 3305 36244.9%
Algeria7131 0001 71314.3%
Morocco6546601 31411.0%
Maghreb Total1 6021 9503 55229.7%
Subsaharan Africa6695701 23910.4%
SouthEast Asia1631603232.7%
Other Asian countries3552105654.7%
Other Regions Total1 7081 3303 03825.4%
Total5 3426 61011 952100.00%

The top ten emigrant countries in 2008 (excluding member states of the European Economic Area) were:[75]

All nationalities (including 72,000 Europeans)211,055
1 Algeria23,605
2 Morocco23,382
3 Poland22,951
4 China11,893
5 Tunisia9,103
6 Turkey7,607
7 Romania4,922
8 Mali4,535
9 Cameroon3,913
10 United States3,847

According to Michèle Tribalat, researcher at INED, there were, in 1999, approximately 14 million persons of foreign ancestry (about a quarter of the population), defined as either immigrants or people with at least one immigrant parent or grandparent. Half of them were of European ancestry (including 5.2 million from South Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia)). The rest were from Maghreb (3 million), Sub-saharan Africa (680,000), Turkey (320,000) and other parts of the world (2.5 million).[76] Immigrants from the Maghreb are commonly referred to as beur, a verlan slang term derived from the word arabe (French for Arab).[77]

According to the distinguished French historian of immigration Gérard Noiriel, one third of the population currently living in France is of "foreign" descent.[78]

In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[79] In 2005, immigration levels fell slightly to 135,890.[80] The European Union allows free movement between the member states. While the UK (along with Ireland and Sweden, and non-EU members Norway and Switzerland) did not impose restrictions, France put in place controls to curb Eastern European migration.

As at 1 January 2006, INSEE estimates that the number of foreigners living in metropolitan France amounted to 3.5 million people. Two out of five foreigners are from Portugal, Algeria or Morocco. Thus EU nationals immigrating to France comprise 1.2 million people while 1.1 million people are from the three Maghreb countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It is interesting to note that immigrants are concentrated in Île-de-France, Rhone-Alpes, Provence and Côte d'Azur regions, accounting for 60% of the total immigrant population. Furthermore, there appears to be a lower rate of immigrants arriving from the EU since 1975 as opposed to an increase in African immigrants.[81]

In the first decade of the 21st century, the net migration rate was estimated to be 0.66 migrants per 1,000 population a year.[82] This is a very low rate of immigration compared to other European countries, the USA or Canada. Since the beginning of the 1990s, France has been attempting to curb immigration, first with the Pasqua laws, followed by both right-wing and socialist-issued laws. This trend is also demonstrated in anti-immigrant sentiments among the public. For example, the Pew Research Center in Washington, D.C. conducted a public opinion poll in February 2004 among French nationals. This poll measured the extent of support for restricting immigration among French nationals, by age cohort. 24% of individuals ages 18–29 favored restricting immigration, 33% of individuals ages 30–49 were in favor and 53% of individuals ages 50–64 and 65 and over were in favor as well.[83] Nearly nine years later, a January 2013 poll conducted in France by Ipsos found that 70% of respondents said that there were "too many immigrants in France".[84]

The immigration rate is currently lower than in other European countries such as United Kingdom and Spain; however, some say it is doubtful that the policies in themselves account for such a change. Again, as in the 1920s and 1930s, France stands in contrast with the rest of Europe. Back in the 1920s and 1930s, when European countries had a high fertility rate, France had a low fertility rate and had to open its doors to immigration to avoid population decline. Today, it is the rest of Europe that has very low fertility rates, and countries like Germany or Spain avoid population decline only through immigration. In France, however, fertility rate is still fairly high for European standards. It is, in fact, the highest in Europe after Ireland (the EU) and Albania (perhaps higher than Ireland's), and so most population growth is due to natural increase, unlike in the other European countries.[85]

This difference in immigration trends is also because the labor market in France is currently less dynamic than in other countries such as the UK, Ireland or Spain. One reason for this could be France's relatively high unemployment, which the country has struggled to reduce for the past two decades. There is also a parallel dynamic between immigration and unemployment. Immigrants tend to be subjected to higher rates of unemployment: In 2008, the immigrant unemployment rate in France was a startling 13%, twice as high as for the national population (6%).[86] One can further analyze this trend in relation to education. In the Ministry's 2010 report on professional inclusion for immigrants, 19.6% of immigrants without any education were unemployed, while 16.1% of immigrants who had graduated high school were unemployed. Immigrants with an undergraduate degree or higher had only 11.4% unemployment.[87]

For example, according to the UK Office for National Statistics, in the three years between July 2001 and July 2004 the population of the UK increased by 721,500 inhabitants, of which 242,800 (34%) was due to natural increase, and 478,500 (66%) to immigration.[88] According to the INSEE, in the three years between January 2001 and January 2004 the population of Metropolitan France increased by 1,057,000 inhabitants, of which 678,000 (64%) was due to natural increase, and 379,500 (36%) to immigration.[89]

The latest 2008 demographic statistics have been released, and France's birth and fertility rates have continued to rise. The fertility rate increased to 2.01 in 2012[1] and for the first time surpasses the fertility rate of the United States.[90]

Americans in France[edit]

Americans of the United States of America total more than 100,000[91] permanent residents in France, Canadians 11,931,[92] followed by Latinos are a growing sub-group the most numerous are the Brazilians 44,622,[93] followed by Venezuelans 30,000,[94] Peruvians 22 002,[95] Argentineans 11,899[96] and Chileans 15,782.[97]

Europeans in France[edit]

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE, for its acronym in French) published a study on Thursday, according to which has doubled the number of Spanish immigrants, Portuguese and Italians in France between 2009 and 2012. According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.[5] Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, i.e. in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people.[71] Of the total of 229,000 foreigners were in France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, British 5%,[5] Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4%, Romanians 3%, 3% Belgians.[5][72]

With the increase of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian in France, the weight of European immigrants arrived in 2012 to 46 percent, while this percentage for African reached 30%, with a presence in Morocco (7%), Algeria (7%) and Tunisia (3%). Meanwhile, 14 percent of all immigrants who settled in France that year were from Asian countries—3% of China and 2% in Turkey, while in America and Oceania constitute 10% of Americans and Brazilians accounted for higher percentage, 2 percent each.[5][72]

Maghrebis in France[edit]

French of Maghrebi origin in France form the largest ethnic group after French of European origin.

According to Michel Tribalat, a researcher at INED, there were 3.5 million people of Maghrebi origin (with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco or Tunisia) living in France in 2005 corresponding to 5.8% of the total French metropolitan population (60.7 million in 2005).[98] Maghrebis have settled mainly in the industrial regions in France, especially in the Paris region. Many famous French people like Edith Piaf,[99] Isabelle Adjani, Arnaud Montebourg, Alain Bashung, Dany Boon and many others have Maghrebi ancestry.

Below is a table of population of Maghrebi origin in France, numbers are in thousands:

Country19992005 % 1999/2005 % French population (60.7 million in 2005)
Born in France1,0031,186
Born in France482576
Born in France215236
Total Maghreb2,9993,524+17.5%5.8%
Immigrants1 2991 5262.5%
Born in France1 7001 9983.3%

In 2005, the percentage of young people under 18 of maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent) was about 7% in Metropolitan France, 12% in Greater Paris and above 20% in French département of Seine-Saint-Denis.[100][101]

Total Maghreb22.0%13.2%13.0%13.0%12.1%6.9%

According to other sources between 5 and 6 million people of Maghrebin origin live in France corresponding to about 7–9% of the total French metropolitan population.[102]

Immigration policy[edit]

As mentioned above, the French Ministry of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Codevelopment was created immediately following the appointment of Nicolas Sarkozy as president of France in 2007. Immigration has been a relevant political dimension in France's agenda in recent years. President Sarkozy's agenda has sharpened the focus placed on integration of immigrants living in France as well as their acquisition of national identity. The state of immigration policy in France is fourfold. Its pillars of immigration policy are to regulate migratory flows in and out of France, facilitate immigrants' integration and promote French identity, honor the French tradition's principle of welcoming political asylum and promote solidarity within the immigrant population (principle of co-development).[103] In its 2010 Budget report, the Ministry of Immigration declared it would fund €600 million for its immigration policy objectives, a figure representing 60 million more than in 2009 (otherwise an 11.5% increase from 2009 figures).[87]

In July 2006, President Sarkozy put into effect a law on immigration based upon the notion of "chosen immigration",[104] which allows immigration into France to a restricted field of employment sectors, notably the hotel and restaurant industries, construction and seasonal employment. The following summer of 2007, Sarkozy amended the law to require the acquisition of the French language as a pre-condition. According to Christophe Bertossi, immigration expert in France's Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI), "there is a dominant trend in the French policy to stem family migration, notably conditioned after the 2007 law by a minimum level of French language tested and by the demonstration that he/she endorses the main French constitutional principles".[105]

France, along with other EU countries, have still not signed their agreement to the United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families of 1990.[106] This Convention is a treaty to protect migrant workers' rights, in recognition of their human rights.

Alternative policies have been discussed in formulating immigration policy, such as a quota system. At the beginning of 2008, as the government was rethinking its orientation on immigration policy with the creation of the new ministry, the idea of a quota system was introduced as a possible alternative. In early 2008, a proposal was made to Parliament to decide each year how many immigrants to accept, based on skill and origin. However, this quota policy contradicts the French Constitution. A commission was formed in February 2008 to study how the Constitution could be changed to allow for a quota system. The main difficulty is the origin principle of establishing a quota "constituting a breach in the universalistic ideology of the French Republic".[61]

On 18 January 2008, the government published a list of 150 job titles that were encountering difficult supply of labor.[107] Immigrants living in France today are reported to primarily cover the following sectors: agriculture, service to persons in need (childcare, the elderly), construction, education, health and services to businesses.[108] Thus the government is seeking to match immigrants with the economic makeup of France. The current administration could also seek to integrate migrants and their families through education and training, making them more competitive in the job market. To tackle critical labor shortages, France also decided to participate in the EU Blue Card.

Therefore the outlook towards immigrants in France is shifting as unemployment continues to dominate the political agenda, along with political incentives to strengthen French national identity. Recent incidents, such as the 2005 civil unrest and Romani repatriation have shed light on France's immigration policies and how these are viewed globally, especially in congruence or discontinuity with the EU. A longitudinal study has been conducted since March 2010 to provide qualitative research regarding the integration of new immigrants.[109] This report is being finalized at the end of December 2010 and will be most relevant to provide insight into further immigration policy analysis for the French government.


Main article: French language

French is the only official language of France, and is constitutionally required to be overwhelmingly the language of government and administration. There is a rising cultural awareness of the regional languages of France, which enjoy no official status. These regional languages include the Langue d'oïl, Langue d'oc, Romance languages other than French, Basque, Breton and Germanic languages. Immigrant groups from former French colonies and elsewhere have also brought their own languages.


Main article: Religion in France

France has not collected religious or ethnic data in its censuses since the beginning of the Third Republic, but the country's predominant faith has been Roman Catholicism since the early Middle Ages. Church attendance is fairly low, however, and the proportion of the population that is not religious has grown over the past century. A 2004 IFOP survey tallied that 44% of the French people did not believe in God; contrasted to 20% in 1947.[110] A study by the CSA Institute conducted in 2003 with a sample of 18,000 people found that 65.3% considered themselves Roman Catholic, while 27% considered themselves atheists, and 12.7% (8,065,000 people) belonged to a religion other than Catholicism.

In the early 21st century there were an estimated 5 million Muslims in France,[111] one million Protestants, 600,000 Buddhists, 491,000 Jews,[112] and 150,000 Orthodox Christians[citation needed]. The US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2004 .[113] estimated the French Hindu population at 181,312. These studies did not ask the respondents if they were practicing or how often they did practice if they were active in the laity.

According to a poll conducted in 2001 for French Catholic magazine La Croix, 69% of respondents were Roman Catholic 69% (only 10% being listed as regular churchgoers), 22% agnostic or atheist, 2% Protestant (Calvinist, Lutheran, Anglican and Evangelical) 2%, and 7% belonged to other religions.[114]

According to CIA World Factbook the numbers are : Roman Catholic 83%–88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 7%,[115] unaffiliated 4%.[116]


France has been influenced by the different human migrations that occurred throughout Europe over time. Prehistoric and Neolithic population movements could have influenced the genetic diversity of this country. A recent study in 2009 analysed 555 French individuals from 7 different regions in mainland France and found the following Y-DNA Haplogroups. The five main haplogroups are R1 (63.41%), E (11.41%), I (8.88%), J (7.97%) and G (5.16%). R1b (particularly R1b1b2) was found to be the most dominant Y chromosomal lineage in France, covering about 60% of the Y chromosomal lineages. The high frequency of this haplogroup is typical in all West European populations. Haplogroups I and G are also characteristic markers for many different West European populations. Haplogroups J and E1b1b (M35, M78, M81 and M34) consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Only adults with French surnames were analyzed by the study.[117][118]

According to a 2008 study by Dutch geneticist Manfred Kayser, French people based on a sample from Lyon, showed genetic similarities to all Europeans especially the Swiss, Germans, Austrians, Italians, and Spaniards.[8]

1 Alsace800006.2503.752.508.751.258.751.25003.7558.755
2 Auvergne8902.2503.375.621.128.994.493.377.871.12005.6252.803.37
3 Brittany1150000001.7413.040.872.610000.8780.880
4 Île-de-France91010.9904.405.491.104.407.691.105.4901.1002.2056.050
5 Midi-Pyrénées6701.491.492.991.491.494.4810.454.487.460002.9959.691.49
6 Nord-Pas-de-Calais6801.471.475.884.4107.358.8205.880002.9461.760
7 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur452.2202.228.892.2206.678.8906.67004.44055.552.22
Mainland France5550.322.310.744.542.751.075.168.881.586.390.340.160.632.6260.781.73

According to a genetic study in 2000 based on HLA, French from Marseille "are more or less isolated from the other western European populations. They are in an intermediate position between the North Africans (Algerians from Algiers and Oran; Tunisians) and the western Europeans populations (France, Spain, and Portugal)". According to the authors "these results cannot be attributed to recent events because of the knowledge of the grandparents' origin" in the sample. This study reveals "that the southern French population from Marseilles is related genetically to the southwestern Europeans and North Africans, who are geographically close" and that "a substantial gene flow has thus probably been present among the populations of these neighboring areas".[119]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c INSEE. "Fécondité totale, fécondité selon le groupe d'âges de la mère et âge moyen des mères à l'accouchement" (in French). Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  2. ^ CSO. "Vital Statistics - Fourth Quarter and Yearly Summary 2012". p. 36. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  3. ^ a b Population of Metropolitan France and the 4 old overseas departments ([1]), plus the new overseas department of Mayotte ([2]), plus the overseas collectivities of French Polynesia ([3]), New Caledonia ([4]), Wallis and Futuna ([5]), and St Martin, St Barth, and St Pierre and Miquelon ([6]).
  4. ^ a b INSEE. "Indicateurs démographiques annuels et mensuels - Population au début de la période" (in French). Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  6. ^ Insee – Topics
  7. ^ a b c d Naissances selon le pays de naissance des parents 2010, Insee, septembre 2011
  8. ^ Two foreign-born parents do not automatically grant French citizenship.
  9. ^ a b Births by country of birth of the parents for Metropolitan France (TableT37quater)
  10. ^ a b Les immigrés, les descendants d'immigrés et leurs enfants, Pascale Breuil-Genier, Catherine Borrel, Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee 2011
  11. ^ a b Jackson, Julian (2001). France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944. Oxford University Press. pp. 31–33, 103–104. ISBN 0-19-820706-9. 
  12. ^ Gunther, John (1936). Inside Europe. Harper & Brothers. p. 119. 
  13. ^ Leslie King, "'France needs children'" Sociological Quarterly (1998) 39#1 pp: 33-52.
  14. ^ Marie-Monique Huss, "Pronatalism in the inter-war period in France." Journal of Contemporary History (1990) 25#1 pp: JSTOR
  15. ^ Colin L. Dyer, Population and Society in 20th Century France (1978)
  16. ^ "France has a baby boom". International Herald Tribune. 2005. Retrieved 15 December 2007. 
  17. ^ Doughty, Steve (12 March 2009). "UK to have Europe's biggest population: Migration will force us ahead of Germany, says UN". Daily Mail (London). 
  18. ^ According to the table File:Turkey-demography.png
  19. ^ INSEE
  20. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "Tableau complémentaire 2 : Taux de fécondité par groupe d'âges" (in French). Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  21. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "Bilan démographique 2008" (in French). Retrieved 13 January 2009. 
  22. ^ INED – Population et Société – La fécondité des immigrées, nouvelles données, nouvelle approche (avril 2004)
  23. ^ Births by citizenship of the parents for Metropolitan France (TableT37bis)
  24. ^ Part des populations étrangères et immigrées en 2010
  25. ^ Yazid Sabeg et Laurence Méhaignerie, Les oubliés de l'égalité des chances, Institut Montaigne, January 2004
  26. ^ Éric Gailledrat, Les Ibères de l'Èbre à l'Hérault (VIe-IVe s. avant J.-C.), Lattes, Sociétés de la Protohistoire et de l'Antiquité en France Méditerranéenne, Monographies d'Archéologie Méditerranéenne – 1, 1997
  27. ^ Dominique Garcia: Entre Ibères et Ligures. Lodévois et moyenne vallée de l'Hérault protohistoriques. Paris, CNRS éd., 1993; Les Ibères dans le midi de la France. L'Archéologue, n°32, 1997, pp. 38–40
  28. ^ History Of France
  29. ^ "Les Gaulois figurent seulement parmi d'autres dans la multitude de couches de peuplement fort divers (Ligures, Ibères, Latins, Francs et Alamans, Nordiques, Sarrasins...) qui aboutissent à la population du pays à un moment donné ", Jean-Louis Brunaux, Nos ancêtres les Gaulois, éd. Seuil, 2008, p. 261
  30. ^ "Notre Midi a sa pinte de sang sarrasin", Fernand Braudel, L'identité de la France – Les Hommes et les Choses (1986), Flammarion, 1990, p. 215
  31. ^ "Les premiers musulmans arrivèrent en France à la suite de l'occupation de l'Espagne par les Maures, il y a plus d'un millénaire, et s'installèrent dans les environs de Toulouse – et jusqu'en Bourgogne. À Narbonne, les traces d'une mosquée datant du VIIIe siècle sont le témoignage de l'ancienneté de ce passé. Lors de la célèbre, et en partie mythologique, bataille de Poitiers en 732, dont les historiens reconsidèrent aujourd'hui l'importance, Charles Martel aurait stoppé la progression des envahisseurs arabes. Des réfugiés musulmans qui fuyaient la Reconquista espagnole, et plus tard l'Inquisition, firent souche en Languedoc-Roussillon et dans le Pays basque français, ainsi que dans le Béarn", Justin Vaïsse, Intégrer l'Islam, Odile Jacob, 2007, pp. 32–33
  32. ^ " Les Sarrasins gardèrent longtemps sur les côtes de la Provence, à la Garde-Freinet, un solide point d'appui et de là purent faire des incursions dans une partie de la France. Au huitième siècle, lors de l'invasion des Berbères dit Arabes, ceux-ci avaient pénétré jusque dans la vallée de la Loire : on parle même de leur venue dans la région orientale de la France, à Luxeuil, dans les Vosges et devant Metz. [...] les observations des anthropologistes ne permettent pas de douter que nombre de familles françaises dans les bassins de la Garonne et du Rhône ne soient issus des envahisseurs musulmans, Berbères modifiés par leur croisement avec les Espagnols, les Arabes et les noirs d'Afrique.", Élisée Reclus, Nouvelle géographie universelle: la terre et les hommes, Élisée Reclus, éd. Hachette, 1881, t. 2, chap. 1-Vue d'ensemble – Le milieu et la race, Ançêtres de Français, p. 45-46
  33. ^ "L'élément sémitique, juif et arabe, était fort en Languedoc. Narbonne avait été longtemps la capitale des Sarrasins en France. (...) Ces nobles du Midi étaient des gens d'esprit qui savaient bien la plupart que penser de leur noblesse. Il n'y en avait guère qui, en remontant un peu, ne rencontrassent dans leur généalogie quelque grand-mère sarrasine ou juive.", Jules Michelet, Histoire de France, éd. Chamerot, 1861, t. 2, p. 335
  34. ^ "Bien que le séjour des Arabes en France n'ait été constitué que par une série de courtes invasions, ils ont laissé des traces profondes de leur passage dans la langue, et [...] ils en ont laissé également dans le sang. [...] L'ethnologie nous en fournit la preuve, en retrouvant, après tant de siècles, des descendants des Arabes sur plusieurs parties de notre sol. Dans le département de la Creuse, dans les Hautes-Alpes, et notamment dans plusieurs localités situées autour de Montmaure (montagne des Maures), dans le canton de Baignes (Charente), de même que dans certains villages des Landes, du Roussillon, du Languedoc, du Béarn, les descendants des Arabes sont facilement reconnaissables.", Gustave Le Bon, La Civilisation des Arabes (1884), La Fontaine au Roy, 1990, p. 237
  35. ^ "Il est certain que, de nos jours, on peut encore trouver en France des descendants des Sarrasins, notamment dans toute la région du sud de la Loire, dans les monts d'Auvergne, en Guyenne, en Languedoc et en Provence, voire même en Bourgogne.", René Martial, La Race française (1934), Mercure de France, 1934, p. 101-102
  36. ^ The normans Jersey heritage trust
  37. ^ Dudo of St. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, English translation How normans conquered the future Normandy, got established and allied with western Frankish by inter-marriage with Kings Rollo and William
  38. ^ a b Oppenheimer, David B. (2008). "Why France needs to collect data on racial a French way". Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 31 (2): 735–752. SSRN 1236362. 
  39. ^ Louis-Georges, Tin (2008). "Who is afraid of Blacks in France? The Black question: The name taboo, the number taboo". French Politics, Culture & Society 26 (1): 32–44. doi:10.3167/fpcs.2008.260103. 
  40. ^ "Black residents of France say they are discriminated against". International Herald Tribune. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2009. 
  41. ^ "France's ethnic minorities: To count or not to count". The Economist 390 (8624): 62. 28 March 2009. 
  42. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (24 February 2007). "French presidential candidates divided over race census". The Guardian (London). p. 25. Retrieved 27 October 2009. 
  43. ^ How does France count its Muslim population?, Le Figaro, April 2011
  44. ^ The Cambridge survey of world migration – Google Books
  45. ^ "Les personnes d'origine maghrébine y sont également au nombre de 5 à 6 millions ; 3,5 millions ont la nationalité française (dont 500 000 harkis)", Robert Castel, La discrimination négative, Paris, La République des idées/Seuil, 2007
  46. ^ L'Express. "Face à l'islam de France, du déni à la paralysie". Retrieved 2014-12-29. 
  47. ^ Zaman France. "La communauté turque compte 611.515 personnes en France". Retrieved 2014-12-29. 
  48. ^ France's crisis of national identity, The Independent, Wednesday, 25 November 2009
  49. ^ Les personnes originaires d'Afrique, des Dom-Tom et de la Turquie sont 5,5 millions dans l'Hexagone,, 12 February 2009
  50. ^ a b Être né en France d'un parent immigré, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
  51. ^ a b c Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
  52. ^ Hargreaves, Alec G., Multi-Ethnic France, Routledge, New York, New York, 2007, 265 pages, pages 16–17
  53. ^ ["Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. III. French Government and the Refugees". American Philosophical Society, James E. Hassell (1991). p.22. ISBN 0-87169-817-X
  54. ^ Spanish Civil War fighters look back, BBC News, 23 February 2003
  55. ^ Enzo Barnabà, Le sang des marais, Marseille, 1993
  56. ^ On French immigrants, the words left unsaid
  57. ^ For Pieds-Noirs, the Anger Endures
  58. ^ Esther Benbassa, The Jews of France: A History from Antiquity to the Present, Princeton University Press, 1999
  59. ^ RFI – Immigration – Combien d'immigrés clandestins en France?
  60. ^ Freedman, Jane, Immigration and Insecurity in France, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Hants, England, 2004, 182 pages, page 42
  61. ^ a b Bertossi, Christophe, France: the state strives to shape "chosen immigration", IFRI, Paris, July 2008
  62. ^ page 1
  63. ^ Smith, Craig S. Face behind Paris 'bistro' counter becomes Asian. International Herald Tribune, 10 May 2005.
  64. ^ Unrest in France, November 2005 : immigration, islam and the challenge of integration, Justin Vaïsse, Presentation to Congressional Staff, 10 and 12 January 2006, Washington, DC
  65. ^ "Compared with the Europeans, the Tunisians belong to a much more recent wave of migration and occupy a much less favourable socioeconomic position, yet their pattern of marriage behaviour is nonetheless similar (...). Algerian and Moroccan immigrants have a higher propensity to exogamy than Asians or Portuguese but a much weaker labour market position. (...) Confirming the results from other analyses of immigrant assimilation in France, this study shows that North Africans seem to be characterized by a high degree of cultural integration (reflected in a relatively high propensity to exogamy, notably for Tunisians) that contrasts with a persistent disadvantage in the labour market.", Intermarriage and assimilation: disparities in levels of exogamy among immigrants in France, Mirna Safi, Volume 63 2008/2
  66. ^ Emmanuel Todd, Le destin des immigrés: assimilation et ségrégation dans les démocraties occidentales, Paris, 1994, p.307
  67. ^ Many famous French people, including Edith Piaf, Zinedine Zidane, Isabelle Adjani, Alain Bashung, Claude Zidi, Arnaud Montebourg, Catherine Belkhodja, Jacques Villeret and Dany Boon, are partly of Algerian descent.
  68. ^ Smith, Craig S. (5 November 2005). "Immigrant Rioting Flares in France for Ninth Night". The New York Times. 
  69. ^ "French unions claim 3m on street". BBC News. 19 March 2009. 
  70. ^ Intégration et identité nationale –
  71. ^ a b
  72. ^ a b c d
  73. ^ Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France, Insee 2011
  74. ^ Fiches thématiques – Population immigrée – Immigrés – Insee Références – Édition 2012, Insee 2012
  75. ^ INED
  76. ^ Michèle Tribalat's 2004 study for the INED
  77. ^ Valdman, Albert (May 2000). "La Langue des faubourgs et des banlieues: de l'argot au français populaire". The French Review (American Association of Teachers of French) 73 (6): 1188. JSTOR 399371. 
  78. ^ "Immigration is hardly a recent development in French history, as Gérard Noiriel amply demonstrates in his history of French immigration, The French Melting Pot. Noiriel estimates that one third of the population currently living in France is of "foreign" descent", Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, France at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations, Summa Publications, Inc., 2000, p.160
  79. ^ Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality
  80. ^ Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections
  81. ^ Accueil - Immigration, asile, accueil et accompagnement des étrangers en France - Ministère de l'Intérieur
  82. ^ CIA – The World Factbook
  83. ^ Schain, Martin A., The politics of immigration in France, Britain, and the United States, a comparative study, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, New York, 2008, 329 pages, page 9
  84. ^ Les crispations alarmantes de la société française
  85. ^ Insee – Population – Natalité et fécondité au sein de l'Union européenne
  86. ^ Insee – Travail-Emploi – Nombre de chômeurs et taux de chômage des immigrés et des non-immigrés selon le sexe et l'âge
  87. ^ a b European Web Site on Integration
  88. ^ UK Office for National Statistics estimate
  89. ^ INSEE pdf estimates
  90. ^ Insee – Population – Évolution de la natalité et de la fécondité
  91. ^ Embassy of the United States, Paris
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^ Michèle Tribalat , « Mariages « mixtes » et immigration en France », Espace populations sociétés [En ligne], 2009/2 | 2009, mis en ligne le 01 avril 2011
  99. ^ Carolyn Burke. No Regrets: The Life of Edith Piaf, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, p.5
  100. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°127
  101. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
  102. ^ Robert Castel, La discrimination négative, Paris, La République des idées/Seuil, 2007
  103. ^ Ministère de l'intérieur, de l'outre-mer, des collectivités territoriales et de l'immigration
  104. ^ Immigration –
  105. ^ IFRI – E-note – Notes de l'Ifri – France: the State strives to shape "chosen" immigration – Institut français des relations internationales
  106. ^ International Migration Convention | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  107. ^ Immigration –
  108. ^ Infos Migrations, Number 14, February 2010
  109. ^ Ressources –
  110. ^
  111. ^ In 2003, the French Ministry of the Interior estimated the total number of Muslims as 5–6 million whereas the "Front National" spoke about 8 million, in Jonathan Laurence and Justin Vaïsse,Intégrer l'Islam, Odile Jacob, 2007
  112. ^ The Jewish Population of the World
  113. ^ International Religious Freedom
  114. ^ "Catholicisme et protestantisme en France: Analyses sociologiques et données de l'Institut CSA pour La Croix". Institut CSA & La Croix. 2001-12-24. 
  115. ^ 2007 Report on International Religious Freedom
  116. ^ CIA World Factbook – France
  117. ^ Ramos-Luisa et al. (2009), "Phylogeography of French male lineages (supplemental data from 23rd International ISFG Congress held from September 14 to 18, 2009 in Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires)", Forensic Science International 2: 439–441, doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.09.026
  118. ^ "Sample collection was performed drawing blood of unrelated male individuals with French surname after informed consent", Ramos-Luisa et al. (2009)
  119. ^ Gibert M, Reviron D, Mercier P, Chiaroni J, Boetsch G. HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 polymorphisms in southern France and genetic relationships with other Mediterranean populations, Hum Immunol. 2000 Sep;61(9):930-6.

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